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Nutrients, Volume 8, Issue 12 (December 2016)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

Open AccessEditorial Catch-Up Growth in Former Preterm Neonates: No Time to Waste
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 817; doi:10.3390/nu8120817
Received: 11 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
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Open AccessEditorial Eggs and Health Special Issue
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 784; doi:10.3390/nu8120784
Received: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 2 December 2016
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Abstract
In 1968, the American Heart Association recommended the consumption of no more than 300 mg/day of dietary cholesterol and emphasized that no more than 3 eggs should be eaten per week, resulting in substantial reductions in egg consumption, not just by diseased populations
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In 1968, the American Heart Association recommended the consumption of no more than 300 mg/day of dietary cholesterol and emphasized that no more than 3 eggs should be eaten per week, resulting in substantial reductions in egg consumption, not just by diseased populations but alsobyhealthyindividuals,andmoreimportantlybypoorcommunitiesinundevelopedcountieswho were advised against consuming a highly nutritious food.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Egg Consumption and Human Health)
Open AccessEditorial Tempters and Gluten-Free Diet
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 786; doi:10.3390/nu8120786
Received: 16 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 3 December 2016
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(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten Related Disorders: People Shall not Live on Bread Alone)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Hypoglycemic Effect of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten Is Due to Enhanced Peripheral Glucose Uptake through Activation of AMPK/p38 MAPK Pathway
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 800; doi:10.3390/nu8120800
Received: 10 October 2016 / Revised: 4 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
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Abstract
Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten (OFS) has been used in traditional medicine for centuries to treat several illnesses, including diabetes. However, detailed mechanisms underlying hypoglycemic effects remain unclear. In this study, the mechanism underlying the hypoglycemic activity of OFS was evaluated using in vitro
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Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten (OFS) has been used in traditional medicine for centuries to treat several illnesses, including diabetes. However, detailed mechanisms underlying hypoglycemic effects remain unclear. In this study, the mechanism underlying the hypoglycemic activity of OFS was evaluated using in vitro and in vivo systems. OFS treatment inhibited α-glucosidase activity and intestinal glucose absorption assessed by Na+-dependent glucose uptake using brush border membrane vesicles. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is widely recognized as an important regulator of glucose transport in skeletal muscle, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) has been proposed to be a component of AMPK-mediated signaling. In the present study, OFS dose-dependently increased glucose uptake in L6 muscle cells. The AMPK and p38 MAPK phosphorylations were stimulated by OFS, and inhibitors of AMPK (compound C) and p38 MAPK (SB203580) abolished the effects of OFS. Furthermore, OFS increased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation to the plasma membrane. OFS administration (1 g/kg and 2 g/kg body weight) in db/db mice dose-dependently ameliorated hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and glucose tolerance. Insulin resistance assessed by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index were also dose-dependently improved with OFS treatment. OFS administration improved pancreatic function through increased β-cell mass in db/db mice. These findings suggest that OFS acts by inhibiting glucose absorption from the intestine and enhancing glucose uptake from insulin-sensitive muscle cells through the AMPK/p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Phosphorus Supplementation Recovers the Blunted Diet-Induced Thermogenesis of Overweight and Obese Adults: A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 801; doi:10.3390/nu8120801
Received: 10 October 2016 / Revised: 27 November 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
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Abstract
Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) is believed to be largely related to ATP production, which is dependent on phosphorus (P) availability. We aimed to test the effect of P addition on DIT of lean and overweight/obese healthy subjects. DIT was measured with or without P
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Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) is believed to be largely related to ATP production, which is dependent on phosphorus (P) availability. We aimed to test the effect of P addition on DIT of lean and overweight/obese healthy subjects. DIT was measured with or without P in 10 lean and 13 overweight/obese adults in a double-blind randomized cross-over pilot study with one week washout period. After 10 h overnight fast, resting metabolic rate, respiratory quotient, and substrate utilization were measured at fasting and every 30 min for 3 h after subjects drank a standardized glucose solution, with P (500 mg) or placebo pills. Subjective ratings of hunger and satiety were assessed before and after the end of each experiment using validated visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaires. Overweight/obese subjects had a blunted DIT with placebo, while P supplementation induced a 23% increase in their DIT area under the curve (p < 0.05), which was associated with a significant increase in carbohydrate oxidation. Subjects had lower appetite following P supplementation, which was expressed as a significantly (p = 0.02) lower desire to eat a meal (4.0 ± 0.7 cm) compared with placebo (5.8 ± 0.9 cm). P supplementation recovers the blunted diet-induced thermogenesis in overweight and obese subjects and enhances their postprandial satiety. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Low versus High Glycemic Index Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Postprandial Vasodilatation and Inactivity-Induced Impairment of Glucose Metabolism in Healthy Men
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 802; doi:10.3390/nu8120802
Received: 7 October 2016 / Revised: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 10 December 2016
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Abstract
Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) may contribute to cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to investigate whether functional sugars with low compared to high glycemic index (GI) have beneficial effects on arterial stiffness during a period of low-physical activity. In a
[...] Read more.
Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) may contribute to cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to investigate whether functional sugars with low compared to high glycemic index (GI) have beneficial effects on arterial stiffness during a period of low-physical activity. In a controlled cross-over dietary intervention (55% CHO, 30% fat, 15% protein), 13 healthy men (age: 23.7 ± 2.2 years, body mass index: 23.6 ± 1.9 kg/m2) completed 2 × 1 week of low physical activity following 1 week of normal physical activity (2363 ± 900 vs. 11,375 ± 3124 steps/day). During inactive phases participants consumed either low-GI (isomaltulose) or high-GI SSB (maltodextrin-sucrose), providing 20% of energy requirements. Postprandial vasodilatation (augmentation index, AIx), insulin sensitivity (IS) and Glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) responses were measured during a meal test before and after SSB-intervention. Compared to maltodextrin-sucrose-SSB, postprandial vasodilatation was prolonged (AIx after 120 min: 9.9% ± 4.3% vs. 11.4% ± 3.7%, p < 0.05) and GLP-1 secretion was higher with isomaltulose-SSB (total area under the GLP-1 curve (tAUCGLP)-1: 8.0 ± 4.4 vs. 5.4 ± 3.4 pM × 3 h; p < 0.05). One week of low-physical activity led to impaired IS that was attenuated with low-GI SSB consumption, but did not affect arterial stiffness (p > 0.05). Higher postprandial GLP-1 secretion after intake of low compared to high-GI beverages may contribute to improved postprandial vasodilatation. Although one week of low-physical activity led to marked impairment in IS, it had no effect on arterial stiffness in healthy men. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003–2010
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 804; doi:10.3390/nu8120804
Received: 15 September 2016 / Revised: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 13 December 2016
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Abstract
Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs) have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Using data from a
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Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs) have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4–19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003–2010 a custom algorithm segmented FFRs into burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican cuisine, chicken, Asian cuisine, fish restaurants, and coffee shops. There was a significant population-wide decline in FFR-sourced solid fats (−32 kcal/day, p-trend < 0.001), added sugars (−16 kcal/day; p-trend < 0.001), SSBs (−0.12 servings (12 fluid ounces or 355 mL)/day; p-trend < 0.001), and sodium (−166 mg/day; p-trend < 0.001). Declines were observed when restricted to fast food consumers alone. Sharp declines were observed for pizza restaurants; added sugars, solid fats, and SSBs declined significantly from burger restaurants. Fruit did not change for fast food restaurants overall. Temporal analyses of fast food consumption trends by restaurant type allow for more precise monitoring of the quality of children’s diets than can be obtained from analyses of menu offerings. Such analyses can inform public health interventions and policy measures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Roles of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α in Bitter Melon Seed Oil-Corrected Lipid Disorders and Conversion of α-Eleostearic Acid into Rumenic Acid in C57BL/6J Mice
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 805; doi:10.3390/nu8120805
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 21 November 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 12 December 2016
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Abstract
We previously reported that bitter melon seed oil (BMSO) was an effective anti-steatosis and antiobesity agent. Since the major fatty acid α-eleostearic acid (α-ESA) in BMSO is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) activator, the objective was to investigate the role of PPARα
[...] Read more.
We previously reported that bitter melon seed oil (BMSO) was an effective anti-steatosis and antiobesity agent. Since the major fatty acid α-eleostearic acid (α-ESA) in BMSO is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) activator, the objective was to investigate the role of PPARα in BMSO-modulated lipid disorders and α-ESA metabolism. C57BL/6J wild (WD) and PPARα knockout (KO) mice were fed a high-fat diet containing BMSO (15% soybean oil + 15% BMSO, HB) or not (30% soybean oil, HS) for 5 weeks. The HB diet significantly reduced hepatic triglyceride concentrations and increased acyl-CoA oxidase activity in WD, but not in KO mice. However, regardless of genotype, body fat percentage was lowered along with upregulated protein levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and tyrosine hydroxylase, as well as signaling pathway of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and AMP-activated protein kinase in the white adipose tissue of HB-treated groups compared to HS cohorts. In WD-HB and KO-HB groups, white adipose tissue had autophagy, apoptosis, inflammation, and browning characteristics. Without PPARα, in vivo reduction of α-ESA into rumenic acid was slightly but significantly lowered, along with remarkable reduction of hepatic retinol saturase (RetSat) expression. We concluded that BMSO-mediated anti-steatosis depended on PPARα, whereas the anti-adiposity effect was PPARα-independent. In addition, PPARα-dependent enzymes may participate in α-ESA conversion, but only have a minor role. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Vitamin D on Human Immune Cells in the Context of Bacterial Infection
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 806; doi:10.3390/nu8120806
Received: 10 October 2016 / Revised: 24 November 2016 / Accepted: 7 December 2016 / Published: 12 December 2016
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Abstract
Vitamin D induces a diverse range of biological effects, including important functions in bone health, calcium homeostasis and, more recently, on immune function. The role of vitamin D during infection is of particular interest given data from epidemiological studies suggesting that vitamin D
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Vitamin D induces a diverse range of biological effects, including important functions in bone health, calcium homeostasis and, more recently, on immune function. The role of vitamin D during infection is of particular interest given data from epidemiological studies suggesting that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of infection. Vitamin D has diverse immunomodulatory functions, although its role during bacterial infection remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3, the active metabolite of vitamin D, on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and purified immune cell subsets isolated from healthy adults following stimulation with the bacterial ligands heat-killed pneumococcal serotype 19F (HK19F) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β as well as the chemokine IL-8 for both ligands (three- to 53-fold), while anti-inflammatory IL-10 was increased (two-fold, p = 0.016) in HK19F-stimulated monocytes. Levels of HK19F-specific IFN-γ were significantly higher (11.7-fold, p = 0.038) in vitamin D-insufficient adults (<50 nmol/L) compared to sufficient adults (>50 nmol/L). Vitamin D also shifted the pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype and increased the CD14 expression on monocytes (p = 0.008) in response to LPS but not HK19F stimulation. These results suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 may be an important regulator of the inflammatory response and supports further in vivo and clinical studies to confirm the potential benefits of vitamin D in this context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D: Current Issues and New Perspectives)
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Fatigue Effects of Small Molecule Oligopeptides Isolated from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer in Mice
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 807; doi:10.3390/nu8120807
Received: 8 October 2016 / Revised: 29 November 2016 / Accepted: 2 December 2016 / Published: 13 December 2016
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Abstract
Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (ginseng) is an edible and medicinal Chinese herb, which is often used in Asian countries for physical fitness. Ginseng is reported to have a wide range of biological activity and pharmaceutical properties. There were more studies on ginsenosides
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Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (ginseng) is an edible and medicinal Chinese herb, which is often used in Asian countries for physical fitness. Ginseng is reported to have a wide range of biological activity and pharmaceutical properties. There were more studies on ginsenosides and polysaccharides, but fewer studies on ginseng oligopeptides (GOP), which are small molecule oligopeptides isolated from ginseng. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-fatigue effects of GOP in mice and explore the possible underlying mechanism. Mice were randomly divided into four experimental sets for the detection of different indicators. Each set of mice were then divided into four groups. The control group was administered distilled water, and three GOP intervention groups were administered 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of body weight, respectively, of GOP by gavage each day. After 30 days of GOP treatment, it was observed that GOP could significantly increase the forced swimming time, enhance lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and hepatic glycogen levels, and retard the accumulation of serum urea nitrogen (SUN) and blood lactic acid (BLA) in mice. GOP also markedly ameliorated fatigue-induced alterations of inoxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant enzymes. Notably, GOP increased the mRNA expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors and mitochondrial DNA content in skeletal muscles of mice. These results suggest that GOP possess anti-fatigue effects, which may be attributed to the inhibition of oxidative stress and the improvement of mitochondrial function in skeletal muscles. GOP could be a novel natural agent for relieving exercise fatigue. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effects of Annatto Tocotrienol on Bone Biomechanical Strength and Bone Calcium Content in an Animal Model of Osteoporosis Due to Testosterone Deficiency
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 808; doi:10.3390/nu8120808
Received: 15 September 2016 / Revised: 16 November 2016 / Accepted: 8 December 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
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Abstract
Osteoporosis reduces the skeletal strength and increases the risk for fracture. It is an underdiagnosed disease in men. Annatto tocotrienol has been shown to improve bone structural indices and increase expression of bone formation genes in orchidectomized rats. This study aimed to evaluate
[...] Read more.
Osteoporosis reduces the skeletal strength and increases the risk for fracture. It is an underdiagnosed disease in men. Annatto tocotrienol has been shown to improve bone structural indices and increase expression of bone formation genes in orchidectomized rats. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of annatto tocotrienol on biomechanical strength and calcium content of the bone in orchidectomized rats. Thirty three-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups. The baseline control (BC) group was sacrificed at the onset of the study. The sham-operated group (SHAM) received olive oil (the vehicle of tocotrienol) orally daily and peanut oil (the vehicle of testosterone) intramuscularly weekly. The remaining rats were orchidectomized and treated with three different regimens, i.e., (1) daily oral olive oil plus weekly intramuscular peanut oil injection; (2) daily oral annatto tocotrienol at 60 mg/kg plus weekly intramuscular peanut oil injection; (3) daily oral olive oil plus weekly intramuscular testosterone enanthate injection at 7 mg/kg. Blood, femur and tibia of the rats were harvested at the end of the two-month treatment period for the evaluation of serum total calcium and inorganic phosphate levels, bone biomechanical strength test and bone calcium content. Annatto-tocotrienol treatment improved serum calcium level and tibial calcium content (p < 0.05) but it did not affect femoral biomechanical strength (p > 0.05). In conclusion, annatto-tocotrienol at 60 mg/kg augments bone calcium level by preventing calcium mobilization into the circulation. A longer treatment period is needed for annatto tocotrienol to exert its effects on bone strength. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Bovine Whey Protein Concentrate and Hydrolysate Preparation Methods on Motility in the Isolated Rat Distal Colon
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 809; doi:10.3390/nu8120809
Received: 11 October 2016 / Revised: 30 November 2016 / Accepted: 8 December 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
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Abstract
Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and hydrolysate (WPH) are protein ingredients used in sports, medical and pediatric formulations. Concentration and hydrolysis methods vary for whey sourced from cheese and casein co-products. The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of whey processing
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Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and hydrolysate (WPH) are protein ingredients used in sports, medical and pediatric formulations. Concentration and hydrolysis methods vary for whey sourced from cheese and casein co-products. The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of whey processing methods on in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) health indicators for colonic motility, epithelial barrier integrity and immune modulation. WPCs from casein or cheese processing and WPH (11% or 19% degree of hydrolysis, DH) were compared for their effects on motility in a 1 cm section of isolated rat distal colon in an oxygenated tissue bath. Results showed that WPC decreased motility irrespective of whether it was a by-product of lactic acid or mineral acid casein production, or from cheese production. This indicated that regardless of the preparation methodology, the whey protein contained components that modulate aspects of motility within the distal colon. WPH (11% DH) increased contractile frequency by 27% in a delayed manner and WPH (19% DH) had an immediate effect on contractile properties, increasing tension by 65% and frequency by 131%. Increased motility was associated with increased hydrolysis that may be attributed to the abundance of bioactive peptides. Increased frequency of contractions by WPH (19% DH) was inhibited (by 44%) by naloxone, implicating a potential involvement of opioid receptors in modulation of motility. Trans-epithelial electrical resistance and cytokine expression assays revealed that the WPC proteins studied did not alter intestinal barrier integrity or elicit any discernible immune response. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Association between Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Total Energy Intake among Mexican School-Age Children
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 710; doi:10.3390/nu8120710
Received: 29 July 2016 / Revised: 7 October 2016 / Accepted: 2 November 2016 / Published: 18 December 2016
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Abstract
Water consumption promotes a decrease in total diet energy intake, and one explanation for this fact is the replacement of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) by plain water (PW). The objective of this study was to analyze the association between SSB and PW consumption as
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Water consumption promotes a decrease in total diet energy intake, and one explanation for this fact is the replacement of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) by plain water (PW). The objective of this study was to analyze the association between SSB and PW consumption as a part of the total energy intake. Dietary information was obtained by one 24 h recall of 2536 school-age children who participated in the National Nutrition Survey in Mexico. PW and SSB consumption was measured in mL and servings (240 mL), and consumption was stratified into two levels (<2 and ≥2 servings/day). Linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between PW and SSB consumption in relation to total energy intake. Models were adjusted for age, sex, the proportion of energy obtained from non-beverage food, area of residence, and socioeconomic status (based on information regarding housing conditions and ownership of home appliances). PW consumption at the national level was two servings/day, and was not associated with total energy intake. However, the combination of the high consumption of PW and the low consumption of SSB was associated with less total energy intake (p < 0.05). Promoting higher PW and lower SSB consumption provides a useful public health strategy for reducing total energy intake and preventing overconsumption among Mexican school-age children. Full article
Open AccessArticle Abdominal Obesity and Lung Cancer Risk: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 810; doi:10.3390/nu8120810
Received: 20 October 2016 / Revised: 25 November 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
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Abstract
Several meta-analyses of observational studies have been performed to examine the association between general obesity, as measured by body mass index (BMI), and lung cancer. These meta-analyses suggest an inverse relation between high BMI and this cancer. In contrast to general obesity, abdominal
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Several meta-analyses of observational studies have been performed to examine the association between general obesity, as measured by body mass index (BMI), and lung cancer. These meta-analyses suggest an inverse relation between high BMI and this cancer. In contrast to general obesity, abdominal obesity appears to play a role in the development of lung cancer. However, the association between abdominal obesity (as measured by waist circumference (WC) (BMI adjusted) and waist to hip ratio (WHR)) and lung cancer is not fully understood due to sparse available evidence regarding this association. PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for studies assessing the association between abdominal obesity and lung cancer up to October 2016. The summary relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with a random-effects model. Six prospective cohort studies with 5827 lung cancer cases among 831,535 participants were included in our meta-analysis. Each 10 cm increase in WC and 0.1 unit increase in WHR were associated with 10% (RR 1.10; 95% CI 1.04, 1.17; I2 = 27.7%, p-heterogeneity = 0.198) and 5% (RR 1.05; 95% CI 1.00, 1.11; I2 = 25.2%, p-heterogeneity = 0.211) greater risks of lung cancer, respectively. According to smoking status, greater WHR was only positively associated with lung cancer among former smokers (RR 1.11; 95% CI 1.00, 1.23). In contrast, greater WC was associated with increased lung cancer risk among never smokers (RR 1.11; 95% CI 1.00, 1.23), former smokers (RR 1.12; 95% CI 1.03, 1.22) and current smokers (RR 1.16; 95% CI 1.08, 1.25). The summary RRs for highest versus lowest categories of WC and WHR were 1.32 (95% CI 1.13, 1.54; I2 = 18.2%, p-heterogeneity = 0.281) and 1.10 (95% CI 1.00, 1.23; I2 = 24.2%, p-heterogeneity = 0.211), respectively. In summary, abdominal obesity may play an important role in the development of lung cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Association between Dietary Intakes of Nitrate and Nitrite and the Risk of Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 811; doi:10.3390/nu8120811
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 8 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
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Abstract
Background and Aim: The association of habitual intakes of dietary nitrate (NO3) and nitrite (NO2) with blood pressure and renal function is not clear. Here, we investigated a potential effect of dietary NO3 and NO
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Background and Aim: The association of habitual intakes of dietary nitrate (NO3) and nitrite (NO2) with blood pressure and renal function is not clear. Here, we investigated a potential effect of dietary NO3 and NO2 on the occurrence of hypertension (HTN) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: A total of 2799 Iranian adults aged ≥20 years, participating in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), were included and followed for a median of 5.8 years. Dietary intakes of NO3 and NO2 were estimated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Demographics, anthropometrics, blood pressure and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and during follow-up examinations. To identify the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of HTN and CKD across tertile categories of residual energy-adjusted NO3 and NO2 intakes, multivariate logistic regression models were used. Results: Dietary intake of NO3 had no significant association with the risk of HTN or CKD. Compared to the lowest tertile category (median intake < 6.04 mg/day), the highest intake (median intake ≥ 12.7 mg/day) of dietary NO2 was accompanied with a significant reduced risk of HTN, in the fully adjusted model (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.33–0.98; p for trend = 0.054). The highest compared to the lowest tertile of dietary NO2 was also accompanied with a reduced risk of CKD (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.24–0.89, p for trend = 0.07). Conclusion: Our findings indicated that higher intakes of NO2 might be an independent dietary protective factor against the development of HTN and CKD, which are major risk factors for adverse cardiovascular events. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Phytochemical Pharmacokinetics and Bioactivity of Oat and Barley Flour: A Randomized Crossover Trial
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 813; doi:10.3390/nu8120813
Received: 4 November 2016 / Revised: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 7 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
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Abstract
While dietary fiber plays an important role in the health benefits associated with whole grain consumption, other ingredients concentrated in the outer bran layer, including alkylresorcinols, lignans, phenolic acids, phytosterols, and tocols, may also contribute to these outcomes. To determine the acute bioavailability
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While dietary fiber plays an important role in the health benefits associated with whole grain consumption, other ingredients concentrated in the outer bran layer, including alkylresorcinols, lignans, phenolic acids, phytosterols, and tocols, may also contribute to these outcomes. To determine the acute bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of the major phytochemicals found in barley and oats, we conducted a randomized, three-way crossover trial in 13 healthy subjects, aged 40–70 years with a body mass index (BMI) of 27–35.9 kg/m2. After a two-day run-in period following a diet low in phytochemicals, subjects were randomized to receive muffins made with either 48 g whole oat flour, whole barley flour, or refined wheat flour plus cellulose (control), with a one-week washout period between each intervention. At the same time, an oral glucose tolerance test was administered. In addition to plasma phytochemical concentrations, glucose and insulin responses, biomarkers of antioxidant activity, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and vascular remodeling were determined over a 24-h period. There was no significant effect on acute bioavailability or pharmacokinetics of major phytochemicals. Administered concurrently with a glucose bolus, the source of whole grains did not attenuate the post-prandial response of markers of glucoregulation and insulin sensitivity, inflammation, nor vascular remodeling compared to the refined grain control. No significant differences were observed in the bioavailability or postprandial effects between whole-oat and whole-barley compared to a refined wheat control when administered with a glucose challenge. These null results may be due, in part, to the inclusion criteria for the subjects, dose of the whole grains, and concurrent acute administration of the whole grains with the glucose bolus. Full article
Open AccessArticle Impact of Proteins on the Uptake, Distribution, and Excretion of Phenolics in the Human Body
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 814; doi:10.3390/nu8120814
Received: 4 November 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 8 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
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Abstract
Polyphenols, a complex group of secondary plant metabolites, including flavonoids and phenolic acids, have been studied in depth for their health-related benefits. The activity of polyphenols may, however, be hampered when consumed together with protein-rich food products, due to the interaction between polyphenols
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Polyphenols, a complex group of secondary plant metabolites, including flavonoids and phenolic acids, have been studied in depth for their health-related benefits. The activity of polyphenols may, however, be hampered when consumed together with protein-rich food products, due to the interaction between polyphenols and proteins. To that end we have tested the bioavailability of representatives of a range of polyphenol classes when consumed for five days in different beverage matrices. In a placebo-controlled, randomized, cross-over study, 35 healthy males received either six placebo gelatine capsules consumed with 200 mL of water, six capsules with 800 mg polyphenols derived from red wine and grape extracts, or the same dose of polyphenols incorporated into 200 mL of either pasteurized dairy drink, soy drink (both containing 3.4% proteins) or fruit-flavoured protein-free drink . At the end of the intervention urine and blood was collected and analysed for a broad range of phenolic compounds using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Liquid Chromatography–Multiple Reaction Monitoring–Mass Spectrometry (LC-MRM-MS), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques. The plasma and urine concentrations of the polyphenols identified increased with all formats, including the protein-rich beverages. Compared to capsule ingestion, consumption of polyphenol-rich beverages containing either dairy, soy or no proteins had minor to no effect on the bioavailability and excretion of phenolic compounds in plasma (118% ± 9%) and urine (98% ± 2%). We conclude that intake of polyphenols incorporated in protein-rich drinks does not have a major impact on the bioavailability of a range of different polyphenols and phenolic metabolites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Adverse Mental Health Indicators and Lower Quality of Life among Koreans: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012–2013
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 819; doi:10.3390/nu8120819
Received: 5 August 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 9 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
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Abstract
Food insecurity is an ongoing public health issue and contributes to mental health status. We investigated whether food insecurity is associated with inadequate nutrient intake and whether it affects mental health indicators (perceived stress/experience of depressive symptom/suicidal ideation) and quality of life (QOL)
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Food insecurity is an ongoing public health issue and contributes to mental health status. We investigated whether food insecurity is associated with inadequate nutrient intake and whether it affects mental health indicators (perceived stress/experience of depressive symptom/suicidal ideation) and quality of life (QOL) among Koreans (n = 5862, 20–64 years) using data from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2012–2013). Household food security status was categorized as “food-secure household”, “food-insecure household without hunger”, and “food-insecure household with hunger”. Data on food insecurity, sociodemographic factors, nutrient intake, mental health indicators, and QOL were used. A logistic regression model was conducted to determine odds ratios (ORs) for psychological health. A greater proportion of food-insecure participants were nutritionally deficient compared with expectations of the 2015 Korean Dietary Reference Intakes. These deficiencies were generally higher in both “food-insecure household” groups. Both “food-insecure household” groups, particularly the “food-insecure household with hunger” group showed significantly adverse mental health status (ORs: 1.52–3.83) and lower QOL (ORs: 1.49–3.92) than did the “food-secure household” group before and after adjusting for sex, age, education, household income, smoking/alcohol consumption, physical activity, marital status, and receiving food assistance. In conclusion, food insecurity may be significantly associated with adverse mental health indicators and decreased QOL in young/middle-aged Koreans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Mental Health)
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Open AccessArticle Implementation of a Nutrition Program Reduced Post-Discharge Growth Restriction in Thai Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 820; doi:10.3390/nu8120820
Received: 24 September 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 8 December 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
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Abstract
Very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants are vulnerable to growth restriction after discharge due to cumulative protein and energy deficits during their hospital stay and early post-discharge period. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of the preterm infant, post-discharge nutrition (PIN) program
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Very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants are vulnerable to growth restriction after discharge due to cumulative protein and energy deficits during their hospital stay and early post-discharge period. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of the preterm infant, post-discharge nutrition (PIN) program to reduce post-discharge growth restriction in Thai VLBW preterm infants. A prospective, non-randomized interventional cohort study was undertaken to assess the growth of 22 VLBW preterm infants who received the PIN program and compared them with 22 VLBW preterm infants who received conventional nutrition services. Infant’s growth was recorded monthly until the infants reached six months’ corrected age (6-moCA). Intervention infants had significantly greater body weights (p = 0.013) and head circumferences (p = 0.009). Also, a greater proportion of the intervention group recovered their weight to the standard weight at 4-moCA (p = 0.027) and at 6-moCA (p = 0.007) and their head circumference to the standard head circumference at 6-moCA (p = 0.004) compared to their historical comparison counterparts. Enlistment in the PIN program thus resulted in significantly reduced post-discharge growth restriction in VLBW preterm infants. Further research on longer term effects of the program on infant’s growth and development is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients in Infancy)
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Open AccessArticle Phenotypic Stability of Energy Balance Responses to Experimental Total Sleep Deprivation and Sleep Restriction in Healthy Adults
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 823; doi:10.3390/nu8120823
Received: 15 November 2016 / Revised: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 December 2016 / Published: 19 December 2016
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Abstract
Experimental studies have shown that sleep restriction (SR) and total sleep deprivation (TSD) produce increased caloric intake, greater fat consumption, and increased late-night eating. However, whether individuals show similar energy intake responses to both SR and TSD remains unknown. A total of N
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Experimental studies have shown that sleep restriction (SR) and total sleep deprivation (TSD) produce increased caloric intake, greater fat consumption, and increased late-night eating. However, whether individuals show similar energy intake responses to both SR and TSD remains unknown. A total of N = 66 healthy adults (aged 21–50 years, 48.5% women, 72.7% African American) participated in a within-subjects laboratory protocol to compare daily and late-night intake between one night of SR (4 h time in bed, 04:00–08:00) and one night of TSD (0 h time in bed) conditions. We also examined intake responses during subsequent recovery from SR or TSD and investigated gender differences. Caloric and macronutrient intake during the day following SR and TSD were moderately to substantially consistent within individuals (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients: 0.34–0.75). During the late-night period of SR (22:00–04:00) and TSD (22:00–06:00), such consistency was slight to moderate, and participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein (p = 0.01) and saturated fat (p = 0.02) during SR, despite comparable caloric intake (p = 0.12). Similarly, participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from saturated fat during the day following SR than TSD (p = 0.03). Participants also consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein during recovery after TSD (p < 0.001). Caloric intake was greater in men during late-night hours and the day following sleep loss. This is the first evidence of phenotypic trait-like stability and differential vulnerability of energy balance responses to two commonly experienced types of sleep loss: our findings open the door for biomarker discovery and countermeasure development to predict and mitigate this critical health-related vulnerability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Is a Nutrition Education Intervention Associated with a Higher Intake of Fruit and Vegetables and Improved Nutritional Knowledge among Housewives in Mauritius?
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 723; doi:10.3390/nu8120723
Received: 4 September 2016 / Revised: 15 October 2016 / Accepted: 10 November 2016 / Published: 29 November 2016
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Abstract
The purpose of the study was to assess the determinants of nutrition behaviors and body mass index and determine the impact of a nutrition education intervention (NEI) among Mauritian housewives. A pretest-posttest design was used assessing Nutrition Knowledge (NK), Nutrition Attitudes, Fruit and
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The purpose of the study was to assess the determinants of nutrition behaviors and body mass index and determine the impact of a nutrition education intervention (NEI) among Mauritian housewives. A pretest-posttest design was used assessing Nutrition Knowledge (NK), Nutrition Attitudes, Fruit and Vegetable Intake (FVI), body mass index (BMI). Two hundred Mauritian housewives were recruited. The NEI was in the form of a lecture and lasted for twenty minutes. Statistical tests performed revealed that the mean NK score at baseline was 65.8 ± 6.92 and a significant increase of +17.1 at post-test and +16.1 at follow-up was observed. Determinants of NK were age, presence of elderly people, and BMI. Mean nutrition attitude score at baseline was 2.37 ± 0.22 with significant increase of +0.2 (post-test) and +0.17 at follow-up. Age, level of education, presence of elders, and NK were linked to a positive attitude. FVI was predicted by age, income, presence of elders, NK, and nutrition attitudes. Baseline FVI was 4.77 ± 1.11 which increased significantly (p < 0.001) to 4.98 ± 1.13 at post-test and 5.03 ± 1.20 at follow up. NEI had a positive impact suggesting the benefits of such intervention in the promotion of healthy nutrition behaviors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Low Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency among Nepalese Infants Despite High Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency among Their Mothers
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 825; doi:10.3390/nu8120825
Received: 1 November 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 7 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
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Abstract
Background: Describing vitamin D status and its predictors in various populations is important in order to target public health measures. Objectives: To describe the status and predictors of vitamin D status in healthy Nepalese mothers and infants. Methods: 500 randomly selected Nepalese mother
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Background: Describing vitamin D status and its predictors in various populations is important in order to target public health measures. Objectives: To describe the status and predictors of vitamin D status in healthy Nepalese mothers and infants. Methods: 500 randomly selected Nepalese mother and infant pairs were included in a cross-sectional study. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by LC-MS/MS and multiple linear regression analyses were used to identify predictors of vitamin D status. Results: Among the infants, the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (25(OH)D <50 nmol/L) and deficiency (<30 nmol/L) were 3.6% and 0.6%, respectively, in contrast to 59.8% and 14.0% among their mothers. Infant 25(OH)D concentrations were negatively associated with infant age and positively associated with maternal vitamin D status and body mass index (BMI), explaining 22% of the variability in 25(OH)D concentration. Global solar radiation, maternal age and BMI predicted maternal 25(OH)D concentration, explaining 9.7% of its variability. Conclusion: Age and maternal vitamin D status are the main predictors of vitamin D status in infants in Bhaktapur, Nepal, who have adequate vitamin D status despite poor vitamin D status in their mothers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D: Current Issues and New Perspectives)
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Study on Trace Element Excretions between Nonanuric and Anuric Patients Undergoing Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 826; doi:10.3390/nu8120826
Received: 28 October 2016 / Revised: 26 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
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Abstract
Few studies have been reported on alterations of trace elements (TE) in peritoneal dialysis patients. Our objective was to investigate and assess the characteristics of daily TE excretions in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. This cross-sectional study included 61 CAPD patients (nonanuric/anuric:
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Few studies have been reported on alterations of trace elements (TE) in peritoneal dialysis patients. Our objective was to investigate and assess the characteristics of daily TE excretions in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. This cross-sectional study included 61 CAPD patients (nonanuric/anuric: 45/16) and 11 healthy subjects in Wuhan, China between 2013 and 2014. The dialysate and urine of patients and urine of healthy subjects were collected. The concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), and arsenic (As) in dialysate and urine were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Various clinical variables were obtained from automatic biochemical analyzer. Daily Cu, Zn, Se, and Mo excretions in nonanuric patients were higher than healthy subjects, while arsenic excretion in anuric patients was lower. A strong and positive correlation was observed between Se and Mo excretion in both dialysate (β = 0.869, p < 0.010) and urine (β = 0.968, p < 0.010). Furthermore, the clinical variables associated with Se excretion were found to be correlated with Mo excretion. Our findings indicated that nonanuric CAPD patients may suffer from deficiency of some essential TEs, while anuric patients are at risk of arsenic accumulation. A close association between Se and Mo excretion was also found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Sodium Butyrate Reduces Colitogenic Immunoglobulin A-Coated Bacteria and Modifies the Composition of Microbiota in IL-10 Deficient Mice
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 728; doi:10.3390/nu8120728
Received: 6 September 2016 / Revised: 25 October 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 24 November 2016
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Abstract
High levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA)-coated bacteria may have a role in driving inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We therefore investigated the effect of sodium butyrate on microbiota in IBD prone interleukin (IL)-10−/− mice. At 8 weeks of age, mice were allocated into
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High levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA)-coated bacteria may have a role in driving inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We therefore investigated the effect of sodium butyrate on microbiota in IBD prone interleukin (IL)-10−/− mice. At 8 weeks of age, mice were allocated into three groups (n = 4/group): normal (C57BL/6), IL-10−/−, and IL-10−/− treated with sodium butyrate (100 mM). Severity of colitis, inflammatory cytokine and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration in proximal colon contents, the percentage of IgA-coated bacteria and microbiota composition by 16S ribosomal RNA assessment of stool were measured after 4 weeks of treatment. Sodium butyrate ameliorated histological colitis and decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-6 in IL-10−/− mice compared with those without treatment. At the phylum level, a reduction in Bacteroidetes and an increase in Firmicutes in IL-10−/− mice treated with sodium butyrate were observed. Additionally, Prevotellaceae species were reduced in IL-10−/− mice treated with sodium butyrate as compared with those without treatment. The level of biodiversity was slightly increased and the amount of IgA-coated bacteria decreased in IL-10−/− mice treated with sodium butyrate compared with those without treatment. Our results indicate that sodium butyrate protects against colitis, possibly through modifying the gut microbiota, enriching biodiversity and reducing the amount of colitogenic IgA-coated bacteria in IL-10−/− mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet in IBD)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Fiber Analysis of Four Pulses Using AOAC 2011.25: Implications for Human Health
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 829; doi:10.3390/nu8120829
Received: 11 November 2016 / Revised: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
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Abstract
Chickpeas, common beans, dry peas, and lentils are pulse crops that have been a cornerstone of the human diet since the inception of agriculture. However, the displacement of pulses from the diet by low fiber protein alternatives has resulted in a pervasive deficiency
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Chickpeas, common beans, dry peas, and lentils are pulse crops that have been a cornerstone of the human diet since the inception of agriculture. However, the displacement of pulses from the diet by low fiber protein alternatives has resulted in a pervasive deficiency referred to as the dietary fiber gap. Using an analytical method American Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC) 2011.25 that conforms to the Codex Alimentarius Commission consensus definition for dietary fiber, the fiber content of these pulse crops was evaluated in seed types used for commercial production. These pulse crops have 2 to 3 times more fiber per 100 g edible portion than other dietary staples. Moreover, there is marked variation in fiber content among cultivars of the same crop. We conclude that pulse crop consumption should be emphasized in efforts to close the dietary fiber gap. The substantial differences in fiber content among currently available cultivars within a crop can be used to further improve gains in fiber intake without the need to change dietary habits. This provides a rationale for cultivar-based food labeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Soybean and other Grain Legumes)
Open AccessArticle The Impact of Body Image on the WTP Values for Reduced-Fat and Low-Salt Content Potato Chips among Obese and Non-Obese Consumers
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 830; doi:10.3390/nu8120830
Received: 25 October 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
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Abstract
The aim of this study is to assess the influence of body image on consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for potato chips carrying nutritional claims among obese and non-obese people. About 309 non-clinical individuals participated in a Real Choice Experiment. They were recruited
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The aim of this study is to assess the influence of body image on consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for potato chips carrying nutritional claims among obese and non-obese people. About 309 non-clinical individuals participated in a Real Choice Experiment. They were recruited by a company and grouped in: (i) non-obese with good body image; (ii) non-obese with body image dissatisfaction; (iii) obese with good body image; (iv) obese with body image dissatisfaction. Results indicate differences in consumers’ willingness to pay among consumer groups. Body image dissatisfaction of normal people did not influence the WTP for healthier chips. Obese people with body image dissatisfaction were willing to pay more for healthier chips (i.e., low-salt content potato chips) than normal ones with body image dissatisfaction. Examining the role of knowledge in the light of how this could impact on body image is relevant to improve the health status of individuals and their diet. Knowledge about nutrition could improve the body image of obese people. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Predictive Validity of the Body Adiposity Index in Overweight and Obese Adults Using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 737; doi:10.3390/nu8120737
Received: 27 September 2016 / Revised: 28 October 2016 / Accepted: 16 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
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Abstract
The body adiposity index (BAI) is a recent anthropometric measure proven to be valid in predicting body fat percentage (BF%) in some populations. However, the results have been inconsistent across populations. This study was designed to verify the validity of BAI in predicting
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The body adiposity index (BAI) is a recent anthropometric measure proven to be valid in predicting body fat percentage (BF%) in some populations. However, the results have been inconsistent across populations. This study was designed to verify the validity of BAI in predicting BF% in a sample of overweight/obese adults, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as the reference method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 48 participants (54% women, mean age 41.0 ± 7.3 years old). DEXA was used as the “gold standard” to determine BF%. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the association between BAI and BF%, as assessed by DEXA. A paired sample t-test was used to test differences in mean BF% obtained with BAI and DEXA methods. To evaluate the concordance between BF% as measured by DEXA and as estimated by BAI, we used Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient and Bland–Altman agreement analysis. The correlation between BF% obtained by DEXA and that estimated by BAI was r = 0.844, p < 0.001. Paired t-test showed a significant mean difference in BF% between methods (BAI = 33.3 ± 6.2 vs. DEXA 39.0 ± 6.1; p < 0.001). The bias of the BAI was −6.0 ± 3.0 BF% (95% CI = −12.0 to 1.0), indicating that the BAI method significantly underestimated the BF% compared to the reference method. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient was considered stronger (ρc = 0.923, 95% CI = 0.862 to 0.957). In obese adults, BAI presented low agreement with BF% measured by DEXA; therefore, BAI is not recommended for BF% prediction in this overweight/obese sample studied. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Meat/Poultry/Fish Consumption in Australia: From 1995 to 2011–2012
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 753; doi:10.3390/nu8120753
Received: 20 September 2016 / Revised: 26 October 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 24 November 2016
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Abstract
The purpose of the study was to examine temporal changes in meat/poultry/fish consumption patterns between 1995 and 2011–2012 in the Australian population. Meat/poultry/fish consumption from all food sources, including recipes, was analysed by gender, age group, and socio-economic status using 24-h recall data
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The purpose of the study was to examine temporal changes in meat/poultry/fish consumption patterns between 1995 and 2011–2012 in the Australian population. Meat/poultry/fish consumption from all food sources, including recipes, was analysed by gender, age group, and socio-economic status using 24-h recall data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey (n = 13,858) and the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (n = 12,153). The overall proportion of people consuming meat/poultry/fish remained stable (91.7% versus 91.3%, p = 0.55), but a shift in the type of meat consumed was observed. Red meat, including beef and lamb, was consumed by fewer people over the time period (from 56% to 49%), whereas poultry consumption increased (from 29% to 38%). Amounts of all meat/poultry/fish consumed were reportedly higher in 2011–2012 compared with 1995. This resulted in similar (red meat, and processed meat) or slightly higher (poultry, and fish) per-capita intakes in 2011–2012. The magnitude of change of consumption varied between children and adults, and by gender. Monitoring trends in consumption is particularly relevant to policy makers, researchers and other health professionals for the formulation of dietary recommendations and estimation of potential health outcomes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: Short-Term Effect on Performance
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 755; doi:10.3390/nu8120755
Received: 15 September 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 25 November 2016
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Abstract
Background: “Sleep-low” consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO) availability—low glycogen recovery after “train high” glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training (“train low”) the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins,
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Background: “Sleep-low” consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO) availability—low glycogen recovery after “train high” glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training (“train low”) the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance. Methods: Following training familiarization, 11 trained cyclists were divided into two groups for a one-week intervention—one group implemented three cycles of periodized CHO intake to achieve the sleep-low strategy over six training sessions (SL, CHO intake: 6 g·kg−1·day−1), whereas the control group consumed an even distribution of CHO over the day (CON). Tests were a 2 h submaximal ride and a 20 km time trial. Results: SL improved their performance (mean: +3.2%; p < 0.05) compared to CON. The improvement was associated with a change in pacing strategy with higher power output during the second part of the test. No change in substrate utilization was observed after the training period for either group. Conclusion: Implementing the “sleep-low” strategy for one week improved performance by the same magnitude previously seen in a three-week intervention, without any significant changes in selected markers of metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Health and Athletic Performance)
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Open AccessArticle Breastmilk Production in the First 4 Weeks after Birth of Term Infants
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 756; doi:10.3390/nu8120756
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 16 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 25 November 2016
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Abstract
Breastmilk provides the ideal nutrition for the infant, and exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first 6 months. Adequate milk production by the mother is therefore critical, and early milk production has been shown to significantly affect milk production during established lactation. Previous
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Breastmilk provides the ideal nutrition for the infant, and exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first 6 months. Adequate milk production by the mother is therefore critical, and early milk production has been shown to significantly affect milk production during established lactation. Previous studies indicate that milk production should reach the lower limit of normal for established lactation (440 mL per day) by day 11 after birth. We have used test-weighing of term infants before and after each breastfeed over 24 h to measure milk production in the first 4 weeks of lactation in mothers with and without perceived breastfeeding problems to provide information on how often milk production is inadequate. Between days 11 and 13, two-thirds of the mothers had a milk production of less than 440 mL per day, and between days 14 and 28, nearly one-third of the mothers had a milk production of less than 440 mL per day. The high frequency of inadequate milk production in early lactation and the consequence of suboptimal milk production in later lactation if left untreated suggest that objective measurement of milk production can identify mothers and infants at risk and support early intervention by a lactation specialist. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients in Infancy)
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Open AccessArticle Patient Survival and Costs on Moderately Restricted Low-Protein Diets in Advanced CKD: Equivalent Survival at Lower Costs?
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 758; doi:10.3390/nu8120758
Received: 8 August 2016 / Revised: 23 October 2016 / Accepted: 16 November 2016 / Published: 25 November 2016
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Abstract
The indications for delaying the start of dialysis have revived interest in low-protein diets (LPDs). In this observational prospective study, we enrolled all patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who followed a moderately restricted LPD in 2007–2015 in a nephrology unit in Italy:
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The indications for delaying the start of dialysis have revived interest in low-protein diets (LPDs). In this observational prospective study, we enrolled all patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who followed a moderately restricted LPD in 2007–2015 in a nephrology unit in Italy: 449 patients, 847 years of observation. At the start of the diet, the median glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 20 mL/min, the median age was 70, the median Charlson Index was 7. Standardized mortality rates for the “on-diet” population were significantly lower than for patients on dialysis (United States Renal Data System (USRDS): 0.44 (0.36–0.54); Italian Dialysis Registry: 0.73 (0.59–0.88); French Dialysis Registry 0.70 (0.57–0.85)). Considering only the follow-up at low GFR (≤15 mL/min), survival remained significantly higher than in the USRDS, and was equivalent to the Italian and French registries, with an advantage in younger patients. Below the e-GFR of 15 mL/min, 50% of the patients reached a dialysis-free follow-up of ≥2 years; 25% have been dialysis-free for five years. Considering an average yearly cost of about 50,000 Euros for dialysis and 1200 Euros for the diet, and different hypotheses of “spared” dialysis years, treating 100 patients on a moderately restricted LPD would allow saving one to four million Euros. Therefore, our study suggests that in patients with advanced CKD, moderately restricted LPDs may allow prolonging dialysis-free follow-up with comparable survival to dialysis at a lower cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Disability, Physical Inactivity, and Impaired Health-Related Quality of Life Are Not Different in Metabolically Healthy vs. Unhealthy Obese Subjects
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 759; doi:10.3390/nu8120759
Received: 15 September 2016 / Revised: 6 November 2016 / Accepted: 16 November 2016 / Published: 25 November 2016
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Abstract
Background: Obesity represents a major health hazard, affecting morbidity, psychological status, physical functionality, quality of life, and mortality. The aim of the present study was to explore the differences between metabolically healthy (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy (MUO) obese subjects with regard to physical
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Background: Obesity represents a major health hazard, affecting morbidity, psychological status, physical functionality, quality of life, and mortality. The aim of the present study was to explore the differences between metabolically healthy (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy (MUO) obese subjects with regard to physical activity, disability, and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL). Methods: All subjects underwent a multidimensional evaluation, encompassing the assessment of body composition, metabolic biomarkers and inflammation, physical activity level (IPAQ questionnaire), disability (TSD-OC test), and HR-QoL (SF-36 questionnaire). MHO and MUO were defined based on the absence or the presence of the metabolic syndrome, respectively. Results: 253 subjects were included (54 men and 199 women; age: 51.7 ± 12.8 vs. 50.3 ± 11.7 years, p = 0.46; BMI: 38.1 ± 5.7 vs. 38.9 ± 6.7 kg/m2, p = 0.37). No significant difference was observed in body composition. There was no difference between MHO and MUO considering inflammation (hs-CRP: 6517.1 ± 11,409.9 vs. 5294.1 ± 5612.2 g/L; p = 0.37), physical inactivity (IPAQ score below 3000 METs-min/week in 77.6% of MHO vs. 80% of MUO subjects; p = 0.36), obesity-related disability (TSD-OC score > 33%, indicating a high level of obesity-related disability, in 20.2% of MHO vs. 26.5% of MUO subjects; p = 0.28), and the HR-QoL (SF-36 total score: 60 ± 20.8 vs. 62.8 ± 18.2, p = 0.27). Discussion and Conclusion: The metabolic comorbidity and the impairment of functional ability and psycho-social functioning may have a different timing in the natural history of obesity. Alterations in the physical activity level and mobility disabilities may precede the onset of metabolic abnormalities. (Trial registration 2369 prot 166/12—registered 23 February 2012; Amendment 223/14—registered 13 February 2014). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Disorders, Diet-Related Diseases, and Metabolic Health)
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Open AccessArticle Analgesic Effect of Indian Gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Fruit) Extracts on Postoperative and Neuropathic Pain in Rats
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 760; doi:10.3390/nu8120760
Received: 29 July 2016 / Revised: 27 October 2016 / Accepted: 18 November 2016 / Published: 26 November 2016
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Abstract
Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis fruit), also known as “Amla” is one of the oldest edible fruits known in India. It has also traditionally been used to treat inflammation, and as an analgesic to treat wounds. However, experimental evidence for the analgesic effects
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Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis fruit), also known as “Amla” is one of the oldest edible fruits known in India. It has also traditionally been used to treat inflammation, and as an analgesic to treat wounds. However, experimental evidence for the analgesic effects of E. officinalis has been lacking. The present study investigated whether E. officinalis extracts exhibit analgesic effects in the plantar incision (PI) and spared nerve injury (SNI) pain-model rats. We evaluated the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) using von Frey filaments, and pain-related behavior was determined after surgery based on ultrasonic vocalization (USV). The group treated with E. officinalis extracts at 300 mg/kg had significantly increased MWT values at 6 h and 24 h after the PI, and had a significantly reduced number of 22–27-kHz USVs at 6 h and 24 h after PI. Moreover, after 15 days of continuous treatment with E. officinalis extracts, the treated group showed significantly alleviated SNI-induced hypersensitivity and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Thus, E. officinalis extracts have potential analgesic effects in both postoperative and neuropathic pain models in vivo. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary B Vitamins and a 10-Year Risk of Dementia in Older Persons
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 761; doi:10.3390/nu8120761
Received: 13 September 2016 / Revised: 21 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 26 November 2016
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Abstract
B vitamins may lower the risk of dementia, yet epidemiological findings, mostly from countries with folic acid fortification, have remained inconsistent. We evaluated in a large French cohort of older persons the associations between dietary B vitamins and long-term incident dementia. We included
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B vitamins may lower the risk of dementia, yet epidemiological findings, mostly from countries with folic acid fortification, have remained inconsistent. We evaluated in a large French cohort of older persons the associations between dietary B vitamins and long-term incident dementia. We included 1321 participants from the Three-City Study who completed a 24 h dietary recall, were free of dementia at the time of diet assessment, and were followed for an average of 7.4 years. In Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for multiple potential confounders, including overall diet quality, higher intake of folate was inversely associated with the risk of dementia (p for trend = 0.02), with an approximately 50% lower risk for individuals in the highest compared to the lowest quintile of folate (HR = 0.47; 95% CI 0.28; 0.81). No association was found for vitamins B6 and B12. In conclusion, in a large French cohort with a relatively low baseline folate status (average intake = 278 µg/day), higher folate intakes were associated with a decreased risk of dementia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue B-Vitamins and One-Carbon Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Biochemical Parameters of the Calcium-Phosphorus Homeostasis in Relation to Nutritional Intake in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 764; doi:10.3390/nu8120764
Received: 14 September 2016 / Revised: 13 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 29 November 2016
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Abstract
Preterm infants are at significant risk to develop reduced bone mineralization based on inadequate supply of calcium and phosphorus (Ca-P). Biochemical parameters can be used to evaluate the nutritional intake. The direct effect of nutritional intake on changes in biochemical parameters has not
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Preterm infants are at significant risk to develop reduced bone mineralization based on inadequate supply of calcium and phosphorus (Ca-P). Biochemical parameters can be used to evaluate the nutritional intake. The direct effect of nutritional intake on changes in biochemical parameters has not been studied. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of Ca-P supplementation on biochemical markers as serum (s)/urinary (u) Ca and P; alkaline phosphatase (ALP); tubular reabsorption of P (TrP); and urinary ratios for Ca/creatinin (creat) and P/creatinin in Very-Low-Birth-Weight infants on Postnatal Days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14. This observational study compared two groups with High (n = 30) and Low (n = 40) intake of Ca-P. Birth weight: median (IRQ) 948 (772–1225) vs. 939 (776–1163) grams; and gestational age: 28.2 (26.5–29.6) vs. 27.8 (26.1–29.4) weeks. Daily median concentrations of biochemical parameter were not different between the groups but linear regression mixed model analyses showed that Ca intake increased the uCa and TrP (p = 0.04) and decreased ALP (p = 0.00). Phosphorus intake increased sP, uP and uP/creat ratio and ALP (p ≤ 0.02) and caused decrease in TrP (p = 0.00). Protein intake decreased sP (p = 0.000), while low gestational age and male gender increased renal excretion of P (p < 0.03). Standardized repeated measurements showed that biochemical parameters were affected by nutritional intake, gestational age and gender. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients in Infancy)
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Open AccessArticle Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Contributes to β-Carotene Uptake in the Maternal Liver
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 765; doi:10.3390/nu8120765
Received: 17 October 2016 / Revised: 17 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 29 November 2016
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Abstract
Vitamin A regulates many essential mammalian biological processes, including embryonic development. β-carotene is the main source of vitamin A in the human diet. Once ingested, it is packaged into lipoproteins, predominantly low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and transported to different sites within the body, including
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Vitamin A regulates many essential mammalian biological processes, including embryonic development. β-carotene is the main source of vitamin A in the human diet. Once ingested, it is packaged into lipoproteins, predominantly low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and transported to different sites within the body, including the liver and developing tissues, where it can either be stored or metabolized to retinoids (vitamin A and its derivatives). The molecular mechanisms of β-carotene uptake by the liver or developing tissues remain elusive. Here, we investigated the role of the LDL receptor (LDLr) in β-carotene uptake by maternal liver, placenta and embryo. We administered a single dose of β-carotene to Ldlr+/− and Ldlr−/− pregnant mice via intraperitoneal injection at mid-gestation and monitored the changes in β-carotene content among maternal lipoproteins and the liver, as well as the accumulation of β-carotene in the placental–fetal unit. We showed an abnormal β-carotene distribution among serum lipoproteins and reduced hepatic β-carotene uptake in Ldlr−/− dams. These data strongly imply that LDLr significantly contributes to β-carotene uptake in the adult mouse liver. In contrast, LDLr does not seem to mediate acquisition of β-carotene by the placental–fetal unit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A Update 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Vitamin B12 Status among Pregnant Women in the UK and Its Association with Obesity and Gestational Diabetes
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 768; doi:10.3390/nu8120768
Received: 13 September 2016 / Revised: 16 November 2016 / Accepted: 22 November 2016 / Published: 1 December 2016
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Abstract
Background: To evaluate vitamin B12 and folate status in pregnancy and their relationship with maternal obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and offspring birthweight. Methods: A retrospective case-control study of 344 women (143 GDM, 201 no-GDM) attending a district general hospital and that had
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Background: To evaluate vitamin B12 and folate status in pregnancy and their relationship with maternal obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and offspring birthweight. Methods: A retrospective case-control study of 344 women (143 GDM, 201 no-GDM) attending a district general hospital and that had B12 and folate levels measured in the early 3rd trimester was performed. Maternal history including early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and neonatal data (birthweight, sex, and gestational age) was recorded for all subjects. Results: 26% of the cohort had B12 levels <150 pmol/L (32% vs. 22% in the two groups respectively, p < 0.05) while 1.5% were folate deficient. After adjusting for confounders, 1st trimester BMI was negatively associated with 3rd trimester B12 levels. Women with B12 insufficiency had higher odds of obesity and GDM (aOR (95% CI) 2.40 (1.31, 4.40), p = 0.004, and 2.59 (1.35, 4.98), p = 0.004, respectively), although the latter was partly mediated by BMI. In women without GDM, the lowest quartile of B12 and highest quartile of folate had significantly higher adjusted risk of fetal macrosomia (RR 5.3 (1.26, 21.91), p = 0.02 and 4.99 (1.15, 21.62), p = 0.03 respectively). Conclusion: This is the first study from the UK to show that maternal B12 levels are associated with BMI, risk of GDM, and additionally may have an independent effect on macrosomia. Due to the increasing burden of maternal obesity and GDM, longitudinal studies with B12 measurements in early pregnancy are needed to explore this link. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue B-Vitamins and One-Carbon Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle Relationship between Soft Drink Consumption and Obesity in 9–11 Years Old Children in a Multi-National Study
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 770; doi:10.3390/nu8120770
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 16 November 2016 / Accepted: 22 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the association between regular (sugar containing) and diet (artificially sweetened) soft drink consumption and obesity in children from 12 countries ranging in levels of economic and human development. The sample included 6162 children aged 9–11
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The purpose of this study was to determine the association between regular (sugar containing) and diet (artificially sweetened) soft drink consumption and obesity in children from 12 countries ranging in levels of economic and human development. The sample included 6162 children aged 9–11 years. Information on soft drink consumption was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. Percentage body fat (%BF) was estimated by bio-electrical impedance analysis, body mass index (BMI) z-scores were computed using World Health Organization reference data, and obesity was defined as a BMI > +2 standard deviations (SD). Multi-level models were used to investigate trends in BMI z-scores, %BF and obesity across categories of soft drink consumption. Age, sex, study site, parental education and physical activity were included as covariates. There was a significant linear trend in BMI z-scores across categories of consumption of regular soft drinks in boys (p = 0.049), but not in girls; there were no significant trends in %BF or obesity observed in either boys or girls. There was no significant linear trend across categories of diet soft drink consumption in boys, but there was a graded, positive association in girls for BMI z-score (p = 0.0002) and %BF (p = 0.0001). Further research is required to explore these associations using longitudinal research designs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sleep Duration and Chronic Fatigue Are Differently Associated with the Dietary Profile of Shift Workers
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 771; doi:10.3390/nu8120771
Received: 14 October 2016 / Revised: 18 November 2016 / Accepted: 23 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
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Abstract
Shift work has been associated with dietary changes. This study examined factors associated with the dietary profiles of shift workers from several industries (n = 118, 57 male; age = 43.4 ± 9.9 years) employed on permanent mornings, nights, or rotating 8-h
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Shift work has been associated with dietary changes. This study examined factors associated with the dietary profiles of shift workers from several industries (n = 118, 57 male; age = 43.4 ± 9.9 years) employed on permanent mornings, nights, or rotating 8-h or 12-h shifts. The dietary profile was assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Shift-related (e.g., sleep duration and fatigue), work-related (e.g., industry), and demographic factors (e.g., BMI) were measured using a modified version of the Standard Shift work Index. Mean daily energy intake was 8628 ± 3161 kJ. As a percentage of daily energy intake, all workers reported lower than recommended levels of carbohydrate (CHO, 45%–65%). Protein was within recommended levels (15%–25%). Permanent night workers were the only group to report higher than recommended fat intake (20%–35%). However, all workers reported higher than recommended levels of saturated fat (>10%) with those on permanent nights reporting significantly higher levels than other groups (Mean = 15.5% ± 3.1%, p < 0.05). Shorter sleep durations and decreased fatigue were associated with higher CHO intake (p ≤ 0.05) whereas increased fatigue and longer sleep durations were associated with higher intake of fat (p ≤ 0.05). Findings demonstrate sleep duration, fatigue, and shift schedule are associated with the dietary profile of shift workers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Selenium Supplementation on Glucose Homeostasis and the Expression of Genes Related to Glucose Metabolism
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 772; doi:10.3390/nu8120772
Received: 10 October 2016 / Revised: 15 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 13 December 2016
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Abstract
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of selenium supplementation on the expression of genes associated with glucose metabolism in humans, in order to explain the unclear relationship between selenium and the risk of diabetes. For gene expression analysis we
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The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of selenium supplementation on the expression of genes associated with glucose metabolism in humans, in order to explain the unclear relationship between selenium and the risk of diabetes. For gene expression analysis we used archival samples of cDNA from 76 non-diabetic subjects supplemented with selenium in the previous study. The supplementation period was six weeks and the daily dose of selenium was 200 µg (as selenium yeast). Blood for mRNA isolation was collected at four time points: before supplementation, after two and four weeks of supplementation, and after four weeks of washout. The analysis included 15 genes encoding selected proteins involved in insulin signaling and glucose metabolism. In addition, HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose were measured at three and four time points, respectively. Selenium supplementation was associated with a significantly decreased level of HbA1c but not fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and significant down-regulation of seven genes: INSR, ADIPOR1, LDHA, PDHA, PDHB, MYC, and HIF1AN. These results suggest that selenium may affect glycemic control at different levels of regulation, linked to insulin signaling, glycolysis, and pyruvate metabolism. Further research is needed to investigate mechanisms of such transcriptional regulation and its potential implication in direct metabolic effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes)
Open AccessArticle Associations of Vitamin D with Inter- and Intra-Muscular Adipose Tissue and Insulin Resistance in Women with and without Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 774; doi:10.3390/nu8120774
Received: 14 October 2016 / Revised: 9 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
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Abstract
Low vitamin D and insulin resistance are common in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and associated with higher inter- and intra-muscular adipose tissue (IMAT). We investigated associations between vitamin D, IMAT and insulin resistance in a cross-sectional study of 40 women with PCOS and
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Low vitamin D and insulin resistance are common in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and associated with higher inter- and intra-muscular adipose tissue (IMAT). We investigated associations between vitamin D, IMAT and insulin resistance in a cross-sectional study of 40 women with PCOS and 30 women without PCOS, and pre- and post-exercise in a 12-week intervention in 16 overweight participants (10 with PCOS and six without PCOS). A non-classical body mass index (BMI) threshold was used to differentiate lean and overweight women (BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2). Measurements included plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), insulin resistance (glucose infusion rate (GIR; mg/m2/min), fasting glucose and insulin, and glycated haemoglobin), visceral fat, mid-thigh IMAT (computed tomography) and total body fat (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Women with both PCOS and low 25OHD levels had the lowest GIR (all p < 0.05). Higher IMAT was associated with lower 25OHD (B = −3.95; 95% CI −6.86, −1.05) and GIR (B = −21.3; 95% CI −37.16, −5.44) in women with PCOS. Overweight women with pre-exercise 25OHD ≥30 nmol/L had significant increases in GIR, and decreases in total and visceral fat (all p < 0.044), but no associations were observed when stratified by PCOS status. Women with PCOS and low 25OHD levels have increased insulin resistance which may be partly explained by higher IMAT. Higher pre-training 25OHD levels may enhance exercise-induced changes in body composition and insulin resistance in overweight women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D: Current Issues and New Perspectives)
Open AccessArticle Vitamin D and Weight Cycling: Impact on Injury, Illness, and Inflammation in Collegiate Wrestlers
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 775; doi:10.3390/nu8120775
Received: 28 August 2016 / Revised: 26 October 2016 / Accepted: 18 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
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Abstract
This study explored the link between vitamin D status and frequency of skin infections, inflammation, and injury in college wrestlers during an academic year. Methods: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (n = 19), plasma cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10) (n = 18) concentrations,
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This study explored the link between vitamin D status and frequency of skin infections, inflammation, and injury in college wrestlers during an academic year. Methods: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (n = 19), plasma cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10) (n = 18) concentrations, and body weight/composition were measured and injury/illness/skin infection data were collected in fall, winter, and spring. Results: In the fall, 74% of wrestlers had vitamin D concentrations <32 ng/mL which increased to 94% in winter and spring. Wrestlers lost an average of 3.4 ± 3.9 kg (p < 0.001) during the season with corresponding decreases in fat mass and increases in lean mass (p < 0.01). An inverse association between 25(OH)D concentrations and total body mass and body fat percentage was observed at all-time points (p < 0.01). Concentrations of cytokines were highly variable among individuals and did not change across time (p > 0.05). Correlations between vitamin D status, cytokines, or frequency of illness, injury, or skin infections were not observed. Conclusions: A high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (<32 ng/mL) and deficiency (<20 ng/mL) was observed in wrestlers and was associated with higher adiposity. It remains unclear if higher vitamin D status would reduce injury, illness, and skin infection risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Health and Athletic Performance)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Pre-Pregnancy BMI on B Vitamin and Inflammatory Status in Early Pregnancy: An Observational Cohort Study
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 776; doi:10.3390/nu8120776
Received: 8 September 2016 / Revised: 25 November 2016 / Accepted: 28 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
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Abstract
Maternal nutrition and inflammation have been suggested as mediators in the development of various adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity. We have investigated the relation between pre-pregnancy BMI, B vitamin status, and inflammatory markers in a group of healthy pregnant women. Cobalamin,
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Maternal nutrition and inflammation have been suggested as mediators in the development of various adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity. We have investigated the relation between pre-pregnancy BMI, B vitamin status, and inflammatory markers in a group of healthy pregnant women. Cobalamin, folate, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, and riboflavin; and the metabolic markers homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, and 3-hydroxykynurenine/xanthurenic acid ratio (HK/XA); and markers of cellular inflammation, neopterin and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR) were determined in pregnancy week 18 and related to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), in 2797 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely related to folate, cobalamin, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP), and riboflavin (p < 0.001), and associated with increased neopterin and KTR levels (p < 0.001). Inflammation seemed to be an independent predictor of low vitamin B6 status, as verified by low PLP and high HK/XA ratio. A high pre-pregnancy BMI is a risk factor for low B vitamin status and increased cellular inflammation. As an optimal micronutrient status is vital for normal fetal development, the observed lower B vitamin levels may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity and B vitamin status should be assessed in women with high BMI before they get pregnant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue B-Vitamins and One-Carbon Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle Validation of Folate-Enriched Eggs as a Functional Food for Improving Folate Intake in Consumers
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 777; doi:10.3390/nu8120777
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 15 November 2016 / Accepted: 26 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
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Abstract
Functional foods enriched with folate may be beneficial as a means of optimizing folate status in consumers. We recently developed novel eggs enriched with folate through folic acid supplementation of the hen’s feed, but their potential to influence consumer folate status is unknown
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Functional foods enriched with folate may be beneficial as a means of optimizing folate status in consumers. We recently developed novel eggs enriched with folate through folic acid supplementation of the hen’s feed, but their potential to influence consumer folate status is unknown because the natural folate forms incorporated into the eggs may not necessarily be retained during storage and cooking. This study aimed to determine the stability of natural folates in folate-enriched eggs under typical conditions of storage and cooking. Total folate was determined by microbiological assay following tri-enzyme treatment in folate-enriched eggs and un-enriched (barn and free-range) on the day they were laid, after storage (up to 27 days) and after using four typical cooking methods (boiling, poaching, frying, scrambling) for different durations. On the day of laying, the folate content of enriched eggs was found to be significantly higher than that of un-enriched barn or free-range eggs (mean ± SD; 123.2 ± 12.4 vs. 41.2 ± 2.8 vs. 65.6 ± 18.5 µg/100 g; p < 0.001). Storage at refrigerator and room temperature for periods up to the Best Before date resulted in no significant losses to the folate content of folate-enriched eggs. Furthermore, folate in enriched eggs remained stable when cooked by four typical methods for periods up to the maximum cooking time (e.g., 135 ± 22.5, 133.9 ± 23.0 and 132.5 ± 35.1; p = 0.73, for raw, scrambled for 50 s and scrambled for 2 min, respectively). Thus, natural folates in folate-enriched eggs remain highly stable with little or no losses following storage and cooking. These findings are important because they demonstrate the feasibility of introducing folate-enriched eggs into the diet of consumers as functional foods with enriched folate content. Further studies will confirm their effectiveness in optimizing the biomarker folate status of consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue B-Vitamins and One-Carbon Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle Compliance with WHO IYCF Indicators and Dietary Intake Adequacy in a Sample of Malaysian Infants Aged 6–23 Months
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 778; doi:10.3390/nu8120778
Received: 3 October 2016 / Revised: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 1 December 2016
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Abstract
Background: The 2010 World Health Organisation (WHO) Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators are useful for monitoring feeding practices. Methods: A total sample of 300 subjects aged 6 to 23 months was recruited from urban suburbs of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. Compliance
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Background: The 2010 World Health Organisation (WHO) Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators are useful for monitoring feeding practices. Methods: A total sample of 300 subjects aged 6 to 23 months was recruited from urban suburbs of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. Compliance with each IYCF indicator was computed according to WHO recommendations. Dietary intake based on two-day weighed food records was obtained from a sub-group (N = 119) of the total sample. The mean adequacy ratio (MAR) value was computed as an overall measure of dietary intake adequacy. Contributions of core IYCF indicators to MAR were determined by multinomial logistic regression. Results: Generally, the subjects showed high compliance for (i) timely introduction of complementary foods at 6 to 8 months (97.9%); (ii) minimum meal frequency among non-breastfed children aged 6 to 23 months (95.2%); (iii) consumption of iron-rich foods at 6 to 23 months (92.3%); and minimum dietary diversity (78.0%). While relatively high proportions achieved the recommended intake levels for protein (87.4%) and iron (71.4%), lower proportions attained the recommendations for calcium (56.3%) and energy (56.3%). The intake of micronutrients was generally poor. The minimum dietary diversity had the greatest contribution to MAR (95% CI: 3.09, 39.87) (p = 0.000) among the core IYCF indicators. Conclusion: Malaysian urban infants and toddlers showed moderate to high compliance with WHO IYCF indicators. The robustness of the analytical approach in this study in quantifying contributions of IYCF indicators to MAR should be further investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients in Infancy)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Interaction between Dietary Fiber and Fat and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 779; doi:10.3390/nu8120779
Received: 1 November 2016 / Revised: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
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Abstract
Combined intakes of specific dietary fiber and fat subtypes protect against colon cancer in animal models. We evaluated associations between self-reported individual and combinations of fiber (insoluble, soluble, and pectins, specifically) and fat (omega-6, omega-3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA),
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Combined intakes of specific dietary fiber and fat subtypes protect against colon cancer in animal models. We evaluated associations between self-reported individual and combinations of fiber (insoluble, soluble, and pectins, specifically) and fat (omega-6, omega-3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), specifically) and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in the Women’s Health Initiative prospective cohort (n = 134,017). During a mean 11.7 years (1993–2010), 1952 incident CRC cases were identified. Cox regression models computed multivariate adjusted hazard ratios to estimate the association between dietary factors and CRC risk. Assessing fiber and fat individually, there was a modest trend for lower CRC risk with increasing intakes of total and insoluble fiber (p-trend 0.09 and 0.08). An interaction (p = 0.01) was observed between soluble fiber and DHA + EPA, with protective effects of DHA + EPA with lower intakes of soluble fiber and an attenuation at higher intakes, however this association was no longer significant after correction for multiple testing. These results suggest a modest protective effect of higher fiber intake on CRC risk, but not in combination with dietary fat subtypes. Given the robust results in preclinical models and mixed results in observational studies, controlled dietary interventions with standardized intakes are needed to better understand the interaction of specific fat and fiber subtypes on colon biology and ultimately CRC susceptibility in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibers and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease Are Associated with Decreased Serum Selenium Concentrations and Increased Cardiovascular Risk
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 780; doi:10.3390/nu8120780
Received: 26 October 2016 / Revised: 9 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 1 December 2016
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Abstract
The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and associated oxidative stress is increasing. The antioxidant mineral selenium (Se) was measured in serum samples from 106 IBD patients (53 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 53 with Crohn’s disease (CD)) and from 30 healthy controls.
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The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and associated oxidative stress is increasing. The antioxidant mineral selenium (Se) was measured in serum samples from 106 IBD patients (53 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 53 with Crohn’s disease (CD)) and from 30 healthy controls. Serum Se concentrations were significantly lower in UC and CD patients than in healthy controls (p < 0.001) and significantly lower in CD patients than in UC patients (p = 0.006). Se concentrations in patients were significantly influenced by sex, body mass index (BMI), the inflammatory biomarker α-1-antitrypsin, surgery, medical treatment, the severity, extent, and form of the disease and the length of time since onset (p < 0.05). Se concentrations in IBD patients were positively and linearly correlated with nutritional (protein, albumin, prealbumin, cholinesterase and total cholesterol) and iron status-related (hemoglobin, Fe and hematocrit) parameters (p < 0.05). A greater impairment of serum Se and cardiovascular status was observed in CD than in UC patients. An adequate nutritional Se status is important in IBD patients to minimize the cardiovascular risk associated with increased inflammation biomarkers, especially in undernourished CD patients, and is also related to an improved nutritional and body iron status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet in IBD)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Site-Specific Bone Mineral Densities between Endurance Runners and Sprinters in Adolescent Women
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 781; doi:10.3390/nu8120781
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 17 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
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Abstract
We aimed to compare site-specific bone mineral densities (BMDs) between adolescent endurance runners and sprinters and examine the relationship of fat-free mass (FFM) and nutrient intake on BMD. In this cross-sectional study, 37 adolescent female endurance runners and sprinters (16.1 ± 0.8 years)
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We aimed to compare site-specific bone mineral densities (BMDs) between adolescent endurance runners and sprinters and examine the relationship of fat-free mass (FFM) and nutrient intake on BMD. In this cross-sectional study, 37 adolescent female endurance runners and sprinters (16.1 ± 0.8 years) were recruited. BMD and FFM were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Nutrient intake and menstrual state were evaluated by questionnaires. After adjusting for covariates, spine and total bone less head (TBLH) BMDs were significantly higher in sprinters than endurance runners (TBLH, 1.02 ± 0.05 vs. 0.98 ± 0.06 g/cm2; spine, 0.99 ± 0.06 vs. 0.94 ± 0.06 g/cm2; p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between groups in other sites. The rate of menstrual abnormality was higher in endurance runners compared with sprinters (56.3% vs. 23.8%; p < 0.05). FFM was a significant covariate for BMD on all sites except the spine (p < 0.05). Dietary intake of vitamin D was identified as a significant covariate only for pelvic BMD (p < 0.05). The BMDs of different sites among endurance runners and sprinters were strongly related to FFM. However, the association of FFM with spine BMD cannot be explained by FFM alone. Other factors, including nutrition and/or mechanical loading, may affect the spine BMD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Health and Athletic Performance)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Compound Chrysin Inhibits Retinal Neovascularization with Abnormal Capillaries in db/db Mice
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 782; doi:10.3390/nu8120782
Received: 18 October 2016 / Revised: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 28 November 2016 / Published: 3 December 2016
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Abstract
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) develops in a significant proportion of patients with chronic diabetes, characterized by retinal macular edema and abnormal retinal vessel outgrowth leading to vision loss. Chrysin, a naturally-occurring flavonoid found in herb and honeycomb, has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer properties. This
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Diabetic retinopathy (DR) develops in a significant proportion of patients with chronic diabetes, characterized by retinal macular edema and abnormal retinal vessel outgrowth leading to vision loss. Chrysin, a naturally-occurring flavonoid found in herb and honeycomb, has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer properties. This study sought to determine the protective effects of chrysin on retinal neovascularization with abnormal vessels and blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown in 33 mM glucose-exposed human retinal endothelial cells and in db/db mouse eyes. High glucose caused retinal endothelial apoptotic injury, which was inhibited by submicromolar chrysin. This compound diminished the enhanced induction of HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) in high glucose-exposed retinal endothelial cells. Consistently, oral administration of 10 mg/kg chrysin reduced the induction of these proteins in db/db mouse eye tissues. In addition, chrysin restored the decrement of VE-cadherin and ZO-1 junction proteins and PECAM-1 in hyperglycemia-stimulated retinal endothelial cells and diabetic mouse retina, possibly maintaining tight cell-cell interactions of endothelial cells and pericytes. Anti-apoptotic chrysin reduced the up-regulation of Ang-1, Ang-2, and Tie-2 crucial to retinal capillary occlusion and BRB permeability. Furthermore, orally treating chrysin inhibited acellular capillary formation, neovascularization, and vascular leakage observed in diabetic retinas. These observations demonstrate, for the first time, that chrysin had a capability to encumber diabetes-associated retinal neovascularization with microvascular abnormalities and BRB breakdown. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Potential of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 in Protecting against Aluminum Toxicity Mediated by Intestinal Barrier Function and Oxidative Stress
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 783; doi:10.3390/nu8120783
Received: 18 October 2016 / Revised: 18 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 2 December 2016
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Abstract
Aluminum (Al) is a ubiquitous metal that can seriously harm the health of animals and humans. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 can decrease Al burden in the tissues of mice by inhibiting intestinal Al absorption. The main aim
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Aluminum (Al) is a ubiquitous metal that can seriously harm the health of animals and humans. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 can decrease Al burden in the tissues of mice by inhibiting intestinal Al absorption. The main aim of the present research was to investigate whether the protection by the strain is also associated with enhancement of the intestinal barrier, alleviation of oxidative stress and modulation of the inflammatory response. In an in vitro cell model, two protection modes (intervention and therapy) were examined and the results indicated that L. plantarum CCFM639 alleviated Al-induced cytotoxicity. In a mouse model, L. plantarum CCFM639 treatment was found to significantly alleviate oxidative stress in the intestinal tract, regulate the function of the intestinal mucosal immune system, restore the integrity of tight junction proteins and maintain intestinal permeability. These results suggest that in addition to Al sequestration, L. plantarum CCFM639 can also inhibit Al absorption by protecting the intestinal barrier, alleviating Al-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Therefore, L. plantarum CCFM639 has the potential to be a dietary supplement ingredient that provides protection against Al-induced gut injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet in IBD)
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Open AccessArticle Do Health Claims and Front-of-Pack Labels Lead to a Positivity Bias in Unhealthy Foods?
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 787; doi:10.3390/nu8120787
Received: 16 August 2016 / Revised: 15 November 2016 / Accepted: 28 November 2016 / Published: 2 December 2016
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Abstract
Health claims and front-of-pack labels (FoPLs) may lead consumers to hold more positive attitudes and show a greater willingness to buy food products, regardless of their actual healthiness. A potential negative consequence of this positivity bias is the increased consumption of unhealthy foods.
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Health claims and front-of-pack labels (FoPLs) may lead consumers to hold more positive attitudes and show a greater willingness to buy food products, regardless of their actual healthiness. A potential negative consequence of this positivity bias is the increased consumption of unhealthy foods. This study investigated whether a positivity bias would occur in unhealthy variations of four products (cookies, corn flakes, pizzas and yoghurts) that featured different health claim conditions (no claim, nutrient claim, general level health claim, and higher level health claim) and FoPL conditions (no FoPL, the Daily Intake Guide (DIG), Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL), and the Health Star Rating (HSR)). Positivity bias was assessed via measures of perceived healthiness, global evaluations (incorporating taste, quality, convenience, etc.) and willingness to buy. On the whole, health claims did not produce a positivity bias, while FoPLs did, with the DIG being the most likely to elicit this bias. The HSR most frequently led to lower ratings of unhealthy foods than the DIG and MTL, suggesting that this FoPL has the lowest risk of creating an inaccurate positivity bias in unhealthy foods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of Health Behaviours in Childhood on Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescence
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 788; doi:10.3390/nu8120788
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 2 December 2016
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Abstract
Attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents is a global public health burden. Identification of health-related behavioral risk factors including diet quality and physical and sedentary activities for ADHD is important for prioritizing behavioral intervention strategies to improve mental health. This
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Attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents is a global public health burden. Identification of health-related behavioral risk factors including diet quality and physical and sedentary activities for ADHD is important for prioritizing behavioral intervention strategies to improve mental health. This study aimed to examine the association of diet quality, physical activity, and sedentary behaviours in childhood with ADHD throughout adolescence. We linked data from grade five students aged primarily 10 and 11 years old who participated in a population-based lifestyle survey in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia with their administrative health care data. We applied negative binomial regression methods to examine the associations between health behaviours and ADHD. Of the 4875 students, 9.7% had one or more diagnoses of ADHD between the ages of 10/11 and 18 years. The number of primary diagnoses with ADHD was statistically significantly lower among students with better diet quality, higher levels of physical activity, and those that spent less time playing computers and video games (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that health promotion programs aiming to improve children’s diets and active lifestyles may also reduce the public health burden of ADHD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Mental Health)
Open AccessArticle Vitamin D Status and Efficacy of Vitamin D Supplementation in Atopic Dermatitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 789; doi:10.3390/nu8120789
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 10 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 3 December 2016
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Abstract
Recent literature has highlighted the possible role of vitamin D in atopic dermatitis (AD), and that vitamin D supplementation might help to treat AD. This study determined the relationship between vitamin D level and AD, and assessed the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation.
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Recent literature has highlighted the possible role of vitamin D in atopic dermatitis (AD), and that vitamin D supplementation might help to treat AD. This study determined the relationship between vitamin D level and AD, and assessed the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases up to May 2015. Observational studies and randomized controlled trials were included based on the available data on the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level and quantified data available for severity assessed using the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index or Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) score. Compared with healthy controls, the serum 25(OH)D level was lower in the AD patients of all ages (standardized mean difference = −2.03 ng/mL; 95% confidence interval (CI) = −2.52 to −0.78), and predominantly in the pediatric AD patients (standardized mean difference = −3.03 ng/mL; 95% CI = −4.76 to −1.29). In addition, the SCORAD index and EASI score decreased after vitamin D supplementation (standardized mean difference = −5.85; 95% CI = −7.66 to −4.05). This meta-analysis showed that serum vitamin D level was lower in the AD patients and vitamin D supplementation could be a new therapeutic option for AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D: Current Issues and New Perspectives)
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Open AccessArticle Xylobiose, an Alternative Sweetener, Ameliorates Diabetes-Related Metabolic Changes by Regulating Hepatic Lipogenesis and miR-122a/33a in db/db Mice
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 791; doi:10.3390/nu8120791
Received: 4 September 2016 / Revised: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 5 December 2016
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Abstract
Type 2 diabetes is a major public health concern worldwide. Xylobiose (XB) consists of two molecules of d-xylose and is a major disaccharide in xylooligosaccharides that are used as prebiotics. We hypothesized that XB could regulate diabetes-related metabolic and genetic changes via
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Type 2 diabetes is a major public health concern worldwide. Xylobiose (XB) consists of two molecules of d-xylose and is a major disaccharide in xylooligosaccharides that are used as prebiotics. We hypothesized that XB could regulate diabetes-related metabolic and genetic changes via microRNA expression in db/db mice. For six weeks, C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice received 5% XB as part of the total sucrose content of their diet. XB supplementation improved glucose tolerance with reduced levels of OGTT AUC, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Furthermore, XB supplementation decreased the levels of total triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL-C. The expression levels of miR-122a and miR-33a were higher and lower in the XB group, respectively. In the liver, expressions of the lipogenic genes, including, fatty acid synthase (FAS), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1C (SREBP-1C), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), ATP-binding cassette transporter G5/G8 (ABCG5/8), cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), and sterol 12-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP8B1), as well as oxidative stress markers, including superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase, were also regulated by XB supplementation. XB supplementation inhibited the mRNA expressions levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, interleukin (IL)-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, as well as phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). These data demonstrate that XB exhibits anti-diabetic, hypolipogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects via regulation of the miR-122a/33a axis in db/db mice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Exercise and Beta-Glucan Consumption (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Improve the Metabolic Profile and Reduce the Atherogenic Index in Type 2 Diabetic Rats (HFD/STZ)
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 792; doi:10.3390/nu8120792
Received: 22 September 2016 / Revised: 24 November 2016 / Accepted: 29 November 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
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Abstract
Physical activity and the ingestion of dietary fiber are non-drug alternatives commonly used as adjuvants to glycemic control in diabetic individuals. Among these fibers, we can highlight beta-glucans. However, few studies have compared isolated and synergic effects of physical exercise and beta-glucan ingestion,
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Physical activity and the ingestion of dietary fiber are non-drug alternatives commonly used as adjuvants to glycemic control in diabetic individuals. Among these fibers, we can highlight beta-glucans. However, few studies have compared isolated and synergic effects of physical exercise and beta-glucan ingestion, especially in type 2 diabetic rats. Therefore, we evaluated the effects beta-glucan (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) consumption, associated or not to exercise, on metabolic parameters of diabetic Wistar rats. The diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) associated with a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ—35 mg/kg). Trained groups were submitted to eight weeks of exercise in aquatic environment. In the last 28 days of experiment, animals received 30 mg/kg/day of beta-glucan by gavage. Isolated use of beta-glucan decreased glucose levels in fasting, Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglycerides (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), the atherogenic index of plasma. Exercise alone also decreased blood glucose levels, HbA1c, and renal lesions. An additive effect for reducing the atherogenic index of plasma and renal lesions was observed when both treatments were combined. It was concluded that both beta-glucan and exercise improved metabolic parameters in type 2 (HFD/STZ) diabetic rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibers and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Polymorphism of the Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Gene (TCF7L2) Interacts with Obesity on Type-2 Diabetes in the PREDIMED Study Emphasizing the Heterogeneity of Genetic Variants in Type-2 Diabetes Risk Prediction: Time for Obesity-Specific Genetic Risk Scores
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 793; doi:10.3390/nu8120793
Received: 23 September 2016 / Revised: 17 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 6 December 2016
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Abstract
Nutrigenetic studies analyzing gene–diet interactions of the TCF7L2-rs7903146 C > T polymorphism on type-2 diabetes (T2D) have shown controversial results. A reason contributing to this may be the additional modulation by obesity. Moreover, TCF7L2-rs7903146 is one of the most influential variants in T2D-genetic
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Nutrigenetic studies analyzing gene–diet interactions of the TCF7L2-rs7903146 C > T polymorphism on type-2 diabetes (T2D) have shown controversial results. A reason contributing to this may be the additional modulation by obesity. Moreover, TCF7L2-rs7903146 is one of the most influential variants in T2D-genetic risk scores (GRS). Therefore, to increase the predictive value (PV) of GRS it is necessary to first see whether the included polymorphisms have heterogeneous effects. We comprehensively investigated gene-obesity interactions between the TCF7L2-rs7903146 C > T polymorphism on T2D (prevalence and incidence) and analyzed other T2D-polymorphisms in a sub-sample. We studied 7018 PREDIMED participants at baseline and longitudinally (8.7 years maximum follow-up). Obesity significantly interacted with the TCF7L2-rs7903146 on T2D prevalence, associations being greater in non-obese subjects. Accordingly, we prospectively observed in non-T2D subjects (n = 3607) that its association with T2D incidence was stronger in non-obese (HR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.13–2.92, p = 0.013 for TT versus CC) than in obese subjects (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.61–1.66; p = 0.979; p-interaction = 0.048). Accordingly, TCF7L2-PV was higher in non-obese subjects. Additionally, we created obesity-specific GRS with ten T2D-polymorphisms and demonstrated for the first time their higher strata-specific PV. In conclusion, we provide strong evidence supporting the need for considering obesity when analyzing the TCF7L2 effects and propose the use of obesity-specific GRS for T2D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics)
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Open AccessArticle Maternal Vitamin D Status and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Children from Rural Western Kenya
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 794; doi:10.3390/nu8120794
Received: 9 July 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 7 December 2016
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Abstract
Maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status and its association with pregnancy outcomes in malaria holoendemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa is poorly defined. We examined this association and any potential interaction with malaria and helminth infections in an ongoing pregnancy cohort study in Kenya.
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Maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status and its association with pregnancy outcomes in malaria holoendemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa is poorly defined. We examined this association and any potential interaction with malaria and helminth infections in an ongoing pregnancy cohort study in Kenya. The association of maternal plasma 25(OH)D status with pregnancy outcomes and infant anthropometric measurements at birth was determined in a subset of women (n = 63). Binomial and linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between maternal plasma 25(OH)D and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Fifty-one percent of the women had insufficient (<75 nmol/L) and 21% had deficient (<50 nmol/L) plasma 25(OH)D concentration at enrollment. At birth, 74.4% of the infants had insufficient and 30% had deficient plasma 25(OH)D concentrations, measured in cord blood. Multivariate analysis controlling for maternal age and body mass index (BMI) at enrollment and gestational age at delivery found that deficient plasma 25(OH)D levels were associated with a four-fold higher risk of stunting in neonates (p = 0.04). These findings add to the existing literature about vitamin D and its association with linear growth in resource-limited settings, though randomized clinical trials are needed to establish causation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D: Current Issues and New Perspectives)
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Open AccessArticle The Sweetener-Sensing Mechanisms of the Ghrelin Cell
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 795; doi:10.3390/nu8120795
Received: 12 October 2016 / Revised: 21 November 2016 / Accepted: 28 November 2016 / Published: 7 December 2016
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Abstract
Carbohydrate administration decreases plasma levels of the ‘hunger hormone’ ghrelin. The ghrelin cell is co-localized with the sweet taste receptor subunit, TAS1R3, and the gustatory G-protein, gustducin, both involved in the sensing of sweeteners by entero-endocrine cells. This study investigated the role of
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Carbohydrate administration decreases plasma levels of the ‘hunger hormone’ ghrelin. The ghrelin cell is co-localized with the sweet taste receptor subunit, TAS1R3, and the gustatory G-protein, gustducin, both involved in the sensing of sweeteners by entero-endocrine cells. This study investigated the role of gustducin-mediated sweet taste receptor signaling on ghrelin secretion in a gastric ghrelinoma cell line, tissue segments and mice. The monosaccharide d-glucose and low-intensity sweetener oligofructose (OFS) decreased (p < 0.001) ghrelin secretion while the high-intensity sweetener sucralose increased (p < 0.001) ghrelin secretion in vitro. These effects were not mediated via the sweet taste receptor or glucose transporters (the sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter SGLT-1 and GLUT2). The effect of these compounds was mimicked ex vivo in gastric and jejunal segments from both wild type (WT) and α-gustducin knockout (α-gust−/−) mice. In vivo, the sensing of d-glucose was polarized since intragastric but not intravenous administration of d-glucose decreased (p < 0.05) ghrelin levels in an α-gustducin independent manner which involved inhibition of duodenal ghrelin release. In contrast, neither OFS nor sucralose affected ghrelin secretion in vivo. In conclusion, α-gustducin-mediated sweet taste receptor signaling does not play a functional role in the sensing of carbohydrates, or low- or high-intensity sweeteners by the ghrelin cell. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Prospective Study on Serum Methylmalonic Acid and Homocysteine in Pregnant Women
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 797; doi:10.3390/nu8120797
Received: 12 September 2016 / Revised: 15 November 2016 / Accepted: 2 December 2016 / Published: 8 December 2016
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Abstract
This study aimed to investigate serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) and homocysteine levels and to assess their effects on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Serum MMA and homocysteine levels in 278 pregnant Korean women, determined by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry in each trimester, were compared
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This study aimed to investigate serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) and homocysteine levels and to assess their effects on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Serum MMA and homocysteine levels in 278 pregnant Korean women, determined by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry in each trimester, were compared with those of previous studies in other ethnic groups. We investigated the association between MMA and homocysteine status with pregnancy and neonatal events: gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, gestational age at delivery, preterm birth, small for gestational age, neonatal birth weight, and congenital abnormalities. The median (range) MMA level was 0.142 (0.063–0.446) µmol/L and homocysteine level was 10.6 (4.4–38.0) µmol/L in pregnant women. MMA levels were significantly higher in the third trimester than during other trimesters (p < 0.05), while homocysteine levels were not. No significant association was observed between MMA or homocysteine levels and any of the maternal or neonatal outcomes examined. Future studies are needed to assess the associations among maternal serum concentrations of MMA and homocysteine, and maternal and neonatal outcomes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Regressive Effect of Myricetin on Hepatic Steatosis in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 799; doi:10.3390/nu8120799
Received: 9 October 2016 / Revised: 4 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 11 December 2016
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Abstract
Myricetin is an effective antioxidant in the treatment of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders. The objective of this study was to explore the regressive effect of myricetin on pre-existing hepatic steatosis induced by high-fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard
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Myricetin is an effective antioxidant in the treatment of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders. The objective of this study was to explore the regressive effect of myricetin on pre-existing hepatic steatosis induced by high-fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard diet or a HFD for 12 weeks and then half of the mice were treated with myricetin (0.12% in the diet, w/w) while on their respective diets for further 12 weeks. Myricetin treatment significantly alleviated HFD-induced steatosis, decreased hepatic lipid accumulation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels, and increased antioxidative enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Microarray analysis of hepatic gene expression profiles showed that myricetin significantly altered the expression profiles of 177 genes which were involved in 12 biological pathways, including the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway and peroxisome. Further research indicated that myricetin elevated hepatic nuclear Nrf2 translocation, increased the protein expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1), reduced the protein expression of PPARγ, and normalized the expressions of genes that were involved in peroxisome and the PPAR signaling pathway. Our data indicated that myricetin might represent an effective therapeutic agent to treat HFD-induced hepatic steatosis via activating the Nrf2 pathway and the PPAR signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview Potential Links between Impaired One-Carbon Metabolism Due to Polymorphisms, Inadequate B-Vitamin Status, and the Development of Alzheimer’s Disease
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 803; doi:10.3390/nu8120803
Received: 28 September 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 7 December 2016 / Published: 10 December 2016
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Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the major cause of dementia and no preventive or effective treatment has been established to date. The etiology of AD is poorly understood, but genetic and environmental factors seem to play a role in its onset and progression. In
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the major cause of dementia and no preventive or effective treatment has been established to date. The etiology of AD is poorly understood, but genetic and environmental factors seem to play a role in its onset and progression. In particular, factors affecting the one-carbon metabolism (OCM) are thought to be important and elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels, indicating impaired OCM, have been associated with AD. We aimed at evaluating the role of polymorphisms of key OCM enzymes in the etiology of AD, particularly when intakes of relevant B-vitamins are inadequate. Our review indicates that a range of compensatory mechanisms exist to maintain a metabolic balance. However, these become overwhelmed if the activity of more than one enzyme is reduced due to genetic factors or insufficient folate, riboflavin, vitamin B6 and/or vitamin B12 levels. Consequences include increased Hcy levels and reduced capacity to synthetize, methylate and repair DNA, and/or modulated neurotransmission. This seems to favor the development of hallmarks of AD particularly when combined with increased oxidative stress e.g., in apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 carriers. However, as these effects can be compensated at least partially by adequate intakes of B-vitamins, achieving optimal B-vitamin status for the general population should be a public health priority. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue B-Vitamins and One-Carbon Metabolism)
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Open AccessReview Enzymatic Metabolism of Vitamin A in Developing Vertebrate Embryos
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 812; doi:10.3390/nu8120812
Received: 3 November 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
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Abstract
Embryonic development is orchestrated by a small number of signaling pathways, one of which is the retinoic acid (RA) signaling pathway. Vitamin A is essential for vertebrate embryonic development because it is the molecular precursor of the essential signaling molecule RA. The level
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Embryonic development is orchestrated by a small number of signaling pathways, one of which is the retinoic acid (RA) signaling pathway. Vitamin A is essential for vertebrate embryonic development because it is the molecular precursor of the essential signaling molecule RA. The level and distribution of RA signaling within a developing embryo must be tightly regulated; too much, or too little, or abnormal distribution, all disrupt embryonic development. Precise regulation of RA signaling during embryogenesis is achieved by proteins involved in vitamin A metabolism, retinoid transport, nuclear signaling, and RA catabolism. The reversible first step in conversion of the precursor vitamin A to the active retinoid RA is mediated by retinol dehydrogenase 10 (RDH10) and dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 3 (DHRS3), two related membrane-bound proteins that functionally activate each other to mediate the interconversion of retinol and retinal. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzymes do not contribute to RA production under normal conditions during embryogenesis. Genes involved in vitamin A metabolism and RA catabolism are expressed in tissue-specific patterns and are subject to feedback regulation. Mutations in genes encoding these proteins disrupt morphogenesis of many systems in a developing embryo. Together these observations demonstrate the importance of vitamin A metabolism in regulating RA signaling during embryonic development in vertebrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A Update 2016)
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Open AccessReview The Effect of Using Mobile Technology-Based Methods That Record Food or Nutrient Intake on Diabetes Control and Nutrition Outcomes: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 815; doi:10.3390/nu8120815
Received: 30 November 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
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Abstract
(1) Background: Mobile technologies may be utilised for dietary intake assessment for people with diabetes. The published literature was systematically reviewed to determine the effect of using mobile electronic devices to record food or nutrient intake on diabetes control and nutrition outcomes; (2)
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(1) Background: Mobile technologies may be utilised for dietary intake assessment for people with diabetes. The published literature was systematically reviewed to determine the effect of using mobile electronic devices to record food or nutrient intake on diabetes control and nutrition outcomes; (2) Methods: The review protocol was registered with PROSPERO: registration number CRD42016050079, and followed PRISMA guidelines. Original research of mobile electronic devices where food or nutrient intake was recorded in people with diabetes with any treatment regimen, and where this intervention was compared with usual care or alternative treatment models, was considered. Quality was assessed using the Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research; (3) Results: Nine papers formed the final library with a range of interventions and control practices investigated. The food/nutrient intake recording component of the intervention and patient engagement with the technology was not well described. When assessed for quality, three studies rated positive, five were neutral and one negative. There was significantly greater improvement in HbA1c in the intervention group compared to the control group in four of the nine studies; (4) Conclusion: Based on the available evidence there are no clear recommendations for using technology to record dietary data in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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Open AccessReview Meta-Analysis of Milk Consumption and the Risk of Cognitive Disorders
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 824; doi:10.3390/nu8120824
Received: 10 November 2016 / Revised: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
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Abstract
The association between milk intake and cognitive disorders has been investigated in several epidemiological studies, but the findings are still conflicting. No quantitative assessment has been performed to evaluate the potential relationship of milk intake and cognitive disorders. From the inception to October
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The association between milk intake and cognitive disorders has been investigated in several epidemiological studies, but the findings are still conflicting. No quantitative assessment has been performed to evaluate the potential relationship of milk intake and cognitive disorders. From the inception to October 2016, the PubMed and the Embase databases were searched for observational studies reporting the association of milk consumption and cognitive disorders (Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, and cognitive decline/impairment). A generic inverse-variance random-effects method was used to pool the Odds Ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the highest compared with the lowest level of milk intake. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were used to assess the heterogeneity between subgroups. We identified seven articles involving a total of 10,941 participants. The highest level of milk consumption was significantly associated with a decreased risk of cognitive disorders, and the pooled OR (95% CI) was 0.72 (0.56, 0.93), with evidence of significant heterogeneity (I2 = 64%, p = 0.001). Subgroup analysis indicated that the association was more pronounced in ischemic stroke patients based on a single study. Furthermore, the inverse association between milk intake and cognitive disorders was limited to Asian subjects, and the African populations showed an intermediate non-significant trend. Although we have obtained a significant association, an established relationship cannot be drawn due to the study limitation. Large prospective studies are needed to quantify the potential dose-response patterns of milk intake and to explore the association in populations with different characteristics. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Use of Enteral Nutrition in the Management of Stroke
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 827; doi:10.3390/nu8120827
Received: 25 October 2016 / Revised: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
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Abstract
This article discusses the use of enteral nutrition in the management of stroke. Stroke is a major source of disability, including dysphagia. The clinical manifestation of swallowing difficulties in stroke patients may lead to malnutrition which has implications for health status and clinical
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This article discusses the use of enteral nutrition in the management of stroke. Stroke is a major source of disability, including dysphagia. The clinical manifestation of swallowing difficulties in stroke patients may lead to malnutrition which has implications for health status and clinical outcomes including morbidity, mortality and cost to the health service. The prevalence of malnutrition following an acute stroke could range from 8% to 34%. Therefore, the need to develop and implement the use of enteral nutrition support in stroke patients becomes pertinent. A range of enteral feeding tubes and feeding methods may be used to support stroke patients who are unable to meet their nutritional requirements through oral intake alone, although each of these approaches has its merits and limitations. Based on this review, there is evidence that enteral nutrition support is a useful method of providing nutrition for patients with dysphagia following a stroke in order to enhance their nutritional status and promote their health. However, there are challenges in the use of enteral tube feeding in these patients. Full article
Open AccessReview Antioxidants and Dementia Risk: Consideration through a Cerebrovascular Perspective
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 828; doi:10.3390/nu8120828
Received: 15 November 2016 / Revised: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
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Abstract
A number of natural and chemical compounds that exert anti-oxidative properties are demonstrated to be beneficial for brain and cognitive function, and some are reported to reduce the risk of dementia. However, the detailed mechanisms by which those anti-oxidative compounds show positive effects
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A number of natural and chemical compounds that exert anti-oxidative properties are demonstrated to be beneficial for brain and cognitive function, and some are reported to reduce the risk of dementia. However, the detailed mechanisms by which those anti-oxidative compounds show positive effects on cognition and dementia are still unclear. An emerging body of evidence suggests that the integrity of the cerebrovascular blood-brain barrier (BBB) is centrally involved in the onset and progression of cognitive impairment and dementia. While recent studies revealed that some anti-oxidative agents appear to be protective against the disruption of BBB integrity and structure, few studies considered the neuroprotective effects of antioxidants in the context of cerebrovascular integrity. Therefore, in this review, we examine the mechanistic insights of antioxidants as a pleiotropic agent for cognitive impairment and dementia through a cerebrovascular axis by primarily focusing on the current available data from physiological studies. Conclusively, there is a compelling body of evidence that suggest antioxidants may prevent cognitive decline and dementia by protecting the integrity and function of BBB and, indeed, further studies are needed to directly examine these effects in addition to underlying molecular mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview Effects of Hazelnut Consumption on Blood Lipids and Body Weight: A Systematic Review and Bayesian Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 747; doi:10.3390/nu8120747
Received: 6 October 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 25 November 2016
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Abstract
Hazelnuts are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant bioactive substances: their consumption has been associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease events. A systematic review and a meta-analysis was performed to combine the results from several trials and to estimate the
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Hazelnuts are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant bioactive substances: their consumption has been associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease events. A systematic review and a meta-analysis was performed to combine the results from several trials and to estimate the pooled (overall) effect of hazelnuts on blood lipids and body weight outcomes. Specifically, a Bayesian random effect meta-analysis of mean differences of Δ-changes from baseline across treatment (MDΔ) (i.e., hazelnut-enriched diet vs. control diet) has been conducted. Nine studies representing 425 participants were included in the analysis. The intervention diet lasted 28–84 days with a dosage of hazelnuts ranging from 29 to 69 g/day. Out of nine studies, three randomized studies have been meta-analyzed showing a significant reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (pooled MDΔ = −0.150 mmol/L; 95% highest posterior density interval (95%HPD) = −0.308; −0.003) in favor of a hazelnut-enriched diet. Total cholesterol showed a marked trend toward a decrease (pooled MDΔ = −0.127 mmol/L; 95%HPD = −0.284; 0.014) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol remained substantially stable (pooled MDΔ = 0.002 mmol/L; 95%HPD = −0.140; 0.147). No effects on triglycerides (pooled MDΔ = 0.045 mmol/L; 95%HPD = −0.195; 0.269) and body mass index (BMI) (pooled MDΔ = 0.062 kg/m2; 95%HPD = −0.293; 0.469) were found. Hazelnut-enriched diet is associated with a decrease of LDL and total cholesterol, while HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and BMI remain substantially unchanged. Full article
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Open AccessReview Soy and Health Update: Evaluation of the Clinical and Epidemiologic Literature
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 754; doi:10.3390/nu8120754
Received: 5 October 2016 / Revised: 17 November 2016 / Accepted: 18 November 2016 / Published: 24 November 2016
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Abstract
Soyfoods have long been recognized as sources of high-quality protein and healthful fat, but over the past 25 years these foods have been rigorously investigated for their role in chronic disease prevention and treatment. There is evidence, for example, that they reduce risk
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Soyfoods have long been recognized as sources of high-quality protein and healthful fat, but over the past 25 years these foods have been rigorously investigated for their role in chronic disease prevention and treatment. There is evidence, for example, that they reduce risk of coronary heart disease and breast and prostate cancer. In addition, soy alleviates hot flashes and may favorably affect renal function, alleviate depressive symptoms and improve skin health. Much of the focus on soyfoods is because they are uniquely-rich sources of isoflavones. Isoflavones are classified as both phytoestrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators. Despite the many proposed benefits, the presence of isoflavones has led to concerns that soy may exert untoward effects in some individuals. However, these concerns are based primarily on animal studies, whereas the human research supports the safety and benefits of soyfoods. In support of safety is the recent conclusion of the European Food Safety Authority that isoflavones do not adversely affect the breast, thyroid or uterus of postmenopausal women. This review covers each of the major research areas involving soy focusing primarily on the clinical and epidemiologic research. Background information on Asian soy intake, isoflavones, and nutrient content is also provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Soybean and other Grain Legumes)
Open AccessReview Maternal Fructose Intake Affects Transcriptome Changes and Programmed Hypertension in Offspring in Later Life
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 757; doi:10.3390/nu8120757
Received: 8 October 2016 / Revised: 1 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 25 November 2016
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Abstract
Hypertension originates from early-life insults by so-called “developmental origins of health and disease” (DOHaD). Studies performed in the previous few decades indicate that fructose consumption is associated with an increase in hypertension rate. It is emerging field that tends to unfold the nutrient–gene
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Hypertension originates from early-life insults by so-called “developmental origins of health and disease” (DOHaD). Studies performed in the previous few decades indicate that fructose consumption is associated with an increase in hypertension rate. It is emerging field that tends to unfold the nutrient–gene interactions of maternal high-fructose (HF) intake on the offspring which links renal programming to programmed hypertension. Reprogramming interventions counteract disturbed nutrient–gene interactions induced by maternal HF intake and exert protective effects against developmentally programmed hypertension. Here, we review the key themes on the effect of maternal HF consumption on renal transcriptome changes and programmed hypertension. We have particularly focused on the following areas: metabolic effects of fructose on hypertension and kidney disease; effects of maternal HF consumption on hypertension development in adult offspring; effects of maternal HF consumption on renal transcriptome changes; and application of reprogramming interventions to prevent maternal HF consumption-induced programmed hypertension in animal models. Provision of personalized nutrition is still a faraway goal. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand early-life nutrient–gene interactions and to develop effective reprogramming strategies for treating hypertension and other HF consumption-related diseases. Full article
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Open AccessReview Effect of Tea Polyphenol Compounds on Anticancer Drugs in Terms of Anti-Tumor Activity, Toxicology, and Pharmacokinetics
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 762; doi:10.3390/nu8120762
Received: 1 August 2016 / Revised: 17 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
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Abstract
Multidrug resistance and various adverse side effects have long been major problems in cancer chemotherapy. Recently, chemotherapy has gradually transitioned from mono-substance therapy to multidrug therapy. As a result, the drug cocktail strategy has gained more recognition and wider use. It is believed
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Multidrug resistance and various adverse side effects have long been major problems in cancer chemotherapy. Recently, chemotherapy has gradually transitioned from mono-substance therapy to multidrug therapy. As a result, the drug cocktail strategy has gained more recognition and wider use. It is believed that properly-formulated drug combinations have greater therapeutic efficacy than single drugs. Tea is a popular beverage consumed by cancer patients and the general public for its perceived health benefits. The major bioactive molecules in green tea are catechins, a class of flavanols. The combination of green tea extract or green tea catechins and anticancer compounds has been paid more attention in cancer treatment. Previous studies demonstrated that the combination of chemotherapeutic drugs and green tea extract or tea polyphenols could synergistically enhance treatment efficacy and reduce the adverse side effects of anticancer drugs in cancer patients. In this review, we summarize the experimental evidence regarding the effects of green tea-derived polyphenols in conjunction with chemotherapeutic drugs on anti-tumor activity, toxicology, and pharmacokinetics. We believe that the combination of multidrug cancer treatment with green tea catechins may improve treatment efficacy and diminish negative side effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols for Cancer Treatment or Prevention)
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Open AccessReview Pre-Sleep Protein Ingestion to Improve the Skeletal Muscle Adaptive Response to Exercise Training
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 763; doi:10.3390/nu8120763
Received: 14 September 2016 / Revised: 16 November 2016 / Accepted: 23 November 2016 / Published: 28 November 2016
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Abstract
Protein ingestion following resistance-type exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates, and enhances the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged resistance-type exercise training. As the adaptive response to a single bout of resistance exercise extends well beyond the first couple of hours of post-exercise
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Protein ingestion following resistance-type exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates, and enhances the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged resistance-type exercise training. As the adaptive response to a single bout of resistance exercise extends well beyond the first couple of hours of post-exercise recovery, recent studies have begun to investigate the impact of the timing and distribution of protein ingestion during more prolonged recovery periods. Recent work has shown that overnight muscle protein synthesis rates are restricted by the level of amino acid availability. Protein ingested prior to sleep is effectively digested and absorbed, and thereby stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates during overnight recovery. When applied during a prolonged period of resistance-type exercise training, protein supplementation prior to sleep can further augment gains in muscle mass and strength. Recent studies investigating the impact of pre-sleep protein ingestion suggest that at least 40 g of protein is required to display a robust increase in muscle protein synthesis rates throughout overnight sleep. Furthermore, prior exercise allows more of the pre-sleep protein-derived amino acids to be utilized for de novo muscle protein synthesis during sleep. In short, pre-sleep protein ingestion represents an effective dietary strategy to improve overnight muscle protein synthesis, thereby improving the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Health and Athletic Performance)
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Open AccessReview The Nutritional Value and Health Benefits of Chickpeas and Hummus
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 766; doi:10.3390/nu8120766
Received: 18 August 2016 / Revised: 18 November 2016 / Accepted: 22 November 2016 / Published: 29 November 2016
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Abstract
The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advocate for increasing vegetable intake and replacing energy-dense foods with those that are nutrient-dense. Most Americans do not eat enough vegetables, and particularly legumes, each day, despite their well-established benefits for health. Traditional hummus is a nutrient-dense
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The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advocate for increasing vegetable intake and replacing energy-dense foods with those that are nutrient-dense. Most Americans do not eat enough vegetables, and particularly legumes, each day, despite their well-established benefits for health. Traditional hummus is a nutrient-dense dip or spread made from cooked, mashed chickpeas, blended with tahini, olive oil, lemon juice, and spices. Consumers of chickpeas and/or hummus have been shown to have higher nutrient intakes of dietary fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin C, folate, magnesium, potassium, and iron as compared to non-consumers. Hummus consumers have also been shown to have higher Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI-2005) scores. This may be, in part, due to hummus’ higher Naturally Nutrient Rich (NNR) score as compared to other dips and spreads. Emerging research suggests that chickpeas and hummus may play a beneficial role in weight management and glucose and insulin regulation, as well as have a positive impact on some markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Raw or cooked chickpeas and hummus also contain dietary bioactives such as phytic acid, sterols, tannins, carotenoids, and other polyphenols such as isoflavones, whose benefits may extend beyond basic nutrition requirements of humans. With chickpeas as its primary ingredient, hummus—and especially when paired with vegetables and/or whole grains—is a nutritious way for Americans to obtain their recommended servings of legumes. This manuscript reviews the nutritional value and health benefits of chickpeas and hummus and explores how these foods may help improve the nutrient profiles of meals. Full article
Open AccessReview Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 767; doi:10.3390/nu8120767
Received: 3 September 2016 / Revised: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 23 November 2016 / Published: 29 November 2016
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Abstract
Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in
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Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue B-Vitamins and One-Carbon Metabolism)
Open AccessReview The Association between Weight Gain/Restoration and Bone Mineral Density in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 769; doi:10.3390/nu8120769
Received: 25 August 2016 / Revised: 17 November 2016 / Accepted: 23 November 2016 / Published: 29 November 2016
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Abstract
Background: Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the most frequent medical complications of anorexia nervosa (AN). The purpose of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of the association between weight gain/restoration and BMD in adolescents with AN. Methods: Literature
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Background: Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the most frequent medical complications of anorexia nervosa (AN). The purpose of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of the association between weight gain/restoration and BMD in adolescents with AN. Methods: Literature searches, study selection, method, and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data were collated using a narrative approach. Results: Of the 1156 articles retrieved, 19 studies met the inclusion criteria, and their analysis revealed four main findings. First, six studies reported that weight gain and restoration are associated with BMD stabilization after one year of follow-up from baseline. Second, seven studies with longer follow-up periods (≈16 months) reported significant improvements in BMD measures. Third, one study showed that normalization of BMD can be achieved after ≈30-month follow-up of normal-weight maintenance. Fourth, another study showed that male adolescents with AN who achieve weight gain but remain underweight may experience further BMD loss, unlike their weight-restored counterparts (BMI ≥ 19 kg/m2), who show a significant increase in BMD and bone mineral accrual rates that double those of healthy male adolescents. The first two findings can be considered robust, as they are supported by strong evidence. The third and fourth findings, however, derive from single studies and therefore require further confirmation. Conclusion: The literature supports weight gain as an effective strategy for promoting BMD increase in adolescents with AN. However, this process is slow, and improvements do not become detectable until ≈16-month follow-up. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Effect of Low Dose Iron and Zinc Intake on Child Micronutrient Status and Development during the First 1000 Days of Life: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 773; doi:10.3390/nu8120773
Received: 21 September 2016 / Revised: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
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Abstract
Adequate supply of micronutrients during the first 1000 days is essential for normal development and healthy life. We aimed to investigate if interventions administering dietary doses up to the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) of iron and zinc within the window from conception to
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Adequate supply of micronutrients during the first 1000 days is essential for normal development and healthy life. We aimed to investigate if interventions administering dietary doses up to the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) of iron and zinc within the window from conception to age 2 years have the potential to influence nutritional status and development of children. To address this objective, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and quasi-randomized fortification, biofortification, and supplementation trials in women (pregnant and lactating) and children (6–23 months) delivering iron or zinc in doses up to the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) levels was conducted. Supplying iron or zinc during pregnancy had no effects on birth outcomes. There were limited or no data on the effects of iron/zinc during pregnancy and lactation on child iron/zinc status, growth, morbidity, and psychomotor and mental development. Delivering up to 15 mg iron/day during infancy increased mean hemoglobin by 4 g/L (p < 0.001) and mean serum ferritin concentration by 17.6 µg/L (p < 0.001) and reduced the risk for anemia by 41% (p < 0.001), iron deficiency by 78% (ID; p < 0.001) and iron deficiency anemia by 80% (IDA; p < 0.001), but had no effect on growth or psychomotor development. Providing up to 10 mg of additional zinc during infancy increased plasma zinc concentration by 2.03 µmol/L (p < 0.001) and reduced the risk of zinc deficiency by 47% (p < 0.001). Further, we observed positive effects on child weight for age z-score (WAZ) (p < 0.05), weight for height z-score (WHZ) (p < 0.05), but not on height for age z-score (HAZ) or the risk for stunting, wasting, and underweight. There are no studies covering the full 1000 days window and the effects of iron and zinc delivered during pregnancy and lactation on child outcomes are ambiguous, but low dose daily iron and zinc use during 6–23 months of age has a positive effect on child iron and zinc status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients in Infancy)
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Open AccessReview Polyphenols and DNA Damage: A Mixed Blessing
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 785; doi:10.3390/nu8120785
Received: 11 October 2016 / Revised: 15 November 2016 / Accepted: 23 November 2016 / Published: 3 December 2016
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Abstract
Polyphenols are a very broad group of chemicals, widely distributed in plant foods, and endowed with antioxidant activity by virtue of their numerous phenol groups. They are widely studied as putative cancer-protective agents, potentially contributing to the cancer preventive properties of fruits and
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Polyphenols are a very broad group of chemicals, widely distributed in plant foods, and endowed with antioxidant activity by virtue of their numerous phenol groups. They are widely studied as putative cancer-protective agents, potentially contributing to the cancer preventive properties of fruits and vegetables. We review recent publications relating to human trials, animal experiments and cell culture, grouping them according to whether polyphenols are investigated in whole foods and drinks, in plant extracts, or as individual compounds. A variety of assays are in use to study genetic damage endpoints. Human trials, of which there are rather few, tend to show decreases in endogenous DNA damage and protection against DNA damage induced ex vivo in blood cells. Most animal experiments have investigated the effects of polyphenols (often at high doses) in combination with known DNA-damaging agents, and generally they show protection. High concentrations can themselves induce DNA damage, as demonstrated in numerous cell culture experiments; low concentrations, on the other hand, tend to decrease DNA damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols for Cancer Treatment or Prevention)
Open AccessReview Metformin Treatment and Homocysteine: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 798; doi:10.3390/nu8120798
Received: 10 August 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 2 December 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
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Abstract
The aim of this systematic review is to assess whether metformin could change the concentration of serum homocysteine (Hcy) with and without simultaneous supplementation of B-group vitamins or folic acid. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, EmBase, and Cochrane Central Register of
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The aim of this systematic review is to assess whether metformin could change the concentration of serum homocysteine (Hcy) with and without simultaneous supplementation of B-group vitamins or folic acid. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, EmBase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting the concentration of serum Hcy in metformin-treated adults. Meta-analysis was applied to assess the association between metformin and the changes of Hcy concentration. Twelve publications were included in this study. In the overall analysis, metformin administration was not statistically associated with the change of Hcy when compared with the control treatment (mean difference (MD), 0.40 μmol/L; 95% confidence interval (CI), −0.07~0.87 μmol/L, p = 0.10). In the subgroup analysis, metformin was significantly associated with an increased concentration of Hcy in the absence of exogenous supplementation of folic acid or B-group vitamins (MD, 2.02 μmol/L; 95% CI, 1.37~2.67 μmol/L, p < 0.00001), but with a decreased concentration of serum Hcy in the presence of these exogenous supplementations (MD, −0.74 μmol/L; 95% CI, −1.19~−0.30 μmol/L, p = 0.001). Therefore, although the overall effect of metformin on the concentration of serum Hcy was neutral, our results suggested that metformin could increase the concentration of Hcy when exogenous B-group vitamins or folic acid supplementation was not given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue B-Vitamins and One-Carbon Metabolism)
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Open AccessComment Comments to Article by Thoene M et al., Nutrients 2016, 8, 451
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 821; doi:10.3390/nu8120821
Received: 7 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
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Abstract To the Editor:[...] Full article
Open AccessReply Response to Dr. Moya’s Comments to Article by Thoene M et al., Nutrients 2016, 8, 451
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 822; doi:10.3390/nu8120822
Received: 8 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
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Abstract
This reply is a supplementary addition to our previous article entitled “Comparison of a Powdered, Acidified Liquid, and Non-Acidified Liquid Human Milk Fortifier on Clinical Outcomes in Premature Infants” as published in Nutrients in July 2016. It provides a response to a comment
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This reply is a supplementary addition to our previous article entitled “Comparison of a Powdered, Acidified Liquid, and Non-Acidified Liquid Human Milk Fortifier on Clinical Outcomes in Premature Infants” as published in Nutrients in July 2016. It provides a response to a comment made by Dr. Fernando Moya to this original article, so the purpose of this is to compare and contrast various perspectives between researchers conducting nutrition research in the preterm infant population. It specifically focuses on human milk fortification and subsequent outcomes. Full article
Open AccessLetter Translational Difficulties in Studying the TRPA1 Receptor
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 790; doi:10.3390/nu8120790
Received: 27 November 2016 / Accepted: 29 November 2016 / Published: 3 December 2016
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Open AccessBrief Report Self-Reported Dietary Restrictions and Dietary Patterns in Polish Girls: A Short Research Report (GEBaHealth Study)
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 796; doi:10.3390/nu8120796
Received: 18 August 2016 / Revised: 12 November 2016 / Accepted: 2 December 2016 / Published: 19 December 2016
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Abstract
Dietary restraint is a commonly reported practice observed among young females. The practice remains controversial and can be interpreted as a beneficial self-regulating behavior or the opposite, an eating disorder that may have a detrimental effect on health. The aim of this short
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Dietary restraint is a commonly reported practice observed among young females. The practice remains controversial and can be interpreted as a beneficial self-regulating behavior or the opposite, an eating disorder that may have a detrimental effect on health. The aim of this short report was to investigate if dietary restrictions are associated with dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls. Analyses were carried out on data from the Girls’ Eating Behavior and Health (GEBaHealth) study. The sample included 1107 girls, ranging in age from 13 to 21 years old. Restrictions regarding food quantities and selected food groups were assessed using a standardized interview. Dietary patterns were identified with Principal Component Analysis (PCA), based on dietary data collected with Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs). Logistic regression analysis was used to study the associations between self-reported restrictions and each dietary pattern. In the total sample, 30.5% of girls reported following some food restrictions. The most common restrictions regarded consumption of sugar and/or sweets (23.7%), high-fat foods (22.4%), and fats (21.3%). Girls who declared following any restrictions, restrictions in food quantity and restrictions in the consumption of sugar and/or sweets, high-fat foods, fats, cereals and/or bread and/or potatoes were more likely to adhere to the “fruit and vegetables” (considered pro-healthy) dietary pattern (adjusted odds ratios (ORs): 1.55, 95% CI: 1.14–2.12; 1.61, 95% CI: 1.17–2.21; 1.81, 95% CI: 1.30–2.52; 1.46, 95% CI: 1.04–2.06; 1.96, 95% CI: 1.38–2.80 and 3.25, 95% CI: 1.97–5.37, respectively), and less likely to adhere to the “fast foods and sweets” (unhealthy) and “traditional Polish” (rather unhealthy) patterns, compared to girls who declared no restrictions. Declared restrictions in the consumption of foods high in sugar, fat, and starch were observed in girls in the “fruit and vegetables” pattern and were uncommon in girls with unhealthy dietary patterns. Although cautious interpretation is needed when considering restrictions in the overall quantity of food consumed, the results indicate that dietary restrictions of sugar, high-fat foods, fats, and starch may be considered predictors of both pro-healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns in the population of Polish girls. Full article

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