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Adm. Sci., Volume 8, Issue 2 (June 2018)

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Open AccessCommunication Development and Introduction of the Risk-Sentience Auxiliary Framework (RSAF) as an Enabler to the ISO 31000 and ISO 31010 for High-Risk Environments
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8020022
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a new auxiliary enterprise risk management framework and process to serve as an enabler to the global ISO 31000 risk framework and ISO 31010 processes. This framework has been designed particularly for
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The aim of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a new auxiliary enterprise risk management framework and process to serve as an enabler to the global ISO 31000 risk framework and ISO 31010 processes. This framework has been designed particularly for use within high-risk environments and those characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity (VUCA). This paper proposes a methodology for optimization of structured sharing and grass-roots management of all available risk-sentience information with the assessed potential to develop into an identifiable risk in the future. The author introduces new risk terminology including risk-sentience, risk-sentience information, and risk-sentience management. The process involved the development of the Theory of Risk-Sentience (ToRS), Risk-Sentience Auxiliary Framework (RSAF) and a risk-sentience management process referred to as LUOMEAR (Learning from Uncertainties, Others Mistakes, Experiences and Anecdotal Reporting). Manchester Patient Safety Framework (MaPSaF), SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis, and a newly developed Risk-Sentience Fertility Checklist were used to conduct pre and post-trial evaluations. The findings include positive adjustments in safety culture, components of commitment to quality, communication and team-working around safety issues, access to evolving risk-information, and efficient sharing and management of recorded risk-information. Recommendations are made for more extensive application of both the proposed auxiliary risk framework and process within high-risk sectors to further explore its effectiveness and scope. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rational Decision Making in Risk Management)
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Open AccessArticle The Effects of Knowledge Sharing on Individual Creativity in Higher Education Institutions: Socio-Technical View
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8020021
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 7 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
Knowledge sharing has multifaceted effects on organizations, such as improving work performance, among which creativity is apparently one of the most important parts. Nevertheless, the effects of knowledge sharing on individuals has not been paid attention sufficiently by previous research. Furthermore, knowledge sharing
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Knowledge sharing has multifaceted effects on organizations, such as improving work performance, among which creativity is apparently one of the most important parts. Nevertheless, the effects of knowledge sharing on individuals has not been paid attention sufficiently by previous research. Furthermore, knowledge sharing research mainly concerns business organizations rather than public organizations. This study aims to examine the effects of knowledge sharing on individuals in a higher institution of education in Korea, for which a socio-technical view and social capital theory is used to investigate the important antecedents of knowledge contribution, as well as to examine social and technical facets. This study is the first research regarding the relationship between knowledge sharing and individual creativity, and it also identifies the mediating effects of knowledge sharing on individual creativity at an individual level in a higher education institution. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Expanding Australian Indigenous Entrepreneurship Education Ecosystems
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8020020
Received: 17 March 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 3 June 2018 / Published: 6 June 2018
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Abstract
Australian Indigenous entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education represents a significant opportunity for Indigenous people to enhance their entrepreneurial skills, in turn building vibrant Indigenous-led economies that support sustainable economic development and social well-being. This study is the first of its kind to explore the
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Australian Indigenous entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education represents a significant opportunity for Indigenous people to enhance their entrepreneurial skills, in turn building vibrant Indigenous-led economies that support sustainable economic development and social well-being. This study is the first of its kind to explore the conceptualization of a framework of Australian Indigenous entrepreneurship education ecosystems. The purpose is to provide emergent inquiry and participatory action research into entrepreneurship education ecosystems, enabling the expansion of Indigenous research and practice; with the objective of delineating specific fundamentals associated with Indigenous entrepreneurs, such as limitations in social, human, and financial capital. We include and integrate Australian Indigenous value perspectives, including Indigenous knowledge, wisdom, and resilience, as well as the cultural captivity of entrepreneurship and Indigenous culture. The addition to the body of knowledge provides practical implications and a framework to the benefit of all ecosystem participants, including entrepreneurship educators, Indigenous entrepreneurs, policy-makers, training suppliers, and dynamic institutional participants, such as incubators, accelerators, and community development initiatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Widening International Entrepreneurship Research)
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Open AccessReview Technology Transfer Models and Elements in the University-Industry Collaboration
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8020019
Received: 1 February 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 6 June 2018
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Abstract
Over the years, universities have been considered as research centers that seek to collaborate with industries to create innovative products. This link has generated many concepts, among them being the concept of technology transfer. The objective of this work is to present a
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Over the years, universities have been considered as research centers that seek to collaborate with industries to create innovative products. This link has generated many concepts, among them being the concept of technology transfer. The objective of this work is to present a systematic review on the technology transfer generated in university-industry collaboration (UIC). Based on a review of 66 papers, the results presented in this article include the technology transfer (TT) models presented in the literature, a description of the common elements in a transfer process, and a description of the interaction between the elements involved, through the presentation of a conceptual model of technology transfer in the context of collaboration between the university and the industry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Entrepreneurship Skills Development in Higher Education Courses for Teams Leaders
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8020018
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 12 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
This article analyses the concept of skills and identifies the skills needed by entrepreneurs to lead their teams. To accomplish these goals, the primary step was to determine the leadership skills developed by the universities in the entrepreneurship and innovation courses and to
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This article analyses the concept of skills and identifies the skills needed by entrepreneurs to lead their teams. To accomplish these goals, the primary step was to determine the leadership skills developed by the universities in the entrepreneurship and innovation courses and to compare it with the needed skills perceived by entrepreneurs. This research approach is framed in the Management Sciences, and the research problem is anchored to the following research questions: What leadership skills are required by students for them to be effective in entrepreneurial endeavors upon graduation? Are the skills identified by the entrepreneurs sufficiently learned in Universities in Portugal? Does the student work experience, gender or age contribute to a level of leadership skills attainment? The leadership skills identified by the entrepreneurs were pointed out by two focus groups with 15 entrepreneurs and by conceptual content analysis, establishing the existence and frequency of concepts represented by the words or phrases in the entrepreneur’s discourse. To verify if those skills are being developed in the entrepreneurship and innovation of higher education courses, an online survey was conducted with the students from the 3rd year of 2016/2017 academic year of several universities. The primary outcome of the research will be a proposal for a model of leadership skills development for students to potentiate their leadership capacity as entrepreneurs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Widening International Entrepreneurship Research)
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Open AccessArticle Organising the Monies of Corporate Financial Crimes via Organisational Structures: Ostensible Legitimacy, Effective Anonymity, and Third-Party Facilitation
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8020017
Received: 9 April 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
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Abstract
This article analyses how the monies generated for, and from, corporate financial crimes are controlled, concealed, and converted through the use of organisational structures in the form of otherwise legitimate corporate entities and arrangements that serve as vehicles for the management of illicit
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This article analyses how the monies generated for, and from, corporate financial crimes are controlled, concealed, and converted through the use of organisational structures in the form of otherwise legitimate corporate entities and arrangements that serve as vehicles for the management of illicit finances. Unlike the illicit markets and associated ‘organised crime groups’ and ‘criminal enterprises’ that are the normal focus of money laundering studies, corporate financial crimes involve ostensibly legitimate businesses operating within licit, transnational markets. Within these scenarios, we see corporations as primary offenders, as agents, and as facilitators of the administration of illicit finances. In all cases, organisational structures provide opportunities for managing illicit finances that individuals alone cannot access, but which require some element of third-party collaboration. In this article, we draw on data generated from our Partnership for Conflict, Crime, and Security Research (PaCCS)-funded project on the misuse of corporate structures and entities to manage illicit finances to make a methodological and substantive addition to the literature in this area. We analyse two cases from our research—corporate bribery in international business and corporate tax fraud—before discussing three main findings: (1) the ostensible legitimacy created through abuse of otherwise lawful business arrangements; (2) the effective anonymity and insulation afforded through such misuse; and (3) the necessity for facilitation by third-party professionals operating within a stratified market. The analysis improves our understanding of how and why business offenders misuse what are otherwise legitimate business structures, arrangements, and practices in their criminal enterprise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Organizational Aspects of Corporate and Organizational Crime)
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Open AccessArticle Paths and Challenges of New Technologies: The Case of Nanotechnology-Based Cosmetics Development in Brazil
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8020016
Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
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Abstract
New technologies have challenges to overcome when applying it to new products. New products depend on the technological and market novelties. Therefore, the term product innovativeness is defined as the technological and market degree of novelty. For several industries, the nanotechnology has been
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New technologies have challenges to overcome when applying it to new products. New products depend on the technological and market novelties. Therefore, the term product innovativeness is defined as the technological and market degree of novelty. For several industries, the nanotechnology has been the latest technology, and it has also been included in Brazilian government strategic agenda. Considering the importance of new technologies and innovation, we describe the paths and challenges of nanotechnology-based cosmetics development to achieve product innovativeness. Opposing the new product development (NPD) mainstream based on efficiency, we used the evolutionary approach by highlighting the novelties. We describe three NPD stages (conception, operationalization, nd launch). For empirical evidence, we chose two Brazilian emblematic cases (suppliers for cosmetics industry) that domain nanotechnology. One case scans more potential market novelties and consequently produces indigenous nanotechnology for international industries such as cosmetics, food, and textile. The second case represents the new technology limited by the application in cosmetics. New technologies are not an innovation guarantee. Market demands must be identified in the early stage of NPD. When the focus is the novelty, the NPD evolutionary approach is useful. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperConcept Paper Evolving Government Information Processes for Service Delivery: Identifying Types & Impact
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8020015
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 30 April 2018 / Published: 3 May 2018
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Abstract
The fulfilment of government objectives is dependent on information. Traditionally, this information originates from a classic process of input, (processing) activities, and output. However, in light of increased intergovernmental data sharing, the movement towards open data and opportunities concerning big data, traditional government
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The fulfilment of government objectives is dependent on information. Traditionally, this information originates from a classic process of input, (processing) activities, and output. However, in light of increased intergovernmental data sharing, the movement towards open data and opportunities concerning big data, traditional government information processes are evolving. This article aims to bring insight into these evolutions by creating a typology. Based on the typology, the paper further reflects on the impact these evolutions have on the processes and creation, delivery and improvement of public service. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovating Public Sector through Digitalization)
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of the Characteristics of the National Business System in the Disclosure of Gender-Related Corporate Social Responsibility Practices
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8020014
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
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Abstract
We analysed the influence of the characteristics of national business systems on the disclosure of gender-related corporate social responsibility practices by 150 companies in Latin America that signed the Declaration of Support for Women’s Empowerment Principles. The highest level of disclosure was related
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We analysed the influence of the characteristics of national business systems on the disclosure of gender-related corporate social responsibility practices by 150 companies in Latin America that signed the Declaration of Support for Women’s Empowerment Principles. The highest level of disclosure was related to the establishment of high-level corporate leadership for gender equality. Results show that the country’s level of “concentration of power” and “individualism”, and the “orientation towards femininity” have a negative influence on the disclosure of gender-related practices; in addition, the country’s level of “economic development” and the “pressure of unions” exert a positive influence. The results highlight the important role that some national and local institutions play in the women’s empowerment, leading companies to report information on adopted practices. The study innovates and contributes by introducing the explanation of gender-related social disclosure with the national business system approach in Latin America. Full article
Open AccessArticle Distinctive Innovation Capabilities of Argentine Software Companies with High Innovation Results and Impacts
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8020013
Received: 4 January 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 6 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
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Abstract
The software sector is of growing importance and, due to its degree of dynamism, the identification of capabilities for innovation is vital. This study identifies capabilities variables that distinguish Argentine software companies with high innovation results and high innovation impacts from those with
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The software sector is of growing importance and, due to its degree of dynamism, the identification of capabilities for innovation is vital. This study identifies capabilities variables that distinguish Argentine software companies with high innovation results and high innovation impacts from those with lesser results and impacts. It is applied to a sample of 103 companies, a measurement model and the component variables of an innovation degree index for software companies (INIs) formulated in previous studies. A Principal Component Analysis and a biplot are conducted. In the analysis of results and impacts, 100% of the variability within the first two components is explained, which shows the high correlation between variables. From the biplots, it appears that companies with high results have higher degrees in the variables of motivation, strategy, leadership and internal determinants; and those with high impacts present higher degrees of structure, strategy, leadership, free software and innovation activities. The findings add elements to the theory of capabilities for innovation in the software sector and allow us to consider the relative importance of different capabilities variables in the generation of innovation results and impacts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Contextualizing Corruption: A Cross-Disciplinary Approach to Studying Corruption in Organizations
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8020012
Received: 27 December 2017 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 6 April 2018 / Published: 10 April 2018
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Abstract
This paper aims to establish how organization and management research, an extensive field that has contributed a great deal to research on corruption, could apply insights from other disciplines in order to advance the understanding of corruption, often considered as a form of
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This paper aims to establish how organization and management research, an extensive field that has contributed a great deal to research on corruption, could apply insights from other disciplines in order to advance the understanding of corruption, often considered as a form of unethical behavior in organizations. It offers an analysis of important contributions of corruption research, taking a ‘rationalist perspective’, and highlights the central tensions and debates within this vast body of literatures. It then shows how these debates can be addressed by applying insights from corruption studies, adopting anthropological lens. The paper thus proposes a cross-disciplinary approach, which focuses on studying corruption by looking at what it means to individuals implicated by the phenomenon while engaging in social relations and situated in different contexts. It also offers an alternative approach to the study of corruption amidst claims that anti-corruption efforts have failed to achieve desirable results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Organizational Aspects of Corporate and Organizational Crime)
Open AccessArticle Technology and Innovation Management in Higher Education—Cases from Latin America and Europe
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8020011
Received: 5 January 2018 / Revised: 30 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 8 April 2018
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Abstract
To solve common bottlenecks in the innovation and development process known as the “European Paradox” or the “Latin American Innovative Gap”, we introduce different experiences of training and education at graduate level. The main objective of this study is to analyze different cases
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To solve common bottlenecks in the innovation and development process known as the “European Paradox” or the “Latin American Innovative Gap”, we introduce different experiences of training and education at graduate level. The main objective of this study is to analyze different cases from Europe and Latin America to synthetize a model of technology and innovation management. Conceptually, the model focuses on competences, tools, skills and behaviors. From this knowledge base, we derive a new model of learning for higher education, using an organizational framework. Our model of learning includes different ways to obtain a panoply of competencies to identify technology and innovation management issues at individual business and regional level, particularly for small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The model addresses innovation challenges related to new innovative relationships and product opportunities emerging from traditional sectors, but also from nanotechnology, biotech and ICT fields, with particular emphasis on environmental and sustainability problems. We suggest that our two models may serve as the foundation for designing a curricular master’s program for higher education, in accordance with the Latin American and European realities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Case Study Based Model to Propose the Integration of Suppliers in a Central State in Mexico
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8020010
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 3 April 2018
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Abstract
This paper addresses the situation of an industrial park in Mexico from the perspective of its community. It exposes a case study approach with the points of view of residents, businesses, and authorities to improve the socioeconomic conditions of the region: Sahagun, Hidalgo.
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This paper addresses the situation of an industrial park in Mexico from the perspective of its community. It exposes a case study approach with the points of view of residents, businesses, and authorities to improve the socioeconomic conditions of the region: Sahagun, Hidalgo. The result of this article comes from a project ran by the Ministry of Economy of the state, to trigger the development of this area. The background of the topic is presented, its theoretical basis, and the methodological design. Finally, an integrative model is exposed to show the necessary actions to articulate enterprises—the society and the government to develop the town. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Linking Transformational Leadership, Absorptive Capacity, and Corporate Entrepreneurship
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8020009
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
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Abstract
This study aims to analyze the nexus between transformational leadership and corporate entrepreneurship through an integration of dispersed scholarly work on transformational leadership, absorptive capacity, and corporate entrepreneurship under one framework. A survey method was employed for the collection of data from small
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This study aims to analyze the nexus between transformational leadership and corporate entrepreneurship through an integration of dispersed scholarly work on transformational leadership, absorptive capacity, and corporate entrepreneurship under one framework. A survey method was employed for the collection of data from small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of Pakistan. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) technique to empirically test the hypotheses. The results demonstrate that transformational leadership positively affects corporate entrepreneurship and its dimensions—namely, innovation, new business venturing, self-renewal, proactivity, and risk-taking—both directly and through absorptive capacity. The potential of transformational leadership to influence corporate entrepreneurship via absorptive capacity added additional interesting substitutes. Future studies may produce novel insights by examining different leadership styles, settings, or utilizing qualitative technique. Firms should invest to initiate transformational leadership training programs for their managers. Additionally, if these firms are aiming to promote corporate entrepreneurship, they should focus on hiring managers that have attributes of transformational leadership. Furthermore, they should also invest in absorptive capacity to utilize outside knowledge for the enhancement of entrepreneurial activities. This study exploits research work on the relationship between transformational leadership and corporate entrepreneurship in a novel way; it investigates the dimensions of entrepreneurship individually, as well as unidimensionally, and includes the mediating role of absorptive capacity and tests several other hypotheses that previously have been ignored. This study, compared to the existing research, contributes to the impact of transformational leadership on corporate entrepreneurship and absorptive capacity, especially in Pakistan’s business settings. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle How Organizational Culture Shapes Women’s Leadership Experiences
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8020008
Received: 21 December 2017 / Revised: 17 March 2018 / Accepted: 17 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
This article presents the findings of a grounded theory study that examined the role of organizational culture and organizational fit in the leadership aspirations and experiences of 16 women working in faith-based colleges and universities in the U.S. Specifically, the researchers sought to
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This article presents the findings of a grounded theory study that examined the role of organizational culture and organizational fit in the leadership aspirations and experiences of 16 women working in faith-based colleges and universities in the U.S. Specifically, the researchers sought to understand what aspects of organizational culture at the home institutions of these participants influenced their employment experiences, including their considerations and decisions related to aspiring to and/or advancing into leadership. Analysis of the interview data indicated that the participants clustered into four subgroups: (1) participants who did not perceive that gender issues in the culture influenced their work or roles within the institution; (2) participants who reported that they did not perceive gender issues to be an institutional problem; however, they cited examples of problematic systems and cultures; (3) participants who identified gender inequalities at their institution, but indicated that such problems impacted them only minimally, if at all; and (4) participants who offered explicit criticism regarding the gendered dynamics evident in the culture in their institutions and in Christian higher education more broadly. Influences on leadership aspirations or experiences were identified as either being “push” (i.e., propelling the participant away from the organization and thus diminishing aspirations or willingness to move into or remain in leadership) or “pull” (i.e., drawing the participant into further engagement with the organization, thus increasing the desire to become or remain a leader in that context), with particular attention to the context of faith-based higher education. The article concludes with a brief discussion of implications for practice for individuals and postsecondary institutions. Full article
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