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Vaccines, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2014), Pages 196-499

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Co-Administration of Molecular Adjuvants Expressing NF-Kappa B Subunit p65/RelA or Type-1 Transactivator T-bet Enhance Antigen Specific DNA Vaccine-Induced Immunity
Vaccines 2014, 2(2), 196-215; doi:10.3390/vaccines2020196
Received: 27 November 2013 / Revised: 31 January 2014 / Accepted: 28 February 2014 / Published: 25 March 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1452 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
DNA vaccine-induced immunity can be enhanced by the co-delivery of synthetic gene-encoding molecular adjuvants. Many of these adjuvants have included cytokines, chemokines or co-stimulatory molecules that have been demonstrated to enhance vaccine-induced immunity by increasing the magnitude or type of immune responses and/or
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DNA vaccine-induced immunity can be enhanced by the co-delivery of synthetic gene-encoding molecular adjuvants. Many of these adjuvants have included cytokines, chemokines or co-stimulatory molecules that have been demonstrated to enhance vaccine-induced immunity by increasing the magnitude or type of immune responses and/or protective efficacy. In this way, through the use of adjuvants, immune responses can be highly customizable and functionally tailored for optimal efficacy against pathogen specific (i.e., infectious agent) or non-pathogen (i.e., cancer) antigens. In the novel study presented here, we examined the use of cellular transcription factors as molecular adjuvants. Specifically the co-delivery of (a) RelA, a subunit of the NF-κB transcription complex or (b) T-bet, a Th1-specific T box transcription factor, along with a prototypical DNA vaccine expressing HIV-1 proteins was evaluated. As well, all of the vaccines and adjuvants were administered to mice using in vivo electroporation (EP), a technology demonstrated to dramatically increase plasmid DNA transfection and subsequent transgene expression with concomitant enhancement of vaccine induced immune responses. As such, this study demonstrated that co-delivery of either adjuvant resulted in enhanced T and B cell responses, specifically characterized by increased T cell numbers, IFN-γ production, as well as enhanced antibody responses. This study demonstrates the use of cellular transcription factors as adjuvants for enhancing DNA vaccine-induced immunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Vaccines)
Open AccessArticle HSP70 Promoter-Driven Activation of Gene Expression for Immunotherapy Using Gold Nanorods and Near Infrared Light
Vaccines 2014, 2(2), 216-227; doi:10.3390/vaccines2020216
Received: 5 December 2013 / Revised: 25 February 2014 / Accepted: 10 March 2014 / Published: 25 March 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (839 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Modulation of the cytokine milieu is one approach for vaccine development. However, therapy with pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-12, is limited in practice due to adverse systemic effects. Spatially-restricted gene expression circumvents this problem by enabling localized amplification. Intracellular co-delivery of gold nanorods
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Modulation of the cytokine milieu is one approach for vaccine development. However, therapy with pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-12, is limited in practice due to adverse systemic effects. Spatially-restricted gene expression circumvents this problem by enabling localized amplification. Intracellular co-delivery of gold nanorods (AuNR) and a heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) promoter-driven expression vector enables gene expression in response to near infrared (NIR) light. AuNRs absorb the light, convert it into heat and thereby stimulate photothermal expression of the cytokine. As proof-of-concept, human HeLa and murine B16 cancer cells were transfected with a HSP70-Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP) plasmid and polyethylenimine (PEI)-conjugated AuNRs. Exposure to either 42 °C heat-shock or NIR light induced significant expression of the reporter gene. In vivo NIR driven expression of the reporter gene was confirmed at 6 and 24 h in mice bearing B16 melanoma tumors using in vivo imaging and flow-cytometric analysis. Overall, we demonstrate a novel opportunity for site-directed, heat-inducible expression of a gene based upon the NIR-absorbing properties of AuNRs and a HSP70 promoter-driven expression vector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccine Adjuvants)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Vaccine Adjuvants in Fish Vaccines Make a Difference: Comparing Three Adjuvants (Montanide ISA763A Oil, CpG/Poly I:C Combo and VHSV Glycoprotein) Alone or in Combination Formulated with an Inactivated Whole Salmonid Alphavirus Antigen
Vaccines 2014, 2(2), 228-251; doi:10.3390/vaccines2020228
Received: 16 December 2013 / Revised: 21 February 2014 / Accepted: 13 March 2014 / Published: 25 March 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (574 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Most commercial vaccines offered to the aquaculture industry include inactivated antigens (Ag) formulated in oil adjuvants. Safety concerns are related to the use of oil adjuvants in multivalent vaccines for fish, since adverse side effects (e.g., adhesions) can appear. Therefore, there is a
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Most commercial vaccines offered to the aquaculture industry include inactivated antigens (Ag) formulated in oil adjuvants. Safety concerns are related to the use of oil adjuvants in multivalent vaccines for fish, since adverse side effects (e.g., adhesions) can appear. Therefore, there is a request for vaccine formulations for which protection will be maintained or improved, while the risk of side effects is reduced. Here, by using an inactivated salmonid alphavirus (SAV) as the test Ag, the combined use of two Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand adjuvants, CpG oligonucleotides (ODNs) and poly I:C, as well as a genetic adjuvant consisting of a DNA plasmid vector expressing the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) glycoprotein (G) was explored. VHSV-G DNA vaccine was intramuscularly injected in combination with intraperitoneal injection of either SAV Ag alone or combined with the oil adjuvant, Montanide ISA763, or the CpG/polyI:C combo. Adjuvant formulations were evaluated for their ability to boost immune responses and induce protection against SAV in Atlantic salmon, following cohabitation challenge. It was observed that CpG/polyI:C-based formulations generated the highest neutralizing antibody titres (nAbs) before challenge, which endured post challenge. nAb responses for VHSV G-DNA- and oil-adjuvanted formulations were marginal compared to the CpG/poly I:C treatment. Interestingly, heat-inactivated sera showed reduced nAb titres compared to their non-heated counterparts, which suggests a role of complement-mediated neutralization against SAV. Consistently elevated levels of innate antiviral immune genes in the CpG/polyI:C injected groups suggested a role of IFN-mediated responses. Co-delivery of the VHSV-G DNA construct with either CpG/polyI:C or oil-adjuvanted SAV vaccine generated higher CD4 responses in head kidney at 48 h compared to injection of this vector or SAV Ag alone. The results demonstrate that a combination of pattern recognizing receptor (PRR) ligands, such as CpG/polyI:C, increases both adaptive and innate responses and represents a promising adjuvant strategy for enhancing the protection of future viral vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccine Adjuvants)
Open AccessArticle Pleurocidin Peptide Enhances Grouper Anti-Vibrio harveyi Immunity Elicited by Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-Encapsulated Recombinant Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase
Vaccines 2014, 2(2), 380-396; doi:10.3390/vaccines2020380
Received: 31 March 2014 / Revised: 6 May 2014 / Accepted: 6 May 2014 / Published: 14 May 2014
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Abstract
Outer membrane proteins, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), are considered immunodominant antigens for eliciting protective immunity against Vibrio harveyi, the main etiological agent of vibriosis in fish. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as pleurocidin (PLE), play important roles in activating and recruiting
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Outer membrane proteins, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), are considered immunodominant antigens for eliciting protective immunity against Vibrio harveyi, the main etiological agent of vibriosis in fish. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as pleurocidin (PLE), play important roles in activating and recruiting immune cells, thereby contributing to subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. In the present study, we aimed to use PLE peptide as a potent adjuvant to improve the immunogenicity of V. harveyi recombinant GAPDH (rGAPDH). In order to prepare a controlled-release vaccine, PLE peptide and rGAPDH protein were simultaneously encapsulated into polymeric microparticles made from the biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) polymer. The resulting PLG-encapsulated PLE plus rGAPDH (PLG-PLE/rGAPDH) microparticles, 3.21–6.27 μm in diameter, showed 72%–83% entrapment efficiency and durably released both PLE and rGAPDH for a long 30-day period. Following peritoneal immunization in grouper (Epinephelus coioides), PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles resulted in significantly higher (p < 0.05, nested design) long-lasting GAPDH-specific immunity (serum titers and lymphocyte proliferation) than PLG-encapsulated rGAPDH (PLG-rGAPDH) microparticles. After an experimental challenge of V. harveyi, PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles conferred a high survival rate (85%), which was significantly higher (p < 0.05, chi-square test) than that induced by PLG-rGAPDH microparticles (67%). In conclusion, PLE peptide exhibits an efficacious adjuvant effect to elicit not only improved immunity, but also enhanced protection against V. harveyi in grouper induced by rGAPDH protein encapsulated in PLG microparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptide Vaccine)
Open AccessArticle Identifying the Conditions Under Which Antibodies Protect Against Infection by Equine Infectious Anemia Virus
Vaccines 2014, 2(2), 397-421; doi:10.3390/vaccines2020397
Received: 26 August 2013 / Revised: 4 April 2014 / Accepted: 16 April 2014 / Published: 27 May 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1302 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ability to predict the conditions under which antibodies protect against viral infection would transform our approach to vaccine development. A more complete understanding is needed of antibody protection against lentivirus infection, as well as the role of mutation in resistance to an
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The ability to predict the conditions under which antibodies protect against viral infection would transform our approach to vaccine development. A more complete understanding is needed of antibody protection against lentivirus infection, as well as the role of mutation in resistance to an antibody vaccine. Recently, an example of antibody-mediated vaccine protection has been shown via passive transfer of neutralizing antibodies before equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection of horses with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Viral dynamic modeling of antibody protection from EIAV infection in SCID horses may lead to insights into the mechanisms of control of infection by antibody vaccination. In this work, such a model is constructed in conjunction with data from EIAV infection of SCID horses to gain insights into multiple strain competition in the presence of antibody control. Conditions are determined under which wild-type infection is eradicated with the antibody vaccine. In addition, a three-strain competition model is considered in which a second mutant strain may coexist with the first mutant strain. The conditions that permit viral escape by the mutant strains are determined, as are the effects of variation in the model parameters. This work extends the current understanding of competition and antibody control in lentiviral infection, which may provide insights into the development of vaccines that stimulate the immune system to control infection effectively. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Adjuvants in the Driver’s Seat: How Magnitude, Type, Fine Specificity and Longevity of Immune Responses Are Driven by Distinct Classes of Immune Potentiators
Vaccines 2014, 2(2), 252-296; doi:10.3390/vaccines2020252
Received: 27 December 2013 / Revised: 20 March 2014 / Accepted: 28 March 2014 / Published: 10 April 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (530 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The mechanism by which vaccine adjuvants enhance immune responses has historically been considered to be the creation of an antigen depot. From here, the antigen is slowly released and provided to immune cells over an extended period of time. This “depot” was formed
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The mechanism by which vaccine adjuvants enhance immune responses has historically been considered to be the creation of an antigen depot. From here, the antigen is slowly released and provided to immune cells over an extended period of time. This “depot” was formed by associating the antigen with substances able to persist at the injection site, such as aluminum salts or emulsions. The identification of Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) has greatly advanced our understanding of how adjuvants work beyond the simple concept of extended antigen release and has accelerated the development of novel adjuvants. This review focuses on the mode of action of different adjuvant classes in regards to the stimulation of specific immune cell subsets, the biasing of immune responses towards cellular or humoral immune response, the ability to mediate epitope spreading and the induction of persistent immunological memory. A better understanding of how particular adjuvants mediate their biological effects will eventually allow them to be selected for specific vaccines in a targeted and rational manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccine Adjuvants)
Open AccessReview Vaccine Potentiation by Combination Adjuvants
Vaccines 2014, 2(2), 297-322; doi:10.3390/vaccines2020297
Received: 3 January 2014 / Revised: 22 March 2014 / Accepted: 28 March 2014 / Published: 14 April 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (694 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Adjuvants are crucial components of vaccines. They significantly improve vaccine efficacy by modulating, enhancing, or extending the immune response and at the same time reducing the amount of antigen needed. In contrast to previously licensed adjuvants, current successful adjuvant formulations often consist of
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Adjuvants are crucial components of vaccines. They significantly improve vaccine efficacy by modulating, enhancing, or extending the immune response and at the same time reducing the amount of antigen needed. In contrast to previously licensed adjuvants, current successful adjuvant formulations often consist of several molecules, that when combined, act synergistically by activating a variety of immune mechanisms. These “combination adjuvants” are already registered with several vaccines, both in humans and animals, and novel combination adjuvants are in the pipeline. With improved knowledge of the type of immune responses needed to successfully induce disease protection by vaccination, combination adjuvants are particularly suited to not only enhance, but also direct the immune responses desired to be either Th1-, Th2- or Th17-biased. Indeed, in view of the variety of disease and population targets for vaccine development, a panel of adjuvants will be needed to address different disease targets and populations. Here, we will review well-known and new combination adjuvants already licensed or currently in development—including ISCOMs, liposomes, Adjuvant Systems Montanides, and triple adjuvant combinations—and summarize their performance in preclinical and clinical trials. Several of these combination adjuvants are promising having promoted improved and balanced immune responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccine Adjuvants)
Open AccessReview Immune Adjuvant Effect of Molecularly-defined Toll-Like Receptor Ligands
Vaccines 2014, 2(2), 323-353; doi:10.3390/vaccines2020323
Received: 11 February 2014 / Revised: 27 March 2014 / Accepted: 28 March 2014 / Published: 25 April 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (887 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vaccine efficacy is optimized by addition of immune adjuvants. However, although adjuvants have been used for over a century, to date, only few adjuvants are approved for human use, mostly aimed at improving vaccine efficacy and antigen-specific protective antibody production. The mechanism of
[...] Read more.
Vaccine efficacy is optimized by addition of immune adjuvants. However, although adjuvants have been used for over a century, to date, only few adjuvants are approved for human use, mostly aimed at improving vaccine efficacy and antigen-specific protective antibody production. The mechanism of action of immune adjuvants is diverse, depending on their chemical and molecular nature, ranging from non-specific effects (i.e., antigen depot at the immunization site) to specific activation of immune cells leading to improved host innate and adaptive responses. Although the detailed molecular mechanism of action of many adjuvants is still elusive, the discovery of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) has provided new critical information on immunostimulatory effect of numerous bacterial components that engage TLRs. These ligands have been shown to improve both the quality and the quantity of host adaptive immune responses when used in vaccine formulations targeted to infectious diseases and cancer that require both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. The potential of such TLR adjuvants in improving the design and the outcomes of several vaccines is continuously evolving, as new agonists are discovered and tested in experimental and clinical models of vaccination. In this review, a summary of the recent progress in development of TLR adjuvants is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccine Adjuvants)
Open AccessReview HIV DNA Vaccine: Stepwise Improvements Make a Difference
Vaccines 2014, 2(2), 354-379; doi:10.3390/vaccines2020354
Received: 21 February 2014 / Revised: 11 April 2014 / Accepted: 18 April 2014 / Published: 14 May 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (821 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inefficient DNA delivery methods and low expression of plasmid DNA have been major obstacles for the use of plasmid DNA as vaccine for HIV/AIDS. This review describes successful efforts to improve DNA vaccine methodology over the past ~30 years. DNA vaccination, either alone
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Inefficient DNA delivery methods and low expression of plasmid DNA have been major obstacles for the use of plasmid DNA as vaccine for HIV/AIDS. This review describes successful efforts to improve DNA vaccine methodology over the past ~30 years. DNA vaccination, either alone or in combination with other methods, has the potential to be a rapid, safe, and effective vaccine platform against AIDS. Recent clinical trials suggest the feasibility of its translation to the clinic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Vaccines)
Figures

Open AccessReview Therapeutic Vaccine Strategies against Human Papillomavirus
Vaccines 2014, 2(2), 422-462; doi:10.3390/vaccines2020422
Received: 9 April 2014 / Revised: 16 May 2014 / Accepted: 27 May 2014 / Published: 13 June 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (911 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause over 500,000 cervical, anogenital and oropharyngeal cancer cases per year. The transforming potential of HPVs is mediated by viral oncoproteins. These are essential for the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Thus, HPV-mediated malignancies pose
[...] Read more.
High-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause over 500,000 cervical, anogenital and oropharyngeal cancer cases per year. The transforming potential of HPVs is mediated by viral oncoproteins. These are essential for the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Thus, HPV-mediated malignancies pose the unique opportunity in cancer vaccination to target immunologically foreign epitopes. Therapeutic HPV vaccination is therefore an ideal scenario for proof-of-concept studies of cancer immunotherapy. This is reflected by the fact that a multitude of approaches has been utilized in therapeutic HPV vaccination design: protein and peptide vaccination, DNA vaccination, nanoparticle- and cell-based vaccines, and live viral and bacterial vectors. This review provides a comprehensive overview of completed and ongoing clinical trials in therapeutic HPV vaccination (summarized in tables), and also highlights selected promising preclinical studies. Special emphasis is given to adjuvant science and the potential impact of novel developments in vaccinology research, such as combination therapies to overcome tumor immune suppression, the use of novel materials and mouse models, as well as systems vaccinology and immunogenetics approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptide Vaccine)
Open AccessReview Novel GMO-Based Vaccines against Tuberculosis: State of the Art and Biosafety Considerations
Vaccines 2014, 2(2), 463-499; doi:10.3390/vaccines2020463
Received: 13 February 2014 / Revised: 24 April 2014 / Accepted: 6 May 2014 / Published: 16 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (723 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Novel efficient vaccines are needed to control tuberculosis (TB), a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Several TB vaccine candidates are currently in clinical and preclinical development. They fall into two categories, the one of candidates designed as a replacement of the
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Novel efficient vaccines are needed to control tuberculosis (TB), a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Several TB vaccine candidates are currently in clinical and preclinical development. They fall into two categories, the one of candidates designed as a replacement of the Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) to be administered to infants and the one of sub-unit vaccines designed as booster vaccines. The latter are designed as vaccines that will be administered to individuals already vaccinated with BCG (or in the future with a BCG replacement vaccine). In this review we provide up to date information on novel tuberculosis (TB) vaccines in development focusing on the risk assessment of candidates composed of genetically modified organisms (GMO) which are currently evaluated in clinical trials. Indeed, these vaccines administered to volunteers raise biosafety concerns with respect to human health and the environment that need to be assessed and managed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tuberculosis Vaccines)

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