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Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 296; doi:10.3390/nu9030296

Serum Magnesium Concentrations in the Canadian Population and Associations with Diabetes, Glycemic Regulation, and Insulin Resistance

1
Nutrition Research Division, Food Directorate, Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada, Sir Frederick G. Banting Research Centre, 251 Sir Frederick Banting Driveway, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9, Canada
2
Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1H 8M5, Canada
3
Bureau of Food Surveillance and Science Integration, Food Directorate, Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 January 2017 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes)
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Abstract

Total serum magnesium (Mg) concentration (SMC) is commonly used to assess Mg status. This study reports current SMCs of Canadians and their associations with demographic factors, diabetes, and measures of glycemic control and insulin resistance using results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 3 (2012–2013). Associations were examined in adults aged 20–79 years using linear mixed models. Mean SMCs and percentile distributions for 11 sex-age groups between 3 and 79 years (n = 5561) are reported. SMCs were normally distributed and differences (p < 0.05) among sex and age groups were small. Between 9.5% and 16.6% of adult sex-age groups had a SMC below the lower cut-off of a population-based reference interval (0.75–0.955 mmol·L−1) established in the United States population as part of the NHANES I conducted in 1971–1974. Having diabetes was associated with 0.04 to 0.07 mmol·L−1 lower SMC compared to not having diabetes in the various models. Body mass index, glycated hemoglobin, serum glucose and insulin concentrations, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance were negatively associated with SMC. This is the first study to report SMCs in a nationally representative sample of the Canadian population. A substantial proportion of Canadians are hypomagnesaemic in relation to a population-based reference interval, and SMC was negatively associated with diabetes and indices of glycemic control and insulin resistance. View Full-Text
Keywords: Canada; diabetes; glycemic regulation; homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance; serum magnesium concentration Canada; diabetes; glycemic regulation; homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance; serum magnesium concentration
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Bertinato, J.; Wang, K.C.; Hayward, S. Serum Magnesium Concentrations in the Canadian Population and Associations with Diabetes, Glycemic Regulation, and Insulin Resistance. Nutrients 2017, 9, 296.

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