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Nutrients, Volume 5, Issue 12 (December 2013), Pages 4800-5232

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Open AccessArticle Performance of Short Food Questions to Assess Aspects of the Dietary Intake of Australian Children
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 4822-4835; doi:10.3390/nu5124822
Received: 2 July 2013 / Revised: 12 September 2013 / Accepted: 28 October 2013 / Published: 26 November 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Single dietary questions are used as a rapid method of monitoring diet. The aim of this investigation was to assess the performance of questions to measure population group intake compared to the mean of two 24-h recalls. Data from the Australian National [...] Read more.
Single dietary questions are used as a rapid method of monitoring diet. The aim of this investigation was to assess the performance of questions to measure population group intake compared to the mean of two 24-h recalls. Data from the Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2007 was used (n = 4487). Children reported their intake on three questions relating to usual serves of fruit, vegetables and type of milk. Age, gender and body weight status were assessed as modifiers of the relationship between methods. There was a stepwise increase in fruit and vegetable intake (p < 0.001) measured by recall when grouped by response category of the short question. By recall, fruit consumption decreased with age (F = 12.92, p < 0.001) but this trend was not detectable from the short question (F = 2.31, p = 0.075). The difference in fruit intake between methods was greatest for obese children. Almost 85% of children who consumed whole milk by short question consumed mainly whole fat milk by recall, but agreement was lower for other milk types. Saturated fat and volume of milk was highest in whole milk consumers. Ease of administration suggests that short questions, at least for some aspects of diet, are a useful method to monitor population intakes for children. Full article
Open AccessArticle Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Imbalance Modifies NK Cytotoxicity, Lymphocytes B and Lymphoprolipheration in Aged Rats
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 4836-4848; doi:10.3390/nu5124836
Received: 30 September 2013 / Revised: 6 November 2013 / Accepted: 14 November 2013 / Published: 26 November 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (244 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Different vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations could exacerbate the immune response. The aim was to evaluate different dietary folic acid and vitamin B12 levels on the immune response in aged rats. Male Sprague Dawley aged rats were assigned to [...] Read more.
Different vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations could exacerbate the immune response. The aim was to evaluate different dietary folic acid and vitamin B12 levels on the immune response in aged rats. Male Sprague Dawley aged rats were assigned to three folic acid groups (deficient, control, supplemented) each in absence of vitamin B12 for 30 days. Several parameters of innate and acquired immune responses were measured. Serum and hepatic folate levels increased according to folic acid dietary level, while vitamin B12 levels decreased. There was a significant decrease in natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the spleen for the vitamin B12 deficient diet and folic acid control diet groups. Significant changes in CD45 lymphocyte subsets were also observed according to dietary imbalance. Lymphoproliferative response to concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin did not differ significantly between groups. The spleen response to lipopolysaccharide increased significantly, but was unmodified for the other organs. An imbalance between dietary vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations alters some immunological parameters in aged rats. Therefore, the ratio between folate and vitamin B12 could be as important as their absolute dietary concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin B12 and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant Activity and Anti-Adipogenic Effect of Hot Water Extract from Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Seed
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 4894-4907; doi:10.3390/nu5124894
Received: 19 June 2013 / Revised: 12 November 2013 / Accepted: 20 November 2013 / Published: 28 November 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (354 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study was to evaluate the phenolic content and composition of Carthamus tinctorius L. seed extract (CSE) and to further assess its antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities using various radical scavenging systems and 3T3-L1 cells. Our results show that the total phenolic and [...] Read more.
This study was to evaluate the phenolic content and composition of Carthamus tinctorius L. seed extract (CSE) and to further assess its antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities using various radical scavenging systems and 3T3-L1 cells. Our results show that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of CSE were 126.0 ± 2.4 mg GAE/g and 62.2 ± 1.9 mg QE/g, respectively. The major phenolic compounds in CSE was (−)-epigallocatechin (109.62 mg/g), with a 4-hydroxy benzhydrazide derivative and gallocatechin present at 18.28 mg/g and 17.02 mg/g, respectively. CSE exhibited remarkable radical scavenging activities, FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) and reducing power in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value of CSE (0.1 mg/mL) was 62.9 ± 4.7 μM TE (trolox equivalent)/g. During adipogenesis, CSE significantly inhibited fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells compared with control cells. Overall, these results indicate that CSE might be a valuable source of bioactive compounds that impart functional food and natural antioxidant properties. Full article
Open AccessArticle Factors Associated with Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet among Adolescents Living in Sicily, Southern Italy
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 4908-4923; doi:10.3390/nu5124908
Received: 26 September 2013 / Revised: 8 November 2013 / Accepted: 18 November 2013 / Published: 4 December 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study aimed to examine the factors associated with increased Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence among a sample of Italian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1135 students (13–16 years) attending 13 secondary schools of Sicily, southern Italy. Validated instruments were [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to examine the factors associated with increased Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence among a sample of Italian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1135 students (13–16 years) attending 13 secondary schools of Sicily, southern Italy. Validated instruments were used for dietary assessment and the KIDMED score to assess adolescents’ adherence to the MD. A higher adherence to the MD was associated with high socioeconomic status (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.03–2.26) and high physical activity (OR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02–1.70), whereas lower adherence was associated with living in an urban environment (OR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44–0.97) and being obese (OR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37–0.94). The adolescents’ KIDMED scores were inversely associated with adolescents’ intake of sweets, fast foods, fried foods, and sugary drinks, and directly with fruit, vegetables, pasta, fish, and cheese intakes. Urban-living adolescents were less likely to eat fruit and more prone to consume meat, sugary drinks, and fast food than rural-living adolescents. The latter were more likely to eat sweets and snacks. A general poor quality of food consumption in Italian adolescents away from the MD was reported, especially among those living in urban areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet Pattern and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Hormonal Relationships to Bone Mass in Elderly Spanish Men as Influenced by Dietary Calcium and Vitamin D
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 4924-4937; doi:10.3390/nu5124924
Received: 9 July 2013 / Revised: 19 November 2013 / Accepted: 21 November 2013 / Published: 4 December 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (644 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We aim to evaluate whether calcium and vitamin D intake is associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-Vitamin D3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) serum concentrations or is associated with either the phalangeal dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (pDXA) or the quantitative bone ultrasound [...] Read more.
We aim to evaluate whether calcium and vitamin D intake is associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-Vitamin D3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) serum concentrations or is associated with either the phalangeal dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (pDXA) or the quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS) in independent elderly men. Serum PTH and 25-OH-Vitamin D3 were measured in 195 healthy elderly men (mean age: 73.31 ± 5.10 year). Food intake was quantified using a dietetic scale. Participants with 25-OH-Vitamin D3 levels ≥ 30 ng/mL (75 nmol/L) and a calcium intake of 800–1200 mg/day exhibited the lowest PTH levels (41.49 ± 16.72 ng/mL). The highest PTH levels (75.60 ± 14.16 ng/mL) were observed in the <30 ng/mL group 25-OH-Vitamin D3 with a calcium intake >1200 mg/day. No significant differences in the serum PTH levels based on the serum 25-OH-Vitamin D3 levels were observed among participants with a calcium intake of 800–1200 mg/day. Serum PTH was inversely correlated with serum 25-OH-Vitamin D3 in the entire patient sample (r = −0.288, p = 0.019). No differences in any of the three densitometry techniques were observed between any of the age groups in the 800–1200 mg/day and >1200 mg/day calcium intake groups. PTH levels correlate negatively with serum 25-OH-Vitamin D3 levels, and neither calcium nor vitamin D intake exert a strong influence on either of the two parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Needs of Older Adults)
Open AccessArticle Adult Cranberry Beverage Consumers Have Healthier Macronutrient Intakes and Measures of Body Composition Compared to Non-Consumers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2008
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 4938-4949; doi:10.3390/nu5124938
Received: 27 September 2013 / Revised: 7 November 2013 / Accepted: 19 November 2013 / Published: 4 December 2013
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Abstract
Flavonoids, present in high levels in cranberries, are potent bioactives known for their health-promoting benefits, but cranberry beverages (CB) are not typically recommended as part of a healthy diet. We examine the association between CB consumption with macronutrient intake and weight status. [...] Read more.
Flavonoids, present in high levels in cranberries, are potent bioactives known for their health-promoting benefits, but cranberry beverages (CB) are not typically recommended as part of a healthy diet. We examine the association between CB consumption with macronutrient intake and weight status. Data for US adults (≥19 years, n = 10,891) were taken from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Survey 2005–2008. Total CB consumption was measured over two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Linear and logistic regression models adjusting for important covariates were used to examine predicted differences between CB consumers and non-consumers on macronutrient and anthropometric outcomes. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. CB consumers (n = 581) were older (>50 year) non-Hispanic black females. They consumed an average 221 mL (7.5 oz) CB per day. In fully adjusted models CB consumers (vs. non-consumers) had higher carbohydrates and total sugars and lower percent energy from protein and total fat (all p < 0.001), but no difference in total energy. A significantly higher proportion of CB consumers were predicted to be normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2; p = 0.001) and had to have lower waist circumferences (p = 0.001). Although there was not a significant trend across level of CB intake, low and middle level CB consumers compared to non-consumers were more likely to be normal weight (p < 0.001) and less likely to be overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, p < 0.001). Despite having slightly higher daily macronutrient intakes, CB consumers have more desirable anthropometric measures compared to non-consumers. Full article
Open AccessArticle Salty Taste Acuity Is Affected by the Joint Action of αENaC A663T Gene Polymorphism and Available Zinc Intake in Young Women
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 4950-4963; doi:10.3390/nu5124950
Received: 10 October 2013 / Revised: 21 November 2013 / Accepted: 26 November 2013 / Published: 5 December 2013
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Abstract
Salty taste perception affects salt intake, of which excess amounts is a major public health concern. Gene polymorphisms in salty taste receptors, zinc status and their interaction may affect salty taste perception. In this study, we examined the relationships among the α-epithelial [...] Read more.
Salty taste perception affects salt intake, of which excess amounts is a major public health concern. Gene polymorphisms in salty taste receptors, zinc status and their interaction may affect salty taste perception. In this study, we examined the relationships among the α-epithelial sodium channel (αENaC) A663T genotype, zinc intake, and salty taste perception including salty taste acuity and preference in healthy young adults. The αENaC A663T genotype was determined by the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 207 adults. Zinc intake was examined by one 24-h recall and a two-day dietary record. Salty taste acuity and preference were determined by measuring the salty taste recognition threshold and the preferred salinity of beansprout soup, respectively. Men had significantly higher thresholds and preferences for salty taste than women did (p < 0.05). In women, the salty taste threshold was significantly lower in the highest tertile of available zinc intake than in the lowest tertile (12.2 mM and 17.6 mM, respectively, p = 0.02). Interestingly, a significant inverse association between available zinc intake and salty taste threshold was found only in women with αENaC AA homozygotes (β = −0.833, p = 0.02), and no such association was found in T663 allele carriers. The salty taste preference was not associated with the αENaC A663T genotype or available zinc intake in either sex. In conclusion, our data suggest that gene-nutrient interactions between the αENaC A663T genotype and available zinc intake play a role in determining the salty taste acuity in young women. Full article
Open AccessArticle Changes in Blood Pressure and Lipid Levels in Young Women Consuming a Vitamin D-Fortified Skimmed Milk: A Randomised Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 4966-4977; doi:10.3390/nu5124966
Received: 15 October 2013 / Revised: 12 November 2013 / Accepted: 27 November 2013 / Published: 5 December 2013
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Abstract
Vitamin D exerts a variety of extra-skeletal functions. Aim: to know the effects of the consumption of a vitamin D-fortified skimmed milk on glucose, lipid profile, and blood pressure in young women. Methods: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel-group trial of 16 weeks [...] Read more.
Vitamin D exerts a variety of extra-skeletal functions. Aim: to know the effects of the consumption of a vitamin D-fortified skimmed milk on glucose, lipid profile, and blood pressure in young women. Methods: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel-group trial of 16 weeks duration was conducted in young women with low iron stores who consumed a skimmed milk fortified with iron and 200 IU/day (5 μg) of vitamin D (D-fortified group, n = 55), or a placebo without vitamin D (D-placebo group, n = 54). A reference group (n = 56) of iron-sufficient women was also recruited. Results: baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was inversely correlated with total-cholesterol (r = −0.176, p = 0.023) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-chol) (r = −0.176, p = 0.024). During the assay, LDL-cholesterol increased in the D-placebo group (p = 0.005) while it tended to decrease in the D-fortified group (p = 0.07). Neither group displayed changes in total-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-chol), triglycerides or glucose levels. Systolic (p = 0.017) and diastolic (p = 0.010) blood pressure decreased during the assay in the D-fortified group without significant differences compared to the D-placebo. Conclusion: consumption of a dairy product fortified with vitamin D reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure but does not change lipid levels in young women. Full article
Open AccessArticle Cancer Preventive Efficacy of Marine Carotenoid Fucoxanthin: Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 4978-4989; doi:10.3390/nu5124978
Received: 9 October 2013 / Revised: 22 November 2013 / Accepted: 29 November 2013 / Published: 6 December 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (545 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epidemiological investigations have shown that overcoming the risk of cancer is related to the consumption of green vegetables and fruits. Many compounds from different origins, such as terrestrial plants and marine and microbial sources, have been reported to have therapeutic effects of [...] Read more.
Epidemiological investigations have shown that overcoming the risk of cancer is related to the consumption of green vegetables and fruits. Many compounds from different origins, such as terrestrial plants and marine and microbial sources, have been reported to have therapeutic effects of which marine sources are the most important because the diversity of marine life is more varied than other sources. Fucoxanthin is one important compound with a marine origin and belongs to the group of carotenoids; it can be found in marine brown seaweeds, macroalgae, and diatoms, all of which have remarkable biological properties. Numerous studies have shown that fucoxanthin has considerable medicinal potential and promising applications in human health. In this review, we summarize the anticancer effects of fucoxanthin through several different mechanisms including anti-proliferation, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and anti-angiogenesis, and its possible role in the treatment of cancer. Full article
Open AccessArticle Zinc, Iron and Vitamins A, C and E Are Associated with Obesity, Inflammation, Lipid Profile and Insulin Resistance in Mexican School-Aged Children
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 5012-5030; doi:10.3390/nu5125012
Received: 2 August 2013 / Revised: 20 November 2013 / Accepted: 26 November 2013 / Published: 10 December 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (929 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between micronutrient status and obesity, lipids, insulin resistance and chronic inflammation in children. Weight, height, waist circumference and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)) were determined in 197 school-aged children. Lipids, [...] Read more.
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between micronutrient status and obesity, lipids, insulin resistance and chronic inflammation in children. Weight, height, waist circumference and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)) were determined in 197 school-aged children. Lipids, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), zinc, iron and vitamins A, C and E were analyzed in blood. Vitamin C and vitamin E:lipids were negatively associated with Body Mass Index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHR) and body and abdominal fat (p < 0.05). Vitamin A was positively associated with BMI, BMI-for-age, WHR and abdominal fat (p < 0.05). Iron and vitamin E:lipids were negatively associated with insulin (p < 0.05). Vitamins A, C and E and iron were negatively associated with CRP (p < 0.05). Interaction analysis showed that children who were overweight and obese who also had low concentrations of vitamin A had higher CRP and lower triglycerides (p < 0.1), children with low vitamin E had significantly lower glucose and triglycerides (p < 0.1) and higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations (p < 0.05), and children with low zinc concentrations had higher insulin resistance compared with children with adequate weight (p < 0.05). In conclusion, low vitamin C concentration and vitamin E:lipids were associated with obesity. Furthermore, low concentrations of zinc, vitamins A and E in children who were overweight and obese were associated with lipids, inflammation and insulin resistance. Full article
Open AccessArticle Candidate Genes Involved in Beneficial or Adverse Responses to Commonly Eaten Brassica Vegetables in a New Zealand Crohn’s Disease Cohort
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 5046-5064; doi:10.3390/nu5125046
Received: 4 September 2013 / Revised: 22 November 2013 / Accepted: 29 November 2013 / Published: 12 December 2013
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Abstract
Crohn’s disease (CD) is one of the two manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease. Particular foods are thought with CD to exacerbate their illness. Vegetables, especially Brassicaceae, are often shunned by people with CD because of the negative effects they are alleged to [...] Read more.
Crohn’s disease (CD) is one of the two manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease. Particular foods are thought with CD to exacerbate their illness. Vegetables, especially Brassicaceae, are often shunned by people with CD because of the negative effects they are alleged to have on their symptoms. Brassicaceae supply key nutrients which are necessary to meet recommended daily intakes. We sought to identify the candidate genes involved in the beneficial or adverse effects of Brassicaceae most commonly eaten, as reported by the New Zealand adults from the “Genes and Diet in Inflammatory Bowel disease Study” based in Auckland. An analysis of associations between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the beneficial or adverse effects of the ten most commonly eaten Brassicaceae was carried out. A total of 37 SNPs were significantly associated with beneficial effects (p = 0.00097 to 0.0497) and 64 SNPs were identified with adverse effects (p = 0.0000751 to 0.049). After correcting for multiple testing, rs7515322 (DIO1) and rs9469220 (HLA) remained significant. Our findings show that the tolerance of some varieties of Brassicaceae may be shown by analysis of a person’s genotype. Full article
Open AccessArticle Impact of Breakfasts (with or without Eggs) on Body Weight Regulation and Blood Lipids in University Students over a 14-Week Semester
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 5097-5113; doi:10.3390/nu5125097
Received: 4 October 2013 / Revised: 7 November 2013 / Accepted: 25 November 2013 / Published: 16 December 2013
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Abstract
The effects of breakfast type on body weight and blood lipids were evaluated in university freshman. Seventy-three subjects were instructed to consume a breakfast with eggs (Egg Breakfast, EB, n = 39) or without (Non-Egg Breakfast, NEB, n = 34), five times/week [...] Read more.
The effects of breakfast type on body weight and blood lipids were evaluated in university freshman. Seventy-three subjects were instructed to consume a breakfast with eggs (Egg Breakfast, EB, n = 39) or without (Non-Egg Breakfast, NEB, n = 34), five times/week for 14 weeks. Breakfast composition, anthropometric measurements and blood lipids were measured at multiple times. During the study, mean weight change was 1.6 ± 5.3 lbs (0.73 ± 2.41 kg), but there was no difference between groups. Both groups consumed similar calories for breakfast at all time-points. The EB group consumed significantly more calories at breakfast from protein, total fat and saturated fat, but significantly fewer calories from carbohydrate at every time-point. Cholesterol consumption at breakfast in the EB group was significantly higher than the NEB group at all time points. Breakfast food choices (other than eggs) were similar between groups. Blood lipids were similar between groups at all time points, indicating that the additional 400 mg/day of dietary cholesterol did not negatively impact blood lipids. Full article
Open AccessArticle Diurnal Triglyceridemia in Relation to Alcohol Intake in Men
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 5114-5126; doi:10.3390/nu5125114
Received: 12 September 2013 / Revised: 19 November 2013 / Accepted: 3 December 2013 / Published: 16 December 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (949 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fasting and postprandial triglyceride concentrations largely depend on dietary and lifestyle factors. Alcohol intake is associated with triglycerides, but the effect of alcohol on diurnal triglyceridemia in a free living situation is unknown. During three days, 139 men (range: 18–80 years) measured [...] Read more.
Fasting and postprandial triglyceride concentrations largely depend on dietary and lifestyle factors. Alcohol intake is associated with triglycerides, but the effect of alcohol on diurnal triglyceridemia in a free living situation is unknown. During three days, 139 men (range: 18–80 years) measured their own capillary triglyceride (cTG) concentrations daily on six fixed time-points before and after meals, and the total daily alcohol intake was recorded. The impact of daily alcohol intake (none; low, <10 g/day; moderate, 10–30 g/day; high, >30 g/day) on diurnal triglyceridemia was analyzed by the incremental area under the cTG curve (∆cTG-AUC) reflecting the mean of the six different time-points. Fasting cTG were similar between the alcohol groups, but a trend of increased cTG was observed in men with moderate and high alcohol intake after dinner and at bedtime (p for trend <0.001) which persisted after adjustment for age, smoking and body mass index. The ∆cTG-AUC was significantly lower in males with low alcohol intake (3.0 ± 1.9 mmol·h/L) (n = 27) compared to males with no (7.0 ± 1.8 mmol·h/L) (n = 34), moderate (6.5 ± 1.8 mmol·h/L) (n = 54) or high alcohol intake (7.2 ± 2.2 mmol·h/L) (n = 24), when adjusted for age, smoking and body mass index (adjusted p value < 0.05). In males, low alcohol intake was associated with decreased diurnal triglyceridemia, whereas moderate and high alcohol intake was associated with increased triglycerides after dinner and at bed time. Full article
Open AccessArticle Eating Disorders, Physical Fitness and Sport Performance: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 5140-5160; doi:10.3390/nu5125140
Received: 23 September 2013 / Revised: 24 October 2013 / Accepted: 5 December 2013 / Published: 16 December 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (381 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Eating disorders are health problems that are particularly prevalent in adolescents and young adults. They are associated with considerable physical health and psychosocial morbidity, and increased risk of mortality. We set out to conduct a systematic review to determine their effect [...] Read more.
Background: Eating disorders are health problems that are particularly prevalent in adolescents and young adults. They are associated with considerable physical health and psychosocial morbidity, and increased risk of mortality. We set out to conduct a systematic review to determine their effect on physical fitness in the general population and on sport performance in athletes. Methods/Design: A systematic review of the relevant peer-reviewed literature was performed. For inclusion, articles retrieved from PubMed had to be published in English between 1977 and 2013. Wherever possible, methods and reporting adhere to the guidelines outlined in the PRISMA statement. Some additional studies were retrieved from among those cited in the reference lists of included studies and from non-electronic databases. Literature searches, study selection, method and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Results: Of the 1183 articles retrieved, twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analysed. The available data indicate that eating disorders have a negative effect on physical fitness and sport performance by causing low energy availability, excessive loss of fat and lean mass, dehydration, and electrolyte disturbance. Discussion: Although the paucity of the available data mean that findings to date should be interpreted with caution, the information collated in this review has several practical implications. First, eating disorders have a negative effect on both physical fitness and sport performance. Second athletics coaches should be targeted for education about the risk factors of eating disorders, as deterioration in sport performance in athletes, particularly if they are underweight or show other signs of an eating disorder, may indicate the need for medical intervention. However, future studies are needed, especially to assess the direct effect of eating disorders on sport performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Carbohydrate Ingestion on Performance during a Simulated Soccer Match
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 5193-5204; doi:10.3390/nu5125193
Received: 16 October 2013 / Revised: 1 December 2013 / Accepted: 4 December 2013 / Published: 16 December 2013
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Abstract
Aim: This study investigated how performance was affected after soccer players, in a postprandial state, ingested a 7% carbohydrate (CHO) solution compared to a placebo (0% CHO) during a simulated soccer match. Methods: Using a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 22 trained male league [...] Read more.
Aim: This study investigated how performance was affected after soccer players, in a postprandial state, ingested a 7% carbohydrate (CHO) solution compared to a placebo (0% CHO) during a simulated soccer match. Methods: Using a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 22 trained male league soccer players (age: 24 ± 7 years, wt: 73.4 ± 12.0 kg, VO2max: 51.8 ± 4.3 mL O2/kg/min) completed two trials, separated by 7 days, during which they ingested, in random order, 700 mL of either a 7% CHO or placebo drink during a simulated soccer match. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), agility, timed and run to fatigue were measured during the trials. Results: Change in agility times was not altered by CHO vs. placebo ingestion (0.57 ± 1.48 vs. 0.66 ± 1.00, p = 0.81). Timed runs to fatigue were 381 ± 267 s vs. 294 ± 159 s for the CHO and placebo drinks, respectively (p = 0.11). Body mass modified the relationship between time to fatigue and drink ingestion (p = 0.02 for drink × body mass), such that lower body mass was associated with increased time to fatigue when the players ingested CHO, but not placebo. RPE values for the final stage of the simulated soccer match were 8.5 ± 1.7 and 8.6 ± 1.5 for the CHO and placebo drinks respectively (p = 0.87). Conclusions: The group data showed that the 7% CHO solution (49 g CHO) did not significantly improve performance during a simulated soccer match in league soccer players who had normal pre-match nutrition. However, when adjusting for body mass, increasing CHO intake was associated with improved time to fatigue during the simulated soccer match. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Long Term Successful Weight Loss with a Combination Biphasic Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet and Mediterranean Diet Maintenance Protocol
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 5205-5217; doi:10.3390/nu5125205
Received: 14 October 2013 / Revised: 25 November 2013 / Accepted: 10 December 2013 / Published: 18 December 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (260 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Weight loss protocols can only be considered successful if they deliver consistent results over the long term—a goal which is often elusive, so much so that the term “yo-yo” is used to describe the perennial weight loss/weight regain battle common in obesity. [...] Read more.
Weight loss protocols can only be considered successful if they deliver consistent results over the long term—a goal which is often elusive, so much so that the term “yo-yo” is used to describe the perennial weight loss/weight regain battle common in obesity. We hypothesized that a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts (KEMEPHY) combined with the acknowledged health benefits of traditional Mediterranean nutrition may favor long term weight loss. We analysed 89 male and female obese subjects, aged between 25 and 65 years who were overall healthy apart from being overweight. The subjects followed a staged diet protocol over a period of 12 months: 20 day of KEMEPHY; 20 days low carb-non ketogenic; 4 months Mediterranean normocaloric nutrition; a second 20 day ketogenic phase followed by 6 months of Mediterranean normocaloric nutrition. For the majority of subjects (88.25%) there was significant loss of weight (from 100.7 ± 16.54 to 84.59 ± 9.71 kg; BMI from 35.42 ± 4.11 to 30.27 ± 3.58) and body fat (form 43.44% ± 6.34% to 33.63% ± 7.6%) during both ketogenic phases followed by successful maintenance, without weight regain, during the 6 month stabilization phase with only 8 subjects failing to comply. There were also significant and stable decreases in total cholesterol, LDLc, triglycerides and glucose levels over the 12 month study period. HDLc showed small increases after the ketogenic phases but over the full 12 months there was no significant change. No significant changes were observed in ALT, AST, Creatinine or BUN. The combination of a biphasic KEMEPHY diet separated by longer periods of maintenance nutrition, based on the traditional Mediterranean diet, led to successful long term weight loss and improvements in health risk factors in a majority of subjects; compliance was very high which was a key determinant of the results seen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet Pattern and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Daily Nutritional Dose Supplementation with Antioxidant Nutrients and Phytochemicals Improves DNA and LDL Stability: A Double-Blind, Randomized, and Placebo-Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 5218-5232; doi:10.3390/nu5125218
Received: 4 October 2013 / Revised: 11 December 2013 / Accepted: 11 December 2013 / Published: 18 December 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (291 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species are important risk factors for age-related diseases, but they also act as signaling factors for endogenous antioxidative defense. The hypothesis that a multi-micronutrient supplement with nutritional doses of antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals (MP) may provide protection against oxidative damage [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species are important risk factors for age-related diseases, but they also act as signaling factors for endogenous antioxidative defense. The hypothesis that a multi-micronutrient supplement with nutritional doses of antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals (MP) may provide protection against oxidative damage and maintain the endogenous antioxidant defense capacity was assessed in subjects with a habitually low intake of fruits and vegetables. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, and parallel designed trial, 89 eligible subjects were assigned to either placebo or MP for eight weeks. Eighty subjects have completed the protocol and included for the analysis. MP treatment was superior at increasing serum folate (p < 0.0001) and resistance to DNA damage (p = 0.006, tail intensity; p = 0.030, tail moment by comet assay), and LDL oxidation (p = 0.009) compared with the placebo. Moreover, the endogenous oxidative defense capacity was not weakened after MP supplementation, as determined by the levels of glutathione peroxidase (p = 0.442), catalase (p = 0.686), and superoxide dismutase (p = 0.804). The serum folate level was negatively correlated with DNA damage (r = −0.376, p = 0.001 for tail density; r = −0.329, p = 0.003 for tail moment), but no correlation was found with LDL oxidation (r = −0.123, p = 0.275). These results suggest that MP use in healthy subjects with habitually low dietary fruit and vegetable intake may be beneficial in providing resistance to oxidative damage to DNA and LDL without suppressing the endogenous defense mechanisms. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Amino Acid Profiles in Term and Preterm Human Milk through Lactation: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 4800-4821; doi:10.3390/nu5124800
Received: 15 June 2013 / Revised: 28 October 2013 / Accepted: 31 October 2013 / Published: 26 November 2013
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Abstract
Amino acid profile is a key aspect of human milk (HM) protein quality. We report a systematic review of total amino acid (TAA) and free amino acid (FAA) profiles, in term and preterm HM derived from 13 and 19 countries, respectively. Of [...] Read more.
Amino acid profile is a key aspect of human milk (HM) protein quality. We report a systematic review of total amino acid (TAA) and free amino acid (FAA) profiles, in term and preterm HM derived from 13 and 19 countries, respectively. Of the 83 studies that were critically reviewed, 26 studies with 3774 subjects were summarized for TAA profiles, while 22 studies with 4747 subjects were reviewed for FAA. Effects of gestational age, lactation stage, and geographical region were analyzed by Analysis of Variance. Data on total nitrogen (TN) and TAA composition revealed general inter-study consistency, whereas FAA concentrations varied among studies. TN and all TAA declined in the first two months of lactation and then remained relatively unchanged. In contrast, the FAA glutamic acid and glutamine increased, peaked around three to six months, and then declined. Some significant differences were observed for TAA and FAA, based on gestational age and region. Most regional TAA and FAA data were derived from Asia and Europe, while information from Africa was scant. This systematic review represents a useful evaluation of the amino acid composition of human milk, which is valuable for the assessment of protein quality of breast milk substitutes. Full article
Open AccessReview Mammalian Metabolism of β-Carotene: Gaps in Knowledge
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 4849-4868; doi:10.3390/nu5124849
Received: 14 October 2013 / Revised: 14 November 2013 / Accepted: 15 November 2013 / Published: 27 November 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (466 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
β-carotene is the most abundant provitamin A carotenoid in human diet and tissues. It exerts a number of beneficial functions in mammals, including humans, owing to its ability to generate vitamin A as well as to emerging crucial signaling functions of its [...] Read more.
β-carotene is the most abundant provitamin A carotenoid in human diet and tissues. It exerts a number of beneficial functions in mammals, including humans, owing to its ability to generate vitamin A as well as to emerging crucial signaling functions of its metabolites. Even though β-carotene is generally considered a safer form of vitamin A due to its highly regulated intestinal absorption, detrimental effects have also been ascribed to its intake, at least under specific circumstances. A better understanding of the metabolism of β-carotene is still needed to unequivocally discriminate the conditions under which it may exert beneficial or detrimental effects on human health and thus to enable the formulation of dietary recommendations adequate for different groups of individuals and populations worldwide. Here we provide a general overview of the metabolism of this vitamin A precursor in mammals with the aim of identifying the gaps in knowledge that call for immediate attention. We highlight the main questions that remain to be answered in regards to the cleavage, uptake, extracellular and intracellular transport of β-carotene as well as the interactions between the metabolism of β-carotene and that of other macronutrients such as lipids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A and Carotenoids)
Open AccessReview Problems and Challenges to Adaptation of Gluten Free Diet by Indian Patients with Celiac Disease
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 4869-4879; doi:10.3390/nu5124869
Received: 11 October 2013 / Revised: 5 November 2013 / Accepted: 20 November 2013 / Published: 27 November 2013
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Abstract
Celiac disease is emerging in India and has become a public health problem. Almost 6–8 million Indians are estimated to have celiac disease. While there is a large pool of patients with celiac disease in India, until now, only a fraction of [...] Read more.
Celiac disease is emerging in India and has become a public health problem. Almost 6–8 million Indians are estimated to have celiac disease. While there is a large pool of patients with celiac disease in India, until now, only a fraction of them have been diagnosed. With increasing awareness about celiac disease amongst health care providers and the general population, a massive increase in the number of patients with celiac disease is expected now and in the subsequent decade in India. While the number of patients with celiac disease is increasing, the country’s preparedness towards the emerging epidemic of this disease is minimal. There are a number of issues, which requires urgent attention. Some of the key issues include increased awareness amongst health care professionals and the general public about the disease and its management, team-based management of patients with celiac disease, proper counseling and supervision of patients, training of dietitians in the management of patients with celiac disease, industrial production of reliable and affordable gluten-free food, and food labeling for gluten contents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Celiac Disease) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Calcium-Alkali Syndrome in the Modern Era
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 4880-4893; doi:10.3390/nu5124880
Received: 24 September 2013 / Revised: 31 October 2013 / Accepted: 14 November 2013 / Published: 27 November 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (188 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ingestion of calcium, along with alkali, results in a well-described triad of hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal insufficiency. Over time, the epidemiology and root cause of the syndrome have shifted, such that the disorder, originally called the milk-alkali syndrome, is now [...] Read more.
The ingestion of calcium, along with alkali, results in a well-described triad of hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal insufficiency. Over time, the epidemiology and root cause of the syndrome have shifted, such that the disorder, originally called the milk-alkali syndrome, is now better described as the calcium-alkali syndrome. The calcium-alkali syndrome is an important cause of morbidity that may be on the rise, an unintended consequence of shifts in calcium and vitamin D intake in segments of the population. We review the pathophysiology of the calcium-alkali syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Needs of Older Adults)
Open AccessReview Dietary Magnesium and Genetic Interactions in Diabetes and Related Risk Factors: A Brief Overview of Current Knowledge
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 4990-5011; doi:10.3390/nu5124990
Received: 17 October 2013 / Revised: 18 November 2013 / Accepted: 27 November 2013 / Published: 6 December 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (237 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nutritional genomics has exploded in the last decade, yielding insights—both nutrigenomic and nutrigenetic—into the physiology of dietary interactions and our genes. Among these are insights into the regulation of magnesium transport and homeostasis and mechanisms underlying magnesium’s role in insulin and glucose [...] Read more.
Nutritional genomics has exploded in the last decade, yielding insights—both nutrigenomic and nutrigenetic—into the physiology of dietary interactions and our genes. Among these are insights into the regulation of magnesium transport and homeostasis and mechanisms underlying magnesium’s role in insulin and glucose handling. Recent observational evidence has attempted to examine some promising research avenues on interaction between genetics and dietary magnesium in relation to diabetes and diabetes risk factors. This brief review summarizes the recent evidence on dietary magnesium’s role in diabetes and related traits in the presence of underlying genetic risk, and discusses future potential research directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Magnesium and Human Health)
Open AccessReview Neuroenhancement with Vitamin B12—Underestimated Neurological Significance
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 5031-5045; doi:10.3390/nu5125031
Received: 6 June 2013 / Revised: 20 November 2013 / Accepted: 29 November 2013 / Published: 12 December 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (278 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin B12 is a cofactor of methionine synthase in the synthesis of methionine, the precursor of the universal methyl donor S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe), which is involved in different epigenomic regulatory mechanisms and especially in brain development. A Vitamin B12 deficiency expresses itself by [...] Read more.
Vitamin B12 is a cofactor of methionine synthase in the synthesis of methionine, the precursor of the universal methyl donor S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe), which is involved in different epigenomic regulatory mechanisms and especially in brain development. A Vitamin B12 deficiency expresses itself by a wide variety of neurological manifestations such as paraesthesias, skin numbness, coordination disorders and reduced nerve conduction velocity. In elderly people, a latent Vitamin B12 deficiency can be associated with a progressive brain atrophy. Moderately elevated concentrations of homocysteine (>10 µmol/L) have been associated with an increased risk of dementia, notably Alzheimer’s disease, in many cross-sectional and prospective studies. Raised plasma concentrations of homocysteine is also associated with both regional and whole brain atrophy, not only in Alzheimer’s disease but also in healthy elderly people. Clinician awareness should be raised to accurately diagnose and treat early Vitamin B12 deficiency to prevent irreversible structural brain damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin B12 and Human Health)
Open AccessReview Myths, Artifacts, and Fatal Flaws: Identifying Limitations and Opportunities in Vitamin C Research
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 5161-5192; doi:10.3390/nu5125161
Received: 11 October 2013 / Revised: 23 November 2013 / Accepted: 27 November 2013 / Published: 16 December 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (915 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Research progress to understand the role of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in human health has been slow in coming. This is predominantly the result of several flawed approaches to study design, often lacking a full appreciation of the redox chemistry and biology [...] Read more.
Research progress to understand the role of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in human health has been slow in coming. This is predominantly the result of several flawed approaches to study design, often lacking a full appreciation of the redox chemistry and biology of ascorbic acid. In this review, we summarize our knowledge surrounding the limitations of common approaches used in vitamin C research. In human cell culture, the primary issues are the high oxygen environment, presence of redox-active transition metal ions in culture media, and the use of immortalized cell lines grown in the absence of supplemental ascorbic acid. Studies in animal models are also limited due to the presence of endogenous ascorbic acid synthesis. Despite the use of genetically altered rodent strains lacking synthesis capacity, there are additional concerns that these models do not adequately recapitulate the effects of vitamin C deprivation and supplementation observed in humans. Lastly, several flaws in study design endemic to randomized controlled trials and other human studies greatly limit their conclusions and impact. There also is anecdotal evidence of positive and negative health effects of vitamin C that are widely accepted but have not been substantiated. Only with careful attention to study design and experimental detail can we further our understanding of the possible roles of vitamin C in promoting human health and preventing or treating disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C and Human Health) Print Edition available

Other

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Open AccessLetter Letter to the Editor Re: Comino, I., et al. Nutrients 2013, 5, 4250–4268
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 4964-4965; doi:10.3390/nu5124964
Received: 19 November 2013 / Revised: 27 November 2013 / Accepted: 28 November 2013 / Published: 5 December 2013
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Abstract
I read with interest the recently published review article titled “The gluten-free diet: testing alternative cereals tolerated by celiac patients” by Comino et al. [1] in Nutrients. However, there is very sparse data on so-called minor cereals and no data on candidate [...] Read more.
I read with interest the recently published review article titled “The gluten-free diet: testing alternative cereals tolerated by celiac patients” by Comino et al. [1] in Nutrients. However, there is very sparse data on so-called minor cereals and no data on candidate wild graminoids, which have been gathered in the past. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Celiac Disease) Print Edition available
Open AccessMeeting Report Proceedings of the 2013 Meeting of the Australasian Section of the American Oil Chemists Society (AAOCS)
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 5065-5096; doi:10.3390/nu5125065
Received: 5 December 2013 / Published: 12 December 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (277 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Australasian section of the American Oil Chemists Society (AAOCS) held their biennial meeting in Newcastle, Australia from 6 to 8 November, 2013. Over 150 scientists, researchers and industry representatives gathered for three days of talks and discussions on a variety of [...] Read more.
The Australasian section of the American Oil Chemists Society (AAOCS) held their biennial meeting in Newcastle, Australia from 6 to 8 November, 2013. Over 150 scientists, researchers and industry representatives gathered for three days of talks and discussions on a variety of lipid related topics. The AAOCS awarded its inaugural AAOCS Award for Scientific Excellence in Lipid Research to Dr Allan Green from the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). Dr Green is deputy chief of the CSIRO Division of Plant Industry and has been active in lipid research for several decades. His main research focus is on plant breeding and genetic engineering techniques to develop improved oilseeds with enhanced human nutritional value and novel industrial uses. Refer to “AAOCS Award for Scientific Excellence in Lipid Research” for more detail of his contributions [1]. Full article
Open AccessCommentary Does Vitamin D Sufficiency Equate to a Single Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level or Are Different Levels Required for Non-Skeletal Diseases?
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 5127-5139; doi:10.3390/nu5125127
Received: 28 October 2013 / Revised: 27 November 2013 / Accepted: 28 November 2013 / Published: 16 December 2013
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (214 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objective: Clarify the concept of vitamin D sufficiency, the relationship between efficacy and vitamin D status and the role of Vitamin D supplementation in the management of non-skeletal diseases. We outline reasons for anticipating different serum vitamin D levels are required for [...] Read more.
Objective: Clarify the concept of vitamin D sufficiency, the relationship between efficacy and vitamin D status and the role of Vitamin D supplementation in the management of non-skeletal diseases. We outline reasons for anticipating different serum vitamin D levels are required for different diseases. Method: Review the literature for evidence of efficacy of supplementation and minimum effective 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels in non-skeletal disease. Results: Evidence of efficacy of vitamin supplementation is graded according to levels of evidence. Minimum effective serum 25-OHD levels are lower for skeletal disease, e.g., rickets (25 nmol/L), osteoporosis and fractures (50 nmol/L), than for premature mortality (75 nmol/L) or non-skeletal diseases, e.g., depression (75 nmol/L), diabetes and cardiovascular disease (80 nmol/L), falls and respiratory infections (95 nmol/L) and cancer (100 nmol/L). Conclusions: Evidence for the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation at serum 25-OHD levels ranging from 25 to 100 nmol/L has been obtained from trials with vitamin D interventions that change vitamin D status by increasing serum 25-OHD to a level consistent with sufficiency for that disease. This evidence supports the hypothesis that just as vitamin D metabolism is tissue dependent, so the serum levels of 25-OHD signifying deficiency or sufficiency are disease dependent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Human Health) Print Edition available

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