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Catalysts, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2014), Pages 1-76

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Catalysts in 2013
Catalysts 2014, 4(1), 36-37; doi:10.3390/catal4010036
Received: 26 February 2014 / Accepted: 26 February 2014 / Published: 26 February 2014
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Abstract The editors of Catalysts would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2013. [...] Full article

Review

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessReview Mixed Enzyme Systems for Delignification of Lignocellulosic Biomass
Catalysts 2014, 4(1), 1-35; doi:10.3390/catal4010001
Received: 9 October 2013 / Revised: 13 December 2013 / Accepted: 18 December 2013 / Published: 6 January 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (381 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The application of enzymes such as laccase and xylanase for the preparation of cellulose from lignocellulosic material is an option for those industries seeking to reduce the use of chlorine-containing bleach agents, thus minimizing the environmental impact of their processes. Mixed hydrolytic and
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The application of enzymes such as laccase and xylanase for the preparation of cellulose from lignocellulosic material is an option for those industries seeking to reduce the use of chlorine-containing bleach agents, thus minimizing the environmental impact of their processes. Mixed hydrolytic and oxidative enzyme systems have been well described in the context of biopulping, and thus provide good precedent regarding effectiveness, despite the susceptibility of xylanase to inactivation by laccase-generated oxidants. This paper examines the progress towards development of sequential and simultaneous mixed enzyme systems to accomplish delignification. Full article
Open AccessReview Gold Nanoparticles as the Catalyst of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Synthesis
Catalysts 2014, 4(1), 38-48; doi:10.3390/catal4010038
Received: 29 July 2013 / Revised: 20 February 2014 / Accepted: 24 February 2014 / Published: 5 March 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (530 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gold nanoparticles have been proven to act as efficient catalysts for chemical reactions, such as oxidation and hydrogen production. In this review we focus on a different aspect of the catalysis of gold nanoparticles; single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) synthesis. This is not a
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Gold nanoparticles have been proven to act as efficient catalysts for chemical reactions, such as oxidation and hydrogen production. In this review we focus on a different aspect of the catalysis of gold nanoparticles; single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) synthesis. This is not a traditional meaning of catalytic reaction, but SWCNTs cannot be synthesized without nanoparticles. Previously, gold was considered as unsuitable metal species as the catalyst of SWCNT synthesis. However, gold nanoparticles with diameters smaller than 5 nm were found to effectively produce SWCNTs. We discuss the catalysis of gold and related metals for SWCNT synthesis in comparison with conventional catalysts, such as iron, cobalt, and nickel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Gold Catalysts)
Open AccessReview Influence of Reduction Promoters on Stability of Cobalt/g-Alumina Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Catalysts
Catalysts 2014, 4(1), 49-76; doi:10.3390/catal4010049
Received: 31 October 2013 / Revised: 13 January 2014 / Accepted: 20 February 2014 / Published: 11 March 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1826 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This focused review article underscores how metal reduction promoters can impact deactivation phenomena associated with cobalt Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts. Promoters can exacerbate sintering if the additional cobalt metal clusters, formed as a result of the promoting effect, are in close proximity at the
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This focused review article underscores how metal reduction promoters can impact deactivation phenomena associated with cobalt Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts. Promoters can exacerbate sintering if the additional cobalt metal clusters, formed as a result of the promoting effect, are in close proximity at the nanoscale to other cobalt particles on the surface. Recent efforts have shown that when promoters are used to facilitate the reduction of small crystallites with the aim of increasing surface Co0 site densities (e.g., in research catalysts), ultra-small crystallites (e.g., <2–4.4 nm) formed are more susceptible to oxidation at high conversion relative to larger ones. The choice of promoter is important, as certain metals (e.g., Au) that promote cobalt oxide reduction can separate from cobalt during oxidation-reduction (regeneration) cycles. Finally, some elements have been identified to promote reduction but either poison the surface of Co0 (e.g., Cu), or produce excessive light gas selectivity (e.g., Cu and Pd, or Au at high loading). Computational studies indicate that certain promoters may inhibit polymeric C formation by hindering C-C coupling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Catalyst Deactivation) Print Edition available

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