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Cells, Volume 6, Issue 4 (December 2017)

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Editorial

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Open AccessFeature PaperEditorial What Makes Cells Different from Other Open Access Journals
Cells 2017, 6(4), 41; doi:10.3390/cells6040041
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
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Abstract
In 2011, I was invited to serve as the Editor-In-Chief for Cells, which back then was a “new kid on the block” among open access (OA) journals.[...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Post-Translational Modification of Human Histone by Wide Tolerance of Acetylation
Cells 2017, 6(4), 34; doi:10.3390/cells6040034
Received: 13 September 2017 / Revised: 3 October 2017 / Accepted: 4 October 2017 / Published: 12 October 2017
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Abstract
Histone acetylation adds an acetyl group on the lysine residue commonly found within the N-terminal tail protruding from the histone core of the nucleosome, and is important for chromosome structure and function in gene transcription and chromatin remodeling. Acetylation may also occur on
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Histone acetylation adds an acetyl group on the lysine residue commonly found within the N-terminal tail protruding from the histone core of the nucleosome, and is important for chromosome structure and function in gene transcription and chromatin remodeling. Acetylation may also occur on other residues additional to lysine, but have not been thoroughly investigated at the proteomics level. Here we report a wide tolerance acetylation study mimicking the addition of 42 ± 0.5 Da delta mass modification on undefined amino acid residues of histones by shotgun proteomics using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. A multi-blind spectral alignment algorithm with a wide peptide tolerance revealed frequent occurrence of 42 ± 0.5 Da modifications at lysine (K), serine (S) and threonine (T) residues in human histones from kidney tissues. Precision delta mass analysis identified acetylation (42.011 ± 0.004 Da) and trimethylation (42.047 ± 0.002 Da) modifications within the delta mass range. A specific antibody was produced to validate the acetylated T22 of human histone H3 (H3T22ac) by immune assays. Thus, we demonstrated that the wide tolerance acetylation approach identified histone acetylation as well as modification variants commonly associated with acetylation at undefined residues additional to lysine. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Oxidative Stress-Responsive Apoptosis Inducing Protein (ORAIP) Plays a Critical Role in High Glucose-Induced Apoptosis in Rat Cardiac Myocytes and Murine Pancreatic β-Cells
Cells 2017, 6(4), 35; doi:10.3390/cells6040035
Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 15 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
We previously identified a novel apoptosis-inducing humoral factor in the conditioned medium of hypoxic/reoxygenated-cardiac myocytes. We named this novel post-translationally-modified secreted-form of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A Oxidative stress-Responsive Apoptosis-Inducing Protein (ORAIP). We confirmed that myocardial ischemia/reperfusion markedly increased plasma ORAIP levels and
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We previously identified a novel apoptosis-inducing humoral factor in the conditioned medium of hypoxic/reoxygenated-cardiac myocytes. We named this novel post-translationally-modified secreted-form of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A Oxidative stress-Responsive Apoptosis-Inducing Protein (ORAIP). We confirmed that myocardial ischemia/reperfusion markedly increased plasma ORAIP levels and rat myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury was clearly suppressed by neutralizing anti-ORAIP monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in vivo. In this study, to investigate the mechanism of cell injury of cardiac myocytes and pancreatic β-cells involved in diabetes mellitus (DM), we analyzed plasma ORAIP levels in DM model rats and the role of ORAIP in high glucose-induced apoptosis of cardiac myocytes in vitro. We also examined whether recombinant-ORAIP induces apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells. Plasma ORAIP levels in DM rats during diabetic phase were about 18 times elevated as compared with non-diabetic phase. High glucose induced massive apoptosis in cardiac myocytes (66.2 ± 2.2%), which was 78% suppressed by neutralizing anti-ORAIP mAb in vitro. Furthermore, recombinant-ORAIP clearly induced apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells in vitro. These findings strongly suggested that ORAIP plays a pivotal role in hyperglycemia-induced myocardial injury and pancreatic β-cell injury in DM. ORAIP will be a biomarker and a critical therapeutic target for cardiac injury and progression of DM itself. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Expression Profiling of Differentiating Emerin-Null Myogenic Progenitor Identifies Molecular Pathways Implicated in Their Impaired Differentiation
Cells 2017, 6(4), 38; doi:10.3390/cells6040038
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 22 October 2017
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Abstract
Mutations in the gene encoding emerin cause Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), a disorder causing progressive skeletal muscle wasting, irregular heart rhythms and contractures of major tendons. RNA sequencing was performed on differentiating wildtype and emerin-null myogenic progenitors to identify molecular pathways implicated in
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Mutations in the gene encoding emerin cause Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), a disorder causing progressive skeletal muscle wasting, irregular heart rhythms and contractures of major tendons. RNA sequencing was performed on differentiating wildtype and emerin-null myogenic progenitors to identify molecular pathways implicated in EDMD, 340 genes were uniquely differentially expressed during the transition from day 0 to day 1 in wildtype cells. 1605 genes were uniquely expressed in emerin-null cells; 1706 genes were shared among both wildtype and emerin-null cells. One thousand and forty-seven transcripts showed differential expression during the transition from day 1 to day 2. Four hundred and thirty-one transcripts showed altered expression in both wildtype and emerin-null cells. Two hundred and ninety-five transcripts were differentially expressed only in emerin-null cells and 321 transcripts were differentially expressed only in wildtype cells. DAVID, STRING and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified pathways implicated in impaired emerin-null differentiation, including cell signaling, cell cycle checkpoints, integrin signaling, YAP/TAZ signaling, stem cell differentiation, and multiple muscle development and myogenic differentiation pathways. Functional enrichment analysis showed biological functions associated with the growth of muscle tissue and myogenesis of skeletal muscle were inhibited. The large number of differentially expressed transcripts upon differentiation induction suggests emerin functions during transcriptional reprograming of progenitors to committed myoblasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Lamins and Laminopathies)
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Open AccessArticle Dupuytren’s and Ledderhose Diseases in a Family with LMNA-Related Cardiomyopathy and a Novel Variant in the ASTE1 Gene
Cells 2017, 6(4), 40; doi:10.3390/cells6040040
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 7 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
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Abstract
Dupuytren’s disease (palmar fibromatosis) involves nodules in fascia of the hand that leads to flexion contractures. Ledderhose disease (plantar fibromatosis) is similar with nodules of the foot. While clinical aspects are well-described, genetic mechanisms are unknown. We report a family with cardiac disease
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Dupuytren’s disease (palmar fibromatosis) involves nodules in fascia of the hand that leads to flexion contractures. Ledderhose disease (plantar fibromatosis) is similar with nodules of the foot. While clinical aspects are well-described, genetic mechanisms are unknown. We report a family with cardiac disease due to a heterozygous LMNA mutation (c.736C>T, p.Gln246Stop) with palmar/plantar fibromatosis and investigate the hypothesis that a second rare DNA variant increases the risk for fibrotic disease in LMNA mutation carriers. The proband and six family members were evaluated for the cardiac and hand/feet phenotypes and tested for the LMNA mutation. Fibroblast RNA studies revealed monoallelic expression of the normal LMNA allele and reduced lamin A/C mRNAs consistent with LMNA haploinsufficiency. A novel, heterozygous missense variant (c.230T>C, p.Val77Ala) in the Asteroid Homolog 1 (ASTE1) gene was identified as a potential risk factor in fibrotic disease using exome sequencing and family studies of five family members: four LMNA mutation carriers with fibromatosis and one individual without the LMNA mutation and no fibromatosis. With a possible role in epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, ASTE1 may contribute to the increased risk for palmar/plantar fibromatosis in patients with Lamin A/C haploinsufficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Lamins and Laminopathies)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Role of Scaffold Protein Proline-, Glutamic Acid-, and Leucine-Rich Protein 1 (PELP1) in the Modulation of Adrenocortical Cancer Cell Growth
Cells 2017, 6(4), 42; doi:10.3390/cells6040042
Received: 19 October 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
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Abstract
PELP1 acts as an estrogen receptor (ER) coactivator that exerts an essential role in the ER’s functions. ER coregulators have a critical role in the progression and response to hormonal treatment of estrogen-dependent tumors. We previously demonstrated that, in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), ERα
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PELP1 acts as an estrogen receptor (ER) coactivator that exerts an essential role in the ER’s functions. ER coregulators have a critical role in the progression and response to hormonal treatment of estrogen-dependent tumors. We previously demonstrated that, in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), ERα is upregulated and that estradiol activates the IGF-II/IGF1R signaling pathways defining the role of this functional cross-talk in H295R ACC cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to determine if PELP1 is expressed in ACC and may play a role in promoting the interaction between ERα and IGF1R allowing the activation of pathways important for ACC cell growth. The expression of PELP1 was detected by Western blot analysis in ACC tissues and in H295R cells. H295R cell proliferation decrease was assessed by A3-(4,5-Dimethylthiaoly)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and [3H] thymidine incorporation. PELP1 is expressed in ACC tissues and in H295R cells. Moreover, treatment of H295R with E2 or IGF-II induced a multiprotein complex formation consisting of PELP1, IGF1R, ERα, and Src that is involved in ERK1/2 rapid activation. PELP1/ER/IGF1R/c-Src complex identification as part of E2- and IGF-II-dependent signaling in ACC suggests PELP1 is a novel and more efficient potential target to reduce ACC growth. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Positive Control for Detection of Functional CD4 T Cells in PBMC: The CPI Pool
Cells 2017, 6(4), 47; doi:10.3390/cells6040047
Received: 12 November 2017 / Revised: 1 December 2017 / Accepted: 3 December 2017 / Published: 7 December 2017
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Abstract
Testing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for immune monitoring purposes requires verification of their functionality. This is of particular concern when the PBMC have been shipped or stored for prolonged periods of time. While the CEF (Cytomegalo-, Epstein-Barr and Flu-virus) peptide pool
[...] Read more.
Testing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for immune monitoring purposes requires verification of their functionality. This is of particular concern when the PBMC have been shipped or stored for prolonged periods of time. While the CEF (Cytomegalo-, Epstein-Barr and Flu-virus) peptide pool has become the gold standard for testing CD8 cell functionality, a positive control for CD4 cells is so far lacking. The latter ideally consists of proteins so as to control for the functionality of the antigen processing and presentation compartments, as well. Aiming to generate a positive control for CD4 cells, we first selected 12 protein antigens from infectious/environmental organisms that are ubiquitous: Varicella, Influenza, Parainfluenza, Mumps, Cytomegalovirus, Streptococcus, Mycoplasma, Lactobacillus, Neisseria, Candida, Rubella, and Measles. Of these antigens, three were found to elicited interferon (IFN)-γ-producing CD4 cells in the majority of human test subjects: inactivated cytomegalo-, parainfluenza-, and influenza virions (CPI). While individually none of these three antigens triggered a recall response in all donors, the pool of the three (the ‘CPI pool’), did. One hundred percent of 245 human donors tested were found to be CPI positive, including Caucasians, Asians, and African-Americans. Therefore, the CPI pool appears to be suitable to serve as universal positive control for verifying the functionality of CD4 and of antigen presenting cells. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview How Can Elispot Add Information to Improve Knowledge on Tropical Diseases?
Cells 2017, 6(4), 31; doi:10.3390/cells6040031
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
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Abstract
Elispot has been used as an important tool for detecting immune cells’ products and functions and has facilitated the understanding of host-pathogen interaction. Despite the incredible diversity of possibilities, two main approaches have been developed: the immunopathogenesis and diagnosis/prognosis of infectious diseases as
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Elispot has been used as an important tool for detecting immune cells’ products and functions and has facilitated the understanding of host-pathogen interaction. Despite the incredible diversity of possibilities, two main approaches have been developed: the immunopathogenesis and diagnosis/prognosis of infectious diseases as well as cancer research. Much has been described on the topics of allergy, autoimmune diseases, and HIV-Aids, however, Elispot can also be applied to other infectious diseases, mainly leishmaniasis, malaria, some viruses, helminths and mycosis usually classified as tropical diseases. The comprehension of the function, concentration and diversity of the immune response in the infectious disease is pointed out as crucial to the development of infection or disease in humans and animals. In this review we will describe the knowledge already obtained using Elispot as a method for accessing the profile of immune response as well as the recent advances in information about host-pathogen interaction in order to better understand the clinical outcome of a group of tropical and neglected diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in ELISPOT Research)
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Open AccessReview Use of Human Neurons Derived via Cellular Reprogramming Methods to Study Host-Parasite Interactions of Toxoplasma gondii in Neurons
Cells 2017, 6(4), 32; doi:10.3390/cells6040032
Received: 13 August 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 23 September 2017
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Abstract
Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite, with approximately one-third of the worlds’ population chronically infected. In chronically infected individuals, the parasite resides in tissue cysts in neurons in the brain. The chronic infection in immunocompetant individuals has traditionally been considered to be
[...] Read more.
Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite, with approximately one-third of the worlds’ population chronically infected. In chronically infected individuals, the parasite resides in tissue cysts in neurons in the brain. The chronic infection in immunocompetant individuals has traditionally been considered to be asymptomatic, but increasing evidence indicates that chronic infection is associated with diverse neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, cryptogenic epilepsy, and Parkinson’s Disease. The mechanisms by which the parasite exerts affects on behavior and other neuronal functions are not understood. Human neurons derived from cellular reprogramming methods offer the opportunity to develop better human neuronal models to study T. gondii in neurons. Results from two studies using human neurons derived via cellular reprogramming methods indicate these human neuronal models provide better in vitro models to study the effects of T. gondii on neurons and neurological functions. In this review, an overview of the current neural reprogramming methods will be given, followed by a summary of the studies using human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neurons and induced neurons (iNs) to study T. gondii in neurons. The potential of these neural reprogramming methods for further study of the host-parasite interactions of T. gondii in neurons will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine)
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Open AccessReview A Perspective on the Experimental Techniques for Studying Lamins
Cells 2017, 6(4), 33; doi:10.3390/cells6040033
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 1 October 2017 / Accepted: 5 October 2017 / Published: 10 October 2017
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Abstract
Lamins are type V intermediate filaments that collectively form a meshwork underneath the inner nuclear membrane, called nuclear lamina. Furthermore, they are also present in the nucleoplasm. Lamins are experiencing a growing interest, since a wide range of diseases are induced by mutations
[...] Read more.
Lamins are type V intermediate filaments that collectively form a meshwork underneath the inner nuclear membrane, called nuclear lamina. Furthermore, they are also present in the nucleoplasm. Lamins are experiencing a growing interest, since a wide range of diseases are induced by mutations in the gene coding for A-type lamins, globally known as laminopathies. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that lamins are involved in other pathological conditions, like cancer. The role of lamins has been studied from several perspectives, exploiting different techniques and procedures. This multidisciplinary approach has contributed to resolving the unique features of lamins and has provided a thorough insight in their role in living organisms. Yet, there are still many unanswered questions, which constantly generate research in the field. The present work is aimed to review some interesting experimental techniques performed so far to study lamins. Scientists can take advantage of this collection for their novel investigations, being aware of the already pursued and consolidated methodologies. Hopefully, advances in these research directions will provide insights to achieve better diagnostic procedures and effective therapeutic options. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Lamins and Laminopathies)
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Open AccessReview Monitoring Autophagy in the Model Green Microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Cells 2017, 6(4), 36; doi:10.3390/cells6040036
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 22 October 2017
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Abstract
Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic system that delivers cytoplasmic constituents and organelles in the vacuole. This degradative process is mediated by a group of proteins coded by autophagy-related (ATG) genes that are widely conserved from yeasts to plants and mammals. Homologs
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Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic system that delivers cytoplasmic constituents and organelles in the vacuole. This degradative process is mediated by a group of proteins coded by autophagy-related (ATG) genes that are widely conserved from yeasts to plants and mammals. Homologs of ATG genes have been also identified in algal genomes including the unicellular model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The development of specific tools to monitor autophagy in Chlamydomonas has expanded our current knowledge about the regulation and function of this process in algae. Recent findings indicated that autophagy is regulated by redox signals and the TOR network in Chlamydomonas and revealed that this process may play in important role in the control of lipid metabolism and ribosomal protein turnover in this alga. Here, we will describe the different techniques and approaches that have been reported to study autophagy and autophagic flux in Chlamydomonas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assays to Monitor Autophagy in Model Systems)
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Open AccessReview Standard Assays for the Study of Autophagy in the Ex Vivo Retina
Cells 2017, 6(4), 37; doi:10.3390/cells6040037
Received: 20 September 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 22 October 2017
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Abstract
Autophagy is a catabolic pathway that mediates the degradation and recycling of intracellular components, and is a key player in a variety of physiological processes in cells and tissues. Recent studies of autophagy in the eye suggest that this pathway is fundamental for
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Autophagy is a catabolic pathway that mediates the degradation and recycling of intracellular components, and is a key player in a variety of physiological processes in cells and tissues. Recent studies of autophagy in the eye suggest that this pathway is fundamental for the preservation of retinal homeostasis. Given its accessible location outside the brain, the retina is an ideal organ in which to study the central nervous system and a wide range of neuronal processes, from development to neurodegeneration. Here we review several methods used to assess autophagy in the retina in both physiological and pathological conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assays to Monitor Autophagy in Model Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Application of Sodium Selenite in the Prevention and Treatment of Cancers
Cells 2017, 6(4), 39; doi:10.3390/cells6040039
Received: 14 September 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 21 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
Selenium is an essential trace element that occurs in nature, in both inorganic and organic forms. This element participates in numerous biochemical processes, including antioxidant potential, but the mechanism of its anti-cancer action is still not well known. It should be noted that
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Selenium is an essential trace element that occurs in nature, in both inorganic and organic forms. This element participates in numerous biochemical processes, including antioxidant potential, but the mechanism of its anti-cancer action is still not well known. It should be noted that the anti-cancer properties of selenium depends on its chemical form, therapeutic doses, and the tumor type. Higher nutritional doses of selenium can stimulate human immune system. There are several hypotheses concerning the anticancer activity of selenium, including oxidation of sulfhydryl groups in proteins causing their conformational alterations. Conformational changes in proteins have the ability to weaken the activity of enzymes involved in the metabolism of cancer cells. In case of human fibrinogen sodium selenite, but not selenate, it inhibits protein disulfide exchange reactions, thus preventing formation of a hydrophobic polymer termed parafibrin, circulatory accumulation, of which is associated with numerous degenerative diseases. Parafibrin can specifically form a protein coat around tumor cells that is completely resistant to degradation induced with lymphocyte protease. In this way, cancer cells become protected against destruction by the organism’s immune system. Other possible mechanisms of anticancer action of selenium are being still investigated. Full article
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Open AccessReview Danger: High Voltage—The Role of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Central Nervous System Pathology
Cells 2017, 6(4), 43; doi:10.3390/cells6040043
Received: 14 September 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
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Abstract
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are widely distributed within the central nervous system (CNS) and presumed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of a broad spectrum of CNS disorders including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease as well as multiple sclerosis. Several calcium channel
[...] Read more.
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are widely distributed within the central nervous system (CNS) and presumed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of a broad spectrum of CNS disorders including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease as well as multiple sclerosis. Several calcium channel blockers have been in clinical practice for many years so that their toxicity and side effects are well studied. However, these drugs are primarily used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and most if not all effects on brain functions are secondary to peripheral effects on blood pressure and circulation. While the use of calcium channel antagonists for the treatment of CNS diseases therefore still heavily depends on the development of novel strategies to specifically target different channels and channel subunits, this review is meant to provide an impulse to further emphasize the importance of future research towards this goal. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Entamoeba histolytica under Oxidative Stress: What Countermeasure Mechanisms Are in Place?
Cells 2017, 6(4), 44; doi:10.3390/cells6040044
Received: 25 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of human amoebiasis; it affects 50 million people worldwide and causes approximately 100,000 deaths per year. Entamoeba histolytica is an anaerobic parasite that is primarily found in the colon; however, for unknown reasons, it can become invasive,
[...] Read more.
Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of human amoebiasis; it affects 50 million people worldwide and causes approximately 100,000 deaths per year. Entamoeba histolytica is an anaerobic parasite that is primarily found in the colon; however, for unknown reasons, it can become invasive, breaching the gut barrier and migrating toward the liver causing amoebic liver abscesses. During the invasive process, it must maintain intracellular hypoxia within the oxygenated human tissues and cellular homeostasis during the host immune defense attack when it is confronted with nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species. But how? This review will address the described and potential mechanisms available to counter the oxidative stress generated during invasion and the possible role that E. histolytica’s continuous endoplasmic reticulum (Eh-ER) plays during these events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organelle Function)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview The Role of Hypoxia in Glioblastoma Invasion
Cells 2017, 6(4), 45; doi:10.3390/cells6040045
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common and deadly type of primary malignant brain tumor, with a patient’s median survival rate ranging from 15 to 17 months. The current treatment for GBM involves tumor resection surgery based on MRI
[...] Read more.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common and deadly type of primary malignant brain tumor, with a patient’s median survival rate ranging from 15 to 17 months. The current treatment for GBM involves tumor resection surgery based on MRI image analysis, followed by radiotherapy and treatment with temozolomide. However, the gradual development of tumor resistance to temozolomide is frequent in GBM patients leading to subsequent tumor regrowth/relapse. For this reason, the development of more effective therapeutic approaches for GBM is of critical importance. Low tumor oxygenation, also known as hypoxia, constitutes a major concern for GBM patients, since it promotes cancer cell spreading (invasion) into the healthy brain tissue in order to evade this adverse microenvironment. Tumor invasion not only constitutes a major obstacle to surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, but it is also the main cause of death in GBM patients. Understanding how hypoxia triggers the GBM cells to become invasive is paramount to developing novel and more effective therapies against this devastating disease. In this review, we will present a comprehensive examination of the available literature focused on investigating how GBM hypoxia triggers an invasive cancer cell phenotype and the role of these invasive proteins in GBM progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cell Motility and Adhesion)
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Open AccessReview Venture from the Interior—Herpesvirus pUL31 Escorts Capsids from Nucleoplasmic Replication Compartments to Sites of Primary Envelopment at the Inner Nuclear Membrane
Cells 2017, 6(4), 46; doi:10.3390/cells6040046
Received: 26 October 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 25 November 2017
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Abstract
Herpesviral capsid assembly is initiated in the nucleoplasm of the infected cell. Size constraints require that newly formed viral nucleocapsids leave the nucleus by an evolutionarily conserved vescular transport mechanism called nuclear egress. Mature capsids released from the nucleoplasm are engaged in a
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Herpesviral capsid assembly is initiated in the nucleoplasm of the infected cell. Size constraints require that newly formed viral nucleocapsids leave the nucleus by an evolutionarily conserved vescular transport mechanism called nuclear egress. Mature capsids released from the nucleoplasm are engaged in a membrane-mediated budding process, composed of primary envelopment at the inner nuclear membrane and de-envelopment at the outer nuclear membrane. Once in the cytoplasm, the capsids receive their secondary envelope for maturation into infectious virions. Two viral proteins conserved throughout the herpesvirus family, the integral membrane protein pUL34 and the phosphoprotein pUL31, form the nuclear egress complex required for capsid transport from the infected nucleus to the cytoplasm. Formation of the nuclear egress complex results in budding of membrane vesicles revealing its function as minimal virus-encoded membrane budding and scission machinery. The recent structural analysis unraveled details of the heterodimeric nuclear egress complex and the hexagonal coat it forms at the inside of budding vesicles to drive primary envelopment. With this review, I would like to present the capsid-escort-model where pUL31 associates with capsids in nucleoplasmic replication compartments for escort to sites of primary envelopment thereby coupling capsid maturation and nuclear egress. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Lamins and Laminopathies)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Differential Location and Distribution of Hepatic Immune Cells
Cells 2017, 6(4), 48; doi:10.3390/cells6040048
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 3 December 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 7 December 2017
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Abstract
The liver is one of the main organs in the body, performing several metabolic and immunological functions that are indispensable to the organism. The liver is strategically positioned in the abdominal cavity between the intestine and the systemic circulation. Due to its location,
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The liver is one of the main organs in the body, performing several metabolic and immunological functions that are indispensable to the organism. The liver is strategically positioned in the abdominal cavity between the intestine and the systemic circulation. Due to its location, the liver is continually exposed to nutritional insults, microbiota products from the intestinal tract, and to toxic substances. Hepatocytes are the major functional constituents of the hepatic lobes, and perform most of the liver’s secretory and synthesizing functions, although another important cell population sustains the vitality of the organ: the hepatic immune cells. Liver immune cells play a fundamental role in host immune responses and exquisite mechanisms are necessary to govern the density and the location of the different hepatic leukocytes. Here we discuss the location of these pivotal cells within the different liver compartments, and how their frequency and tissular location can dictate the fate of liver immune responses. Full article
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