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Special Issue "Mediterranean Diet Pattern and Public Health"

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A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Dolores Corella

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Valencia, Blasco Ibañez, 15, 46010 - Valencia, Spain
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Special Issue Information

Submission

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Keywords

  • mediterranean diet
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • obesity
  • diabetes
  • public health
  • prevention
  • olive oil
  • vegetables
  • nutrigenetics

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Long Term Successful Weight Loss with a Combination Biphasic Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet and Mediterranean Diet Maintenance Protocol
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 5205-5217; doi:10.3390/nu5125205
Received: 14 October 2013 / Revised: 25 November 2013 / Accepted: 10 December 2013 / Published: 18 December 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (260 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Weight loss protocols can only be considered successful if they deliver consistent results over the long term—a goal which is often elusive, so much so that the term “yo-yo” is used to describe the perennial weight loss/weight regain battle common in obesity. We
[...] Read more.
Weight loss protocols can only be considered successful if they deliver consistent results over the long term—a goal which is often elusive, so much so that the term “yo-yo” is used to describe the perennial weight loss/weight regain battle common in obesity. We hypothesized that a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts (KEMEPHY) combined with the acknowledged health benefits of traditional Mediterranean nutrition may favor long term weight loss. We analysed 89 male and female obese subjects, aged between 25 and 65 years who were overall healthy apart from being overweight. The subjects followed a staged diet protocol over a period of 12 months: 20 day of KEMEPHY; 20 days low carb-non ketogenic; 4 months Mediterranean normocaloric nutrition; a second 20 day ketogenic phase followed by 6 months of Mediterranean normocaloric nutrition. For the majority of subjects (88.25%) there was significant loss of weight (from 100.7 ± 16.54 to 84.59 ± 9.71 kg; BMI from 35.42 ± 4.11 to 30.27 ± 3.58) and body fat (form 43.44% ± 6.34% to 33.63% ± 7.6%) during both ketogenic phases followed by successful maintenance, without weight regain, during the 6 month stabilization phase with only 8 subjects failing to comply. There were also significant and stable decreases in total cholesterol, LDLc, triglycerides and glucose levels over the 12 month study period. HDLc showed small increases after the ketogenic phases but over the full 12 months there was no significant change. No significant changes were observed in ALT, AST, Creatinine or BUN. The combination of a biphasic KEMEPHY diet separated by longer periods of maintenance nutrition, based on the traditional Mediterranean diet, led to successful long term weight loss and improvements in health risk factors in a majority of subjects; compliance was very high which was a key determinant of the results seen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet Pattern and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Factors Associated with Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet among Adolescents Living in Sicily, Southern Italy
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 4908-4923; doi:10.3390/nu5124908
Received: 26 September 2013 / Revised: 8 November 2013 / Accepted: 18 November 2013 / Published: 4 December 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study aimed to examine the factors associated with increased Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence among a sample of Italian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1135 students (13–16 years) attending 13 secondary schools of Sicily, southern Italy. Validated instruments were used
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The present study aimed to examine the factors associated with increased Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence among a sample of Italian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1135 students (13–16 years) attending 13 secondary schools of Sicily, southern Italy. Validated instruments were used for dietary assessment and the KIDMED score to assess adolescents’ adherence to the MD. A higher adherence to the MD was associated with high socioeconomic status (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.03–2.26) and high physical activity (OR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02–1.70), whereas lower adherence was associated with living in an urban environment (OR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44–0.97) and being obese (OR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37–0.94). The adolescents’ KIDMED scores were inversely associated with adolescents’ intake of sweets, fast foods, fried foods, and sugary drinks, and directly with fruit, vegetables, pasta, fish, and cheese intakes. Urban-living adolescents were less likely to eat fruit and more prone to consume meat, sugary drinks, and fast food than rural-living adolescents. The latter were more likely to eat sweets and snacks. A general poor quality of food consumption in Italian adolescents away from the MD was reported, especially among those living in urban areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet Pattern and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Food Labels Use Is Associated with Higher Adherence to Mediterranean Diet: Results from the Moli-Sani Study
Nutrients 2013, 5(11), 4364-4379; doi:10.3390/nu5114364
Received: 29 August 2013 / Revised: 16 October 2013 / Accepted: 24 October 2013 / Published: 4 November 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (211 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mediterranean diet (MD) has been associated with lower risk of ischemic cerebro- and cardio-vascular disease, neurological degenerative disease, and breast and colonrectal cancers. Nevertheless, adherence to this pattern has decreased. Food labels are a potentially valid means to encourage towards healthier dietary behavior.
[...] Read more.
Mediterranean diet (MD) has been associated with lower risk of ischemic cerebro- and cardio-vascular disease, neurological degenerative disease, and breast and colonrectal cancers. Nevertheless, adherence to this pattern has decreased. Food labels are a potentially valid means to encourage towards healthier dietary behavior. This study, conducted on a subsample of 883 subjects enrolled in the Moli-sani Project, evaluated whether food labels reading (LR) is associated with MD adherence. Participants completed a questionnaire on nutrition knowledge, information, and attitudes, with a specific question on food labels reading. Biometric measurements, socio-economic status, education, physical activity, and smoking habits were collected. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary habits, and subsequently evaluated by both the Mediterranean diet score (MDS) and Italian Mediterranean index (IMI), a priori dietary patterns. Food consumption patterns were generated by Principal Components Analysis (PCA), an a posteriori approach. Multivariable odds ratios were calculated to quantify the association of LR categories with dietary habits. LR was significantly associated with greater adherence to both MDS (p = 0.0004) and IMI (p = 0.0019) in a multivariable model. LR participants had 74% (MDS) or 68% (IMI) higher probability to be in the highest level of adherence to Mediterranean diet-like patterns. Moreover, they showed greater adherence to Mediterranean-like food consumption patterns (0.1 vs. −0.2, p < 0.0001) and lower adherence to two Western-like patterns (0.01 vs. 0.2, p = 0.009 and 0.1 vs. 0.2, p = 0.02). These findings support an association between food label use and consuming a Mediterranean-type diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet Pattern and Public Health)

Review

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Open AccessReview Mediterranean Diet and Diabetes: Prevention and Treatment
Nutrients 2014, 6(4), 1406-1423; doi:10.3390/nu6041406
Received: 24 December 2013 / Revised: 3 March 2014 / Accepted: 20 March 2014 / Published: 4 April 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the present review is to examine current scientific knowledge on the association between the Mediterranean diet and diabetes mellitus (mostly type 2 diabetes). A definition of the Mediterranean diet and the tools widely used to evaluate adherence to this traditional
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The aim of the present review is to examine current scientific knowledge on the association between the Mediterranean diet and diabetes mellitus (mostly type 2 diabetes). A definition of the Mediterranean diet and the tools widely used to evaluate adherence to this traditional diet (Mediterranean diet indices) are briefly presented. The review focuses on epidemiological data linking adherence to the Mediterranean diet with the risk of diabetes development, as well as evidence from interventional studies assessing the effect of the Mediterranean diet on diabetes control and the management of diabetes-related complications. The above mentioned data are explored on the basis of evaluating the Mediterranean diet as a whole dietary pattern, rather than focusing on the effect of its individual components. Possible protective mechanisms of the Mediterranean diet against diabetes are also briefly discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet Pattern and Public Health)
Open AccessReview The Mediterranean Diet and Nutritional Adequacy: A Review
Nutrients 2014, 6(1), 231-248; doi:10.3390/nu6010231
Received: 24 October 2013 / Revised: 16 December 2013 / Accepted: 27 December 2013 / Published: 3 January 2014
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (348 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Mediterranean dietary pattern, through a healthy profile of fat intake, low proportion of carbohydrate, low glycemic index, high content of dietary fiber, antioxidant compounds, and anti-inflammatory effects, reduces the risk of certain pathologies, such as cancer or Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). Nutritional adequacy
[...] Read more.
The Mediterranean dietary pattern, through a healthy profile of fat intake, low proportion of carbohydrate, low glycemic index, high content of dietary fiber, antioxidant compounds, and anti-inflammatory effects, reduces the risk of certain pathologies, such as cancer or Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). Nutritional adequacy is the comparison between the nutrient requirement and the intake of a certain individual or population. In population groups, the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy can be assessed by the probability approach or using the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) cut-point method. However, dietary patterns can also be used as they have moderate to good validity to assess adequate intakes of some nutrients. The objective of this study was to review the available evidence on the Nutritional Adequacy of the Mediterranean Diet. The inclusion of foods typical of the Mediterranean diet and greater adherence to this healthy pattern was related to a better nutrient profile, both in children and adults, with a lower prevalence of individuals showing inadequate intakes of micronutrients. Therefore, the Mediterranean diet could be used in public health nutrition policies in order to prevent micronutrient deficiencies in the most vulnerable population groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet Pattern and Public Health)
Open AccessReview Cost and Cost-Effectiveness of the Mediterranean Diet: Results of a Systematic Review
Nutrients 2013, 5(11), 4566-4586; doi:10.3390/nu5114566
Received: 10 September 2013 / Revised: 3 November 2013 / Accepted: 4 November 2013 / Published: 18 November 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (228 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The growing impact of chronic degenerative pathologies (such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease) requires and pushes towards the development of new preventive strategies to reduce the incidence and prevalence of these diseases. Lifestyle changes, especially related to the Mediterranean
[...] Read more.
The growing impact of chronic degenerative pathologies (such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease) requires and pushes towards the development of new preventive strategies to reduce the incidence and prevalence of these diseases. Lifestyle changes, especially related to the Mediterranean diet, have the potential to modify disease outcomes and ultimately costs related to their management. The objective of the study was to perform a systematic review of the scientific literature, to gauge the economic performance and the cost-effectiveness of the adherence to the Mediterranean diet as a prevention strategy against degenerative pathologies. We investigated the monetary costs of adopting Mediterranean dietary patterns by determining cost differences between low and high adherence. Research was conducted using the PubMed and Scopus databases. Eight articles met the pre-determined inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Quality assessment and data extraction was performed. The adherence to the Mediterranean diet has been extensively reported to be associated with a favorable health outcome and a better quality of life. The implementation of a Mediterranean dietary pattern may lead to the prevention of degenerative pathologies and to an improvement in life expectancy, a net gain in health and a reduction in total lifetime costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet Pattern and Public Health)

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