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Coatings, Volume 7, Issue 3 (March 2017)

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Cover Story Printable perovskite solar cells with carbon counter electrodes demonstrate enormous potential for [...] Read more.
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Research

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Open AccessArticle Pitted Corrosion Detection of Thermal Sprayed Metallic Coatings Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors
Coatings 2017, 7(3), 35; doi:10.3390/coatings7030035
Received: 30 January 2017 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (13691 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metallic coatings using thermal spraying techniques are widely applied to structural steels to protect infrastructure against corrosion and improve durability of the associated structures for longer service life. The thermal sprayed metallic coatings consisting of various metals, although have higher corrosion resistance, will
[...] Read more.
Metallic coatings using thermal spraying techniques are widely applied to structural steels to protect infrastructure against corrosion and improve durability of the associated structures for longer service life. The thermal sprayed metallic coatings consisting of various metals, although have higher corrosion resistance, will still corrode in a long run and may also subject to corrosion induced damages such as cracks. Corrosion and the induced damages on the metallic coatings will reduce the effectiveness of the coatings for protection of the structures. Timely repair on these damaged metallic coatings will significantly improve the reliability of protected structures again deterioration. In this paper, an inline detection system for corrosion and crack detection was developed using fiber Bragg (FBG) grating sensors. Experimental results from laboratory accelerated corrosion tests showed that the developed sensing system can quantitatively detect corrosion rate of the coating, corrosion propagations, and cracks initialized in the metallic coating in real time. The developed system can be used for real-time corrosion detection of coated metal structures in field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coatings for Corrosion Mitigation)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Electrochemically Deposited MgO Coating on Printable Perovskite Solar Cell Performance
Coatings 2017, 7(3), 36; doi:10.3390/coatings7030036
Received: 5 January 2017 / Revised: 31 January 2017 / Accepted: 12 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
Herein, we studied the effect of MgO coating thickness on the performance of printable perovskite solar cells (PSCs) by varying the electrodeposition time of Mg(OH)2 on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/TiO2 electrode. Electrodeposited Mg(OH)2 in the electrode was confirmed by
[...] Read more.
Herein, we studied the effect of MgO coating thickness on the performance of printable perovskite solar cells (PSCs) by varying the electrodeposition time of Mg(OH)2 on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/TiO2 electrode. Electrodeposited Mg(OH)2 in the electrode was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images. The performance of printable PSC structures on different deposition times of Mg(OH)2 was evaluated on the basis of their photocurrent density-voltage characteristics. The overall results confirmed that the insulating MgO coating has an adverse effect on the photovoltaic performance of the solid state printable PSCs. However, a marginal improvement in the device efficiency was obtained for the device made with the 30 s electrodeposited TiO2 electrode. We believe that this undesirable effect on the photovoltaic performance of the printable PSCs is due to the higher coverage of TiO2 by the insulating MgO layer attained by the electrodeposition technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thin Film Semiconductors for Photovoltaic Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of Coating Performance of UV-Curable Hybrid Polymers Containing 1H,1H,2H,2H-Perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane Coated on Aluminum Substrates
Coatings 2017, 7(3), 37; doi:10.3390/coatings7030037
Received: 31 December 2016 / Revised: 17 February 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
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Abstract
This study describes preparation and characterization of fluorine-containing organic-inorganic hybrid coatings. The organic part consists of bisphenol-A glycerolate (1 glycerol/phenol) diacrylate resin and 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate reactive diluent. The inorganically rich part comprises trimethoxysilane-terminated urethane, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane, 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate and sol–gel precursors that are
[...] Read more.
This study describes preparation and characterization of fluorine-containing organic-inorganic hybrid coatings. The organic part consists of bisphenol-A glycerolate (1 glycerol/phenol) diacrylate resin and 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate reactive diluent. The inorganically rich part comprises trimethoxysilane-terminated urethane, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane, 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate and sol–gel precursors that are products of hydrolysis and condensation reactions. Bisphenol-A glycerolate (1 glycerol/phenol) diacrylate resin was added to the inorganic part in predetermined amounts. The resultant mixture was utilized in the preparation of free films as well as coatings on aluminum substrates. Thermal and mechanical tests such as DSC, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), and tensile and shore D hardness tests were performed on free films. Water contact angle, gloss, Taber abrasion test, cross-cut and tubular impact tests were conducted on the coated samples. SEM examination and EDS analysis was performed on the fractured surfaces of free films. The hybrid coatings on the aluminum sheets gave rise to properties such as moderately glossed surface; low wear rate and hydrophobicity. Tensile strength of free films increased with up to 10% inorganic content in the hybrid structure and this increase was approximately three times that of the control sample. As expected; the % strain value decreased by 17.3 with the increase in inorganic content and elastic modulus values increased by a factor of approximately 6. Resistance to ketone-based solvents was proven and an increase in hardness was observed as the ratio of the inorganic part increased. Samples which contain 10% sol–gel content were observed to provide optimal properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Field Performance Evaluation Scheme for Microwave-Absorbing Material Coatings
Coatings 2017, 7(3), 38; doi:10.3390/coatings7030038
Received: 18 January 2017 / Revised: 9 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
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Abstract
Performance evaluation is an important aspect in the study of microwave-absorbing material coatings. The reflectivity of the incident wave is usually taken as the performance indicator. There have been various methods to directly or indirectly measure the reflectivity, but existing methods are mostly
[...] Read more.
Performance evaluation is an important aspect in the study of microwave-absorbing material coatings. The reflectivity of the incident wave is usually taken as the performance indicator. There have been various methods to directly or indirectly measure the reflectivity, but existing methods are mostly cumbersome and require a strict testing environment. What is more, they cannot be applied to field measurement. In this paper, we propose a scheme to achieve field performance evaluation of microwave-absorbing materials, which adopts a small H-plane sectoral horn antenna as the testing probe and a small microwave reflectometer as the indicator. When the size of the H-plane sectoral horn antenna is specially designed, the field distribution at the antenna aperture can be approximated as a plane wave similar to the far field of the microwave emitted by a radar unit. Therefore, the reflectivity can be obtained by a near-field measurement. We conducted experiments on a kind of ferrite-based microwave-absorbing material at X band (8.2–12.4 GHz) to validate the scheme. The experimental results show that the reflectivity is in agreement with the reference data measured by the conventional method as a whole. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of the Electrolyte Concentration on the Smooth TiO2 Anodic Coatings on Ti-6Al-4V
Coatings 2017, 7(3), 39; doi:10.3390/coatings7030039
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
To obtain smooth TiO2 coatings for building a new design of Ti-6Al-4V heart valve, the anodic oxidation technique in pre-spark conditions was evaluated. TiO2 coating is necessary for its recognized biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. A required feature on surfaces in contact
[...] Read more.
To obtain smooth TiO2 coatings for building a new design of Ti-6Al-4V heart valve, the anodic oxidation technique in pre-spark conditions was evaluated. TiO2 coating is necessary for its recognized biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. A required feature on surfaces in contact with blood is a low level of roughness (Ra ≤ 50 nm) that does not favor the formation of blood clots. The present paper compares the coatings obtained by anodic oxidation of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy using H2SO4 at different concentrations (0.1–4 M) as electrolyte and applying different voltages (from 20 to 70 V). Color and morphological analysis of coatings are performed using optical and scanning microscopy. The crystalline phases were analyzed by glancing X-ray diffraction. By varying the applied voltage, different interference colors coatings were obtained. The differences in morphologies of the coatings caused by changes in acid concentration are more evident at high voltages, limiting the oxidation conditions for the desired application. Anatase phase was detected from 70 V for 1 M H2SO4. An increase in the concentration of H2SO4 decreases the voltage at which the transformation of amorphous to crystalline coatings occurs; i.e., with 4 M H2SO4, the anatase phase appears at 60 V. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development of a Fabrication Process Using Suspension Plasma Spray for Titanium Oxide Photovoltaic Device
Coatings 2017, 7(3), 40; doi:10.3390/coatings7030040
Received: 20 September 2016 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 1 March 2017 / Published: 4 March 2017
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Abstract
In order to reduce the high costs of conventional materials, and to reduce the power necessary for the deposition of titanium dioxide, titanium tetrabutoxide has been developed in the form of a suspension of TiO2 using water instead of expensive ethanol. To avoid
[...] Read more.
In order to reduce the high costs of conventional materials, and to reduce the power necessary for the deposition of titanium dioxide, titanium tetrabutoxide has been developed in the form of a suspension of TiO2 using water instead of expensive ethanol. To avoid sedimentation of hydroxide particles in the suspension, mechanical milling of the suspension was conducted in order to create diffusion in colloidal suspension before using it as feedstock. Consequently, through the creation of a colloidal suspension, coating deposition was able to be conducted without sedimentation of the hydroxide particles in the suspension during the deposition process. Though an amorphous as-deposited coating was able to be deposited, through post heat treatment at 630 °C for 60 min, the chemical structure became anatase rich. In addition, it was confirmed that the post heat treated anatase rich coating had enough photo-catalytic activity to decolor methylene-blue droplets. From these results, this technique was found to have high potential in the low cost photo-catalytic titanium coating production process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ozone Resistance, Water Permeability, and Concrete Adhesion of Metallic Films Sprayed on a Concrete Structure for Advanced Water Purification
Coatings 2017, 7(3), 41; doi:10.3390/coatings7030041
Received: 26 January 2017 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
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Abstract
We evaluated the applicability of metal spray coating as a waterproofing/corrosion protection method for a concrete structure used for water purification. We carried out an ozone resistance test on four metal sprays and evaluated the water permeability and bond strength of the metals
[...] Read more.
We evaluated the applicability of metal spray coating as a waterproofing/corrosion protection method for a concrete structure used for water purification. We carried out an ozone resistance test on four metal sprays and evaluated the water permeability and bond strength of the metals with superior ozone resistance, depending on the surface treatment method. In the ozone resistance test, four metal sprays and an existing ozone-proof paint were considered. In the experiment on the water permeability and bond strength depending on the surface treatment method, the methods of no treatment, surface polishing, and two types of pore sealing agents were considered. The results showed that the sprayed titanium had the best ozone resistance. Applying a pore sealing agent provided the best adhesion performance, of about 3.2 MPa. Applying a pore sealing agent also provided the best waterproofing performance. Scanning electron microscope analysis showed that applying a pore sealing agent resulted in an excellent waterproofing performance because a coating film formed on top of the metal spray coating. Thus, when using a metal spray as waterproofing/corrosion protection for a water treatment concrete structure, applying a pore sealing agent on top of a film formed by spraying titanium was concluded to be the most appropriate method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Defect-Free Large-Area (25 cm2) Light Absorbing Perovskite Thin Films Made by Spray Coating
Coatings 2017, 7(3), 42; doi:10.3390/coatings7030042
Received: 20 January 2017 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 12 March 2017
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Abstract
In this work, we report on reproducible fabrication of defect-free large-area mixed halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3−xClx) thin films by scalable spray coating with the area of 25 cm2. This is essential for the
[...] Read more.
In this work, we report on reproducible fabrication of defect-free large-area mixed halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3−xClx) thin films by scalable spray coating with the area of 25 cm2. This is essential for the commercialization of the perovskite solar cell technology. Using an automated spray coater, the film thickness and roughness were optimized by controlling the solution concentration and substrate temperature. For the first time, the surface tension, contact angle, and viscosity of mixed halide perovskite dissolved in dimethylformamide (DMF) are reported as a function of the solution concentration. A low perovskite solution concentration of 10% was selected as an acceptable value to avoid crystallization dewetting. The determined optimum substrate temperature of 150 °C, followed by annealing at 100 °C render the highest perovskite precursor conversion, as well as the highest possible droplet spreading, desired to achieve a continuous thin film. The number of spray passes was also tuned to achieve a fully-covered film, for the condition of the spray nozzle used in this work. This work demonstrates that applying the optimum substrate temperature decreases the standard deviation of the film thickness and roughness, leading to an increase in the quality and reproducibility of the large-area spray-on films. The optimum perovskite solution concentration and the substrate temperature are universally applicable to other spray coating systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of a Simplified Mechanism Model for Prediction of Gallium Nitride Thin Film Growth through Numerical Analysis
Coatings 2017, 7(3), 43; doi:10.3390/coatings7030043
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 2 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (8619 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A numerical procedure was performed to simplify the complicated mechanism of an epitaxial thin-film growth process. In this study, three numerical mechanism models are presented for verifying the growth rate of the gallium nitride (GaN) mechanism. The mechanism models were developed through rate
[...] Read more.
A numerical procedure was performed to simplify the complicated mechanism of an epitaxial thin-film growth process. In this study, three numerical mechanism models are presented for verifying the growth rate of the gallium nitride (GaN) mechanism. The mechanism models were developed through rate of production analysis. All of the results can be compared in one schematic diagram, and the differences among these three mechanisms are pronounced at high temperatures. The simplified reaction mechanisms were then used as input for a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code FLUENT, enabling the accurate prediction of growth rates. Validation studies are presented for two types of laboratory-scale reactors (vertical and horizontal). A computational study including thermal and flow field was also performed to investigate the fluid dynamic in those reactors. For each study, the predictions agree acceptably well with the experimental data, indicating the reasonable accuracy of the reaction mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Vapor Deposition)
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Open AccessArticle High-Temperature Corrosion of AlCrSiN Film in Ar-1%SO2 Gas
Coatings 2017, 7(3), 44; doi:10.3390/coatings7030044
Received: 26 December 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2170 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
AlCrSiN film with a composition of 29.1Al-17.1Cr-2.1Si-51.7N in at. % was deposited on a steel substrate by cathodic arc ion plating at a thickness of 1.8 μm. It consisted of nanocrystalline hcp-AlN and fcc-CrN, where a small amount of Si was
[...] Read more.
AlCrSiN film with a composition of 29.1Al-17.1Cr-2.1Si-51.7N in at. % was deposited on a steel substrate by cathodic arc ion plating at a thickness of 1.8 μm. It consisted of nanocrystalline hcp-AlN and fcc-CrN, where a small amount of Si was dissolved. Corrosion tests were carried out at 800 °C for 5–200 h in Ar-1%SO2 gas. The major corrosion reaction was oxidation owing to the high oxygen affinity of Al and Cr in the film. The formed oxide scale consisted primarily of (Al,Cr)2O3, within which Fe, Si, and S were dissolved. Even after corrosion for 200 h, the thickness of the scale was about 0.7–1.2 μm, indicating that the film had good corrosion resistance in the SO2-containing atmosphere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coatings for Corrosion Mitigation)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Review of Antibacterial Activity of Titanium-Based Implants’ Surfaces Fabricated by Micro-Arc Oxidation
Coatings 2017, 7(3), 45; doi:10.3390/coatings7030045
Received: 28 November 2016 / Revised: 8 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (15521 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ti and its alloys are the most commonly-used materials for biomedical applications. However, bacterial infection after implant placement is still one of the significant rising complications. Therefore, the application of the antimicrobial agents into implant surfaces to prevent implant-associated infection has attracted much
[...] Read more.
Ti and its alloys are the most commonly-used materials for biomedical applications. However, bacterial infection after implant placement is still one of the significant rising complications. Therefore, the application of the antimicrobial agents into implant surfaces to prevent implant-associated infection has attracted much attention. Scientific papers have shown that inorganic antibacterial metal elements (e.g., Ag, Cu, Zn) can be introduced into implant surfaces with the addition of metal nanoparticles or metallic compounds into an electrolyte via micro-arc oxidation (MAO) technology. In this review, the effects of the composition and concentration of electrolyte and process parameters (e.g., voltage, current density, oxidation time) on the morphological characteristics (e.g., surface morphology, bonding strength), antibacterial ability and biocompatibility of MAO antimicrobial coatings are discussed in detail. Anti-infection and osseointegration can be simultaneously accomplished with the selection of the proper antibacterial elements and operating parameters. Besides, MAO assisted by magnetron sputtering (MS) to endow Ti-based implant materials with superior antibacterial ability and biocompatibility is also discussed. Finally, the development trend of MAO technology in the future is forecasted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomimetic Calcium Phosphate Coatings)
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