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Nutrients, Volume 8, Issue 12 (December 2016)

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Open AccessArticle The Impact of Body Image on the WTP Values for Reduced-Fat and Low-Salt Content Potato Chips among Obese and Non-Obese Consumers
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 830; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8120830
Received: 25 October 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
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Abstract
The aim of this study is to assess the influence of body image on consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for potato chips carrying nutritional claims among obese and non-obese people. About 309 non-clinical individuals participated in a Real Choice Experiment. They were recruited
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The aim of this study is to assess the influence of body image on consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for potato chips carrying nutritional claims among obese and non-obese people. About 309 non-clinical individuals participated in a Real Choice Experiment. They were recruited by a company and grouped in: (i) non-obese with good body image; (ii) non-obese with body image dissatisfaction; (iii) obese with good body image; (iv) obese with body image dissatisfaction. Results indicate differences in consumers’ willingness to pay among consumer groups. Body image dissatisfaction of normal people did not influence the WTP for healthier chips. Obese people with body image dissatisfaction were willing to pay more for healthier chips (i.e., low-salt content potato chips) than normal ones with body image dissatisfaction. Examining the role of knowledge in the light of how this could impact on body image is relevant to improve the health status of individuals and their diet. Knowledge about nutrition could improve the body image of obese people. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Fiber Analysis of Four Pulses Using AOAC 2011.25: Implications for Human Health
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 829; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8120829
Received: 11 November 2016 / Revised: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (215 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chickpeas, common beans, dry peas, and lentils are pulse crops that have been a cornerstone of the human diet since the inception of agriculture. However, the displacement of pulses from the diet by low fiber protein alternatives has resulted in a pervasive deficiency
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Chickpeas, common beans, dry peas, and lentils are pulse crops that have been a cornerstone of the human diet since the inception of agriculture. However, the displacement of pulses from the diet by low fiber protein alternatives has resulted in a pervasive deficiency referred to as the dietary fiber gap. Using an analytical method American Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC) 2011.25 that conforms to the Codex Alimentarius Commission consensus definition for dietary fiber, the fiber content of these pulse crops was evaluated in seed types used for commercial production. These pulse crops have 2 to 3 times more fiber per 100 g edible portion than other dietary staples. Moreover, there is marked variation in fiber content among cultivars of the same crop. We conclude that pulse crop consumption should be emphasized in efforts to close the dietary fiber gap. The substantial differences in fiber content among currently available cultivars within a crop can be used to further improve gains in fiber intake without the need to change dietary habits. This provides a rationale for cultivar-based food labeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Soybean and other Grain Legumes)
Open AccessArticle Low Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency among Nepalese Infants Despite High Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency among Their Mothers
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8120825
Received: 1 November 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 7 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (796 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Describing vitamin D status and its predictors in various populations is important in order to target public health measures. Objectives: To describe the status and predictors of vitamin D status in healthy Nepalese mothers and infants. Methods: 500 randomly selected Nepalese mother
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Background: Describing vitamin D status and its predictors in various populations is important in order to target public health measures. Objectives: To describe the status and predictors of vitamin D status in healthy Nepalese mothers and infants. Methods: 500 randomly selected Nepalese mother and infant pairs were included in a cross-sectional study. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by LC-MS/MS and multiple linear regression analyses were used to identify predictors of vitamin D status. Results: Among the infants, the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (25(OH)D <50 nmol/L) and deficiency (<30 nmol/L) were 3.6% and 0.6%, respectively, in contrast to 59.8% and 14.0% among their mothers. Infant 25(OH)D concentrations were negatively associated with infant age and positively associated with maternal vitamin D status and body mass index (BMI), explaining 22% of the variability in 25(OH)D concentration. Global solar radiation, maternal age and BMI predicted maternal 25(OH)D concentration, explaining 9.7% of its variability. Conclusion: Age and maternal vitamin D status are the main predictors of vitamin D status in infants in Bhaktapur, Nepal, who have adequate vitamin D status despite poor vitamin D status in their mothers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D: Current Issues and New Perspectives)
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Open AccessArticle Association between Dietary Intakes of Nitrate and Nitrite and the Risk of Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 811; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8120811
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 8 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (714 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background and Aim: The association of habitual intakes of dietary nitrate (NO3) and nitrite (NO2) with blood pressure and renal function is not clear. Here, we investigated a potential effect of dietary NO3 and NO
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Background and Aim: The association of habitual intakes of dietary nitrate (NO3) and nitrite (NO2) with blood pressure and renal function is not clear. Here, we investigated a potential effect of dietary NO3 and NO2 on the occurrence of hypertension (HTN) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: A total of 2799 Iranian adults aged ≥20 years, participating in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), were included and followed for a median of 5.8 years. Dietary intakes of NO3 and NO2 were estimated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Demographics, anthropometrics, blood pressure and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and during follow-up examinations. To identify the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of HTN and CKD across tertile categories of residual energy-adjusted NO3 and NO2 intakes, multivariate logistic regression models were used. Results: Dietary intake of NO3 had no significant association with the risk of HTN or CKD. Compared to the lowest tertile category (median intake < 6.04 mg/day), the highest intake (median intake ≥ 12.7 mg/day) of dietary NO2 was accompanied with a significant reduced risk of HTN, in the fully adjusted model (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.33–0.98; p for trend = 0.054). The highest compared to the lowest tertile of dietary NO2 was also accompanied with a reduced risk of CKD (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.24–0.89, p for trend = 0.07). Conclusion: Our findings indicated that higher intakes of NO2 might be an independent dietary protective factor against the development of HTN and CKD, which are major risk factors for adverse cardiovascular events. Full article
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Open AccessReview Antioxidants and Dementia Risk: Consideration through a Cerebrovascular Perspective
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 828; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8120828
Received: 15 November 2016 / Revised: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (603 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A number of natural and chemical compounds that exert anti-oxidative properties are demonstrated to be beneficial for brain and cognitive function, and some are reported to reduce the risk of dementia. However, the detailed mechanisms by which those anti-oxidative compounds show positive effects
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A number of natural and chemical compounds that exert anti-oxidative properties are demonstrated to be beneficial for brain and cognitive function, and some are reported to reduce the risk of dementia. However, the detailed mechanisms by which those anti-oxidative compounds show positive effects on cognition and dementia are still unclear. An emerging body of evidence suggests that the integrity of the cerebrovascular blood-brain barrier (BBB) is centrally involved in the onset and progression of cognitive impairment and dementia. While recent studies revealed that some anti-oxidative agents appear to be protective against the disruption of BBB integrity and structure, few studies considered the neuroprotective effects of antioxidants in the context of cerebrovascular integrity. Therefore, in this review, we examine the mechanistic insights of antioxidants as a pleiotropic agent for cognitive impairment and dementia through a cerebrovascular axis by primarily focusing on the current available data from physiological studies. Conclusively, there is a compelling body of evidence that suggest antioxidants may prevent cognitive decline and dementia by protecting the integrity and function of BBB and, indeed, further studies are needed to directly examine these effects in addition to underlying molecular mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview The Use of Enteral Nutrition in the Management of Stroke
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 827; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8120827
Received: 25 October 2016 / Revised: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (190 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article discusses the use of enteral nutrition in the management of stroke. Stroke is a major source of disability, including dysphagia. The clinical manifestation of swallowing difficulties in stroke patients may lead to malnutrition which has implications for health status and clinical
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This article discusses the use of enteral nutrition in the management of stroke. Stroke is a major source of disability, including dysphagia. The clinical manifestation of swallowing difficulties in stroke patients may lead to malnutrition which has implications for health status and clinical outcomes including morbidity, mortality and cost to the health service. The prevalence of malnutrition following an acute stroke could range from 8% to 34%. Therefore, the need to develop and implement the use of enteral nutrition support in stroke patients becomes pertinent. A range of enteral feeding tubes and feeding methods may be used to support stroke patients who are unable to meet their nutritional requirements through oral intake alone, although each of these approaches has its merits and limitations. Based on this review, there is evidence that enteral nutrition support is a useful method of providing nutrition for patients with dysphagia following a stroke in order to enhance their nutritional status and promote their health. However, there are challenges in the use of enteral tube feeding in these patients. Full article
Open AccessArticle Comparative Study on Trace Element Excretions between Nonanuric and Anuric Patients Undergoing Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 826; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8120826
Received: 28 October 2016 / Revised: 26 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
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Abstract
Few studies have been reported on alterations of trace elements (TE) in peritoneal dialysis patients. Our objective was to investigate and assess the characteristics of daily TE excretions in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. This cross-sectional study included 61 CAPD patients (nonanuric/anuric:
[...] Read more.
Few studies have been reported on alterations of trace elements (TE) in peritoneal dialysis patients. Our objective was to investigate and assess the characteristics of daily TE excretions in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. This cross-sectional study included 61 CAPD patients (nonanuric/anuric: 45/16) and 11 healthy subjects in Wuhan, China between 2013 and 2014. The dialysate and urine of patients and urine of healthy subjects were collected. The concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), and arsenic (As) in dialysate and urine were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Various clinical variables were obtained from automatic biochemical analyzer. Daily Cu, Zn, Se, and Mo excretions in nonanuric patients were higher than healthy subjects, while arsenic excretion in anuric patients was lower. A strong and positive correlation was observed between Se and Mo excretion in both dialysate (β = 0.869, p < 0.010) and urine (β = 0.968, p < 0.010). Furthermore, the clinical variables associated with Se excretion were found to be correlated with Mo excretion. Our findings indicated that nonanuric CAPD patients may suffer from deficiency of some essential TEs, while anuric patients are at risk of arsenic accumulation. A close association between Se and Mo excretion was also found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
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Open AccessReview Meta-Analysis of Milk Consumption and the Risk of Cognitive Disorders
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 824; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8120824
Received: 10 November 2016 / Revised: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
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Abstract
The association between milk intake and cognitive disorders has been investigated in several epidemiological studies, but the findings are still conflicting. No quantitative assessment has been performed to evaluate the potential relationship of milk intake and cognitive disorders. From the inception to October
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The association between milk intake and cognitive disorders has been investigated in several epidemiological studies, but the findings are still conflicting. No quantitative assessment has been performed to evaluate the potential relationship of milk intake and cognitive disorders. From the inception to October 2016, the PubMed and the Embase databases were searched for observational studies reporting the association of milk consumption and cognitive disorders (Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, and cognitive decline/impairment). A generic inverse-variance random-effects method was used to pool the Odds Ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the highest compared with the lowest level of milk intake. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were used to assess the heterogeneity between subgroups. We identified seven articles involving a total of 10,941 participants. The highest level of milk consumption was significantly associated with a decreased risk of cognitive disorders, and the pooled OR (95% CI) was 0.72 (0.56, 0.93), with evidence of significant heterogeneity (I2 = 64%, p = 0.001). Subgroup analysis indicated that the association was more pronounced in ischemic stroke patients based on a single study. Furthermore, the inverse association between milk intake and cognitive disorders was limited to Asian subjects, and the African populations showed an intermediate non-significant trend. Although we have obtained a significant association, an established relationship cannot be drawn due to the study limitation. Large prospective studies are needed to quantify the potential dose-response patterns of milk intake and to explore the association in populations with different characteristics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Phenotypic Stability of Energy Balance Responses to Experimental Total Sleep Deprivation and Sleep Restriction in Healthy Adults
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 823; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8120823
Received: 15 November 2016 / Revised: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 December 2016 / Published: 19 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1535 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Experimental studies have shown that sleep restriction (SR) and total sleep deprivation (TSD) produce increased caloric intake, greater fat consumption, and increased late-night eating. However, whether individuals show similar energy intake responses to both SR and TSD remains unknown. A total of N
[...] Read more.
Experimental studies have shown that sleep restriction (SR) and total sleep deprivation (TSD) produce increased caloric intake, greater fat consumption, and increased late-night eating. However, whether individuals show similar energy intake responses to both SR and TSD remains unknown. A total of N = 66 healthy adults (aged 21–50 years, 48.5% women, 72.7% African American) participated in a within-subjects laboratory protocol to compare daily and late-night intake between one night of SR (4 h time in bed, 04:00–08:00) and one night of TSD (0 h time in bed) conditions. We also examined intake responses during subsequent recovery from SR or TSD and investigated gender differences. Caloric and macronutrient intake during the day following SR and TSD were moderately to substantially consistent within individuals (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients: 0.34–0.75). During the late-night period of SR (22:00–04:00) and TSD (22:00–06:00), such consistency was slight to moderate, and participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein (p = 0.01) and saturated fat (p = 0.02) during SR, despite comparable caloric intake (p = 0.12). Similarly, participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from saturated fat during the day following SR than TSD (p = 0.03). Participants also consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein during recovery after TSD (p < 0.001). Caloric intake was greater in men during late-night hours and the day following sleep loss. This is the first evidence of phenotypic trait-like stability and differential vulnerability of energy balance responses to two commonly experienced types of sleep loss: our findings open the door for biomarker discovery and countermeasure development to predict and mitigate this critical health-related vulnerability. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report Self-Reported Dietary Restrictions and Dietary Patterns in Polish Girls: A Short Research Report (GEBaHealth Study)
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8120796
Received: 18 August 2016 / Revised: 12 November 2016 / Accepted: 2 December 2016 / Published: 19 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (220 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Dietary restraint is a commonly reported practice observed among young females. The practice remains controversial and can be interpreted as a beneficial self-regulating behavior or the opposite, an eating disorder that may have a detrimental effect on health. The aim of this short
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Dietary restraint is a commonly reported practice observed among young females. The practice remains controversial and can be interpreted as a beneficial self-regulating behavior or the opposite, an eating disorder that may have a detrimental effect on health. The aim of this short report was to investigate if dietary restrictions are associated with dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls. Analyses were carried out on data from the Girls’ Eating Behavior and Health (GEBaHealth) study. The sample included 1107 girls, ranging in age from 13 to 21 years old. Restrictions regarding food quantities and selected food groups were assessed using a standardized interview. Dietary patterns were identified with Principal Component Analysis (PCA), based on dietary data collected with Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs). Logistic regression analysis was used to study the associations between self-reported restrictions and each dietary pattern. In the total sample, 30.5% of girls reported following some food restrictions. The most common restrictions regarded consumption of sugar and/or sweets (23.7%), high-fat foods (22.4%), and fats (21.3%). Girls who declared following any restrictions, restrictions in food quantity and restrictions in the consumption of sugar and/or sweets, high-fat foods, fats, cereals and/or bread and/or potatoes were more likely to adhere to the “fruit and vegetables” (considered pro-healthy) dietary pattern (adjusted odds ratios (ORs): 1.55, 95% CI: 1.14–2.12; 1.61, 95% CI: 1.17–2.21; 1.81, 95% CI: 1.30–2.52; 1.46, 95% CI: 1.04–2.06; 1.96, 95% CI: 1.38–2.80 and 3.25, 95% CI: 1.97–5.37, respectively), and less likely to adhere to the “fast foods and sweets” (unhealthy) and “traditional Polish” (rather unhealthy) patterns, compared to girls who declared no restrictions. Declared restrictions in the consumption of foods high in sugar, fat, and starch were observed in girls in the “fruit and vegetables” pattern and were uncommon in girls with unhealthy dietary patterns. Although cautious interpretation is needed when considering restrictions in the overall quantity of food consumed, the results indicate that dietary restrictions of sugar, high-fat foods, fats, and starch may be considered predictors of both pro-healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns in the population of Polish girls. Full article
Open AccessArticle Association between Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Total Energy Intake among Mexican School-Age Children
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8120710
Received: 29 July 2016 / Revised: 7 October 2016 / Accepted: 2 November 2016 / Published: 18 December 2016
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Abstract
Water consumption promotes a decrease in total diet energy intake, and one explanation for this fact is the replacement of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) by plain water (PW). The objective of this study was to analyze the association between SSB and PW consumption as
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Water consumption promotes a decrease in total diet energy intake, and one explanation for this fact is the replacement of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) by plain water (PW). The objective of this study was to analyze the association between SSB and PW consumption as a part of the total energy intake. Dietary information was obtained by one 24 h recall of 2536 school-age children who participated in the National Nutrition Survey in Mexico. PW and SSB consumption was measured in mL and servings (240 mL), and consumption was stratified into two levels (<2 and ≥2 servings/day). Linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between PW and SSB consumption in relation to total energy intake. Models were adjusted for age, sex, the proportion of energy obtained from non-beverage food, area of residence, and socioeconomic status (based on information regarding housing conditions and ownership of home appliances). PW consumption at the national level was two servings/day, and was not associated with total energy intake. However, the combination of the high consumption of PW and the low consumption of SSB was associated with less total energy intake (p < 0.05). Promoting higher PW and lower SSB consumption provides a useful public health strategy for reducing total energy intake and preventing overconsumption among Mexican school-age children. Full article
Open AccessArticle Implementation of a Nutrition Program Reduced Post-Discharge Growth Restriction in Thai Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 820; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8120820
Received: 24 September 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 8 December 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (827 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants are vulnerable to growth restriction after discharge due to cumulative protein and energy deficits during their hospital stay and early post-discharge period. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of the preterm infant, post-discharge nutrition (PIN) program
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Very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants are vulnerable to growth restriction after discharge due to cumulative protein and energy deficits during their hospital stay and early post-discharge period. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of the preterm infant, post-discharge nutrition (PIN) program to reduce post-discharge growth restriction in Thai VLBW preterm infants. A prospective, non-randomized interventional cohort study was undertaken to assess the growth of 22 VLBW preterm infants who received the PIN program and compared them with 22 VLBW preterm infants who received conventional nutrition services. Infant’s growth was recorded monthly until the infants reached six months’ corrected age (6-moCA). Intervention infants had significantly greater body weights (p = 0.013) and head circumferences (p = 0.009). Also, a greater proportion of the intervention group recovered their weight to the standard weight at 4-moCA (p = 0.027) and at 6-moCA (p = 0.007) and their head circumference to the standard head circumference at 6-moCA (p = 0.004) compared to their historical comparison counterparts. Enlistment in the PIN program thus resulted in significantly reduced post-discharge growth restriction in VLBW preterm infants. Further research on longer term effects of the program on infant’s growth and development is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients in Infancy) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessEditorial Catch-Up Growth in Former Preterm Neonates: No Time to Waste
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 817; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8120817
Received: 11 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (183 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Irrespective of presence of growth restriction at birth, preterm infants are vulnerable to extra-uterine growth restriction (EUGR) during neonatal stay and after discharge, related to cumulative protein and energy deficits.[...] Full article
Open AccessReview The Effect of Using Mobile Technology-Based Methods That Record Food or Nutrient Intake on Diabetes Control and Nutrition Outcomes: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 815; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8120815
Received: 30 November 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (986 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
(1) Background: Mobile technologies may be utilised for dietary intake assessment for people with diabetes. The published literature was systematically reviewed to determine the effect of using mobile electronic devices to record food or nutrient intake on diabetes control and nutrition outcomes; (2)
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(1) Background: Mobile technologies may be utilised for dietary intake assessment for people with diabetes. The published literature was systematically reviewed to determine the effect of using mobile electronic devices to record food or nutrient intake on diabetes control and nutrition outcomes; (2) Methods: The review protocol was registered with PROSPERO: registration number CRD42016050079, and followed PRISMA guidelines. Original research of mobile electronic devices where food or nutrient intake was recorded in people with diabetes with any treatment regimen, and where this intervention was compared with usual care or alternative treatment models, was considered. Quality was assessed using the Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research; (3) Results: Nine papers formed the final library with a range of interventions and control practices investigated. The food/nutrient intake recording component of the intervention and patient engagement with the technology was not well described. When assessed for quality, three studies rated positive, five were neutral and one negative. There was significantly greater improvement in HbA1c in the intervention group compared to the control group in four of the nine studies; (4) Conclusion: Based on the available evidence there are no clear recommendations for using technology to record dietary data in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle Exercise and Beta-Glucan Consumption (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Improve the Metabolic Profile and Reduce the Atherogenic Index in Type 2 Diabetic Rats (HFD/STZ)
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8120792
Received: 22 September 2016 / Revised: 24 November 2016 / Accepted: 29 November 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1857 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Physical activity and the ingestion of dietary fiber are non-drug alternatives commonly used as adjuvants to glycemic control in diabetic individuals. Among these fibers, we can highlight beta-glucans. However, few studies have compared isolated and synergic effects of physical exercise and beta-glucan ingestion,
[...] Read more.
Physical activity and the ingestion of dietary fiber are non-drug alternatives commonly used as adjuvants to glycemic control in diabetic individuals. Among these fibers, we can highlight beta-glucans. However, few studies have compared isolated and synergic effects of physical exercise and beta-glucan ingestion, especially in type 2 diabetic rats. Therefore, we evaluated the effects beta-glucan (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) consumption, associated or not to exercise, on metabolic parameters of diabetic Wistar rats. The diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) associated with a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ—35 mg/kg). Trained groups were submitted to eight weeks of exercise in aquatic environment. In the last 28 days of experiment, animals received 30 mg/kg/day of beta-glucan by gavage. Isolated use of beta-glucan decreased glucose levels in fasting, Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglycerides (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), the atherogenic index of plasma. Exercise alone also decreased blood glucose levels, HbA1c, and renal lesions. An additive effect for reducing the atherogenic index of plasma and renal lesions was observed when both treatments were combined. It was concluded that both beta-glucan and exercise improved metabolic parameters in type 2 (HFD/STZ) diabetic rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibers and Human Health) Printed Edition available
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