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Educ. Sci., Volume 8, Issue 2 (June 2018)

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Open AccessArticle From “Goal-Orientated, Strong and Decisive Leader” to “Collaborative and Communicative Listener”. Gendered Shifts in Vice-Chancellor Ideals, 1990–2018
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8020090
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Applying a critical gendered lens, this article examines academic leadership ideals. It draws on a content analysis of job advertisements for Vice-Chancellors at Swedish higher education institutions from 1990 until 2018. The aim of the article is to investigate to what extent masculine
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Applying a critical gendered lens, this article examines academic leadership ideals. It draws on a content analysis of job advertisements for Vice-Chancellors at Swedish higher education institutions from 1990 until 2018. The aim of the article is to investigate to what extent masculine or feminine wordings have been used to describe the ideal Vice-Chancellor in these documents. The analysis reveals that a shift in the leadership ideal has taken place during the time period investigated. Before this shift, during the 1990s, the ideal Vice-Chancellor was described as competitive, bold, strong, tough, decisive, driven, and assertive. These wordings are still included in the job advertisements from the 2000s and the 2010s. However, a more communicative and collaborative leadership ideal also emerges during these decades. There is thus a significant shift in how the leadership ideal is described. This shift is analyzed from a gendered perspective, suggesting that the traditional masculine-biased leadership ideal has decreased in influence with the feminine, transformational leadership ideal acting as a counterweight. The article argues that the shift in leadership ideals, as constructed in the job advertisements, mirrors the increase of women Vice-Chancellors appointed in the Swedish higher education sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender and Leadership)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Physical Education and Play Applications on School Social Behaviors of Mild-Level Intellectually Disabled Children
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8020089
Received: 7 June 2018 / Revised: 10 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the influences of physical education and play practices on the school social behavior of mild-level intellectually disabled children. The quantitative research methods used were based on the pre-test, post-test, post-test-retention control group model and the
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The aim of this study was to examine the influences of physical education and play practices on the school social behavior of mild-level intellectually disabled children. The quantitative research methods used were based on the pre-test, post-test, post-test-retention control group model and the general screening model. A simple random sampling type was used when constructing the sample group. To determine school social behavior, the School Social Behavior Scale (SSBS) was used. Physical education and play lessons were applied for two hours per week for 24 weeks with the purpose of obtaining data from these scales when applied to participants. The study sample group included 20 mild-level intellectually disabled children (14 boys, 6 girls), aged seven to nine years, who were trained at the Special Education and Rehabilitation Center that serves the County of Kocaeli, in the district of Izmit, Turkey. According to the results of the SSBS, we found a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between the social competence of present persons’ interpersonal relations, self-control, and academic skills, and the aggressive-nervous persons in the sub-dimensions of negative social behaviors, in favor of the test group. However, no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the antisocial-aggressive and destructive-demanding sub-dimensions was observed. We found that 24-week physical education and playing practices applied to mild-level intellectually disabled children had effects on children’s school social behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Valorization of Physical Education)
Open AccessArticle To Understand the “Brazilian Way” of School Management: How National Culture Influences the Organizational Culture and School Leadership
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8020088
Received: 16 April 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
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Abstract
This study aims to identify characteristics of national culture in the culture of Brazilian school management and leadership. Considering the broad literature that deals with the peculiarities of Brazilian culture and its influence on Brazilian management, it is assumed that as an institution
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This study aims to identify characteristics of national culture in the culture of Brazilian school management and leadership. Considering the broad literature that deals with the peculiarities of Brazilian culture and its influence on Brazilian management, it is assumed that as an institution belonging to a particular society, the school offers internal dynamics that are organized under influences of historical and cultural determinants of this society. This work is an exploratory study that uses secondary data found in studies on the profiles of principals, leadership, climate, and organizational culture in schools and primary data from research applied in public secondary schools located in the Federal District, Brazil. The results demonstrate that the initial premise—national culture influences the organizational culture and school leadership—has been confirmed and aspects that merit further analysis are identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Societal Culture and Educational/School Leadership)
Open AccessConcept Paper Productive Disruptions: Rethinking the Role of Off-Task Interactions in Collaborative Mathematics Learning
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8020087
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
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Abstract
This paper confronts the myth that all off-task interactions in mathematics classrooms is detrimental to learning. To do so, this paper first explores links between participation, learning, and identity in mathematics education research that points to the importance of positional resources. Positional
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This paper confronts the myth that all off-task interactions in mathematics classrooms is detrimental to learning. To do so, this paper first explores links between participation, learning, and identity in mathematics education research that points to the importance of positional resources. Positional resources are related to identity processes and carry central functions that regulate learning and doing mathematics together. The paper then frames off-task behavior as an important positional resource in collaborative mathematics learning environments. With these ideas in mind, the paper then closes with new questions for research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dispelling Myths about Mathematics)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of Constraints that Occur during Participation in Leisure Activities by High School Students: A Sample of Turkey
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8020086
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 10 June 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this research was to determine the factors that may prevent high school students from participating in recreational activities and to investigate whether these factors differ within the scope of various variables. This study consisted of 1459 (681 women and 778
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The aim of this research was to determine the factors that may prevent high school students from participating in recreational activities and to investigate whether these factors differ within the scope of various variables. This study consisted of 1459 (681 women and 778 men) student volunteers who are educated to high school level. The easy sampling method was preferred in the present study. The face-to-face survey method was used to collect the data. The “Leisure Constraints Scale” developed by Alexandris and Carroll (1997) and adapted to Turkish by Gürbüz, Öncü, and Emir (2012) was used to determine the factors that might prevent individuals from participating in leisure activities. The data obtained for the research were first transferred to a computer and then analyzed by the SPSS program. The error margin level in the study was taken as p < 0.05. The Cronbach alpha of the study was found to be 0.91. As a result, it was found that women participated in leisure activities more than men. It was also observed that the participants met with more leisure constraints in Turkey’s eastern regions. Full article
Open AccessConcept Paper Myths of Priority and Unity in Mathematics Learning
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8020085
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 8 June 2018
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Abstract
How people see the world, even how they research it, is influenced by beliefs. Some beliefs are conscious and the result of research, or at least amenable to research. Others are largely invisible. They may feel like “common knowledge” (though myth, not knowledge),
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How people see the world, even how they research it, is influenced by beliefs. Some beliefs are conscious and the result of research, or at least amenable to research. Others are largely invisible. They may feel like “common knowledge” (though myth, not knowledge), unrecognized premises that are part of the surrounding culture. As we will explain, people also hold ideas in both a detailed form and in a thumbnail image and may not notice when they are using the low-resolution image in place of the full picture. In either case, unrecognized myths about how young learners develop mathematical ideas naturally or with instruction are insidious in that they persist unconsciously and so sway research and practice without being examined rigorously. People are naturally oblivious to the ramifications of unrecognized premises (myths) until they encounter an anomaly that cannot be explained without reexamining those premises. Like all disciplines, mathematics education is shaped and constrained by its myths. This article is a conceptual piece. It uses informally gathered (but reproducible) classroom examples to elaborate on two myths about mathematics learning that can interfere with teaching and can escape the scrutiny of empirical research. Our goal is to give evidence to expand the questions researchers think to pose and to encourage thoughtful reappraisal of the implications of the myths. The myths we will discuss involve the order in which mathematical ideas are learnable and the “unity” of mathematical topics, with special attention to algebra. With examples, we will show that some ideas develop at a strikingly counterintuitive and early time. Taking advantage of such unexpectedly early developments can let educators devise pedagogies that build on the logic young children already have rather than predicating learning on statistically observed learning patterns or even the apparent structure of mathematics. Acknowledging such early developments might change the questions researchers ask and change how they study children’s mathematical learning, with the possible result of changing how children are taught. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Technical Efficiency of High Schools: The Case of a Greek Prefecture
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8020084
Received: 25 April 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 6 June 2018
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Abstract
Scarce human and fiscal resources of high value are spent in the field of education. Thus, the concept of efficiency, and particularly technical efficiency, that refers to the maximization of outputs at a given set of inputs, can be a possible contribution to
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Scarce human and fiscal resources of high value are spent in the field of education. Thus, the concept of efficiency, and particularly technical efficiency, that refers to the maximization of outputs at a given set of inputs, can be a possible contribution to the design of education policy and administration; mostly at a time of economic crisis as this in Greece, research could assist in formulating proposals on how resources are actually used within education structures/services, as well as in providing guidance to those responsible for the internal allocation of funds so as to secure greater educational results and benefits. The aim of this study is to measure the degree of technical efficiency of the 23 High Schools (Lyceums) in the Prefecture of Fthiotida in Greece, using the model of Data Envelopment Analysis and explore the factors that could interrelate with these measurements. The results provide evidence that a low percentage of school units (34.8%) achieves maximum technical efficiency. Proposals for improving the technical efficiency of the specific schools are also made. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Processing Image to Geographical Information Systems (PI2GIS)—A Learning Tool for QGIS
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8020083
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 6 June 2018
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Abstract
Education, together with science and technology, is the main driver of the progress and transformations of a country. The use of new technologies of learning can be applied to the classroom. Computer learning supports meaningful and long-term learning. Therefore, in the era of
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Education, together with science and technology, is the main driver of the progress and transformations of a country. The use of new technologies of learning can be applied to the classroom. Computer learning supports meaningful and long-term learning. Therefore, in the era of digital society and environmental issues, a relevant role is provided by open source software and free data that promote universality of knowledge. Earth observation (EO) data and remote sensing technologies are increasingly used to address the sustainable development goals. An important step for a full exploitation of this technology is to guarantee open software supporting a more universal use. The development of image processing plugins, which are able to be incorporated in Geographical Information System (GIS) software, is one of the strategies used on that front. The necessity of an intuitive and simple application, which allows the students to learn remote sensing, leads us to develop a GIS open source tool, which is integrated in an open source GIS software (QGIS), in order to automatically process and classify remote sensing images from a set of satellite input data. The application was tested in Vila Nova de Gaia municipality (Porto, Portugal) and Aveiro district (Portugal) considering Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards Excellence in Engineering Education)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of an International Undergraduate Honors Course on Awareness of Global Justice
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8020082
Received: 4 April 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 6 June 2018
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Abstract
How can undergraduate students be prepared for global citizenship? This question was investigated in a mixed-methods case study of an international, blended one-semester course. Undergraduate honors students (N = 22) from the USA and the Netherlands collaborated to explore what it means
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How can undergraduate students be prepared for global citizenship? This question was investigated in a mixed-methods case study of an international, blended one-semester course. Undergraduate honors students (N = 22) from the USA and the Netherlands collaborated to explore what it means to be a member of the global community. Curriculum guidelines from the social justice oriented education for global citizenship were used to analyze the course’s program and focus the case study. The research questions were as follows: 1. How did the course relate to the curriculum guidelines? 2. What and how did students learn from the course? Analyses of the program showed that the course partly reflects the social justice oriented global citizenship education, in particular by addressing intercultural sensitivity and experiential learning. Quantitative measures in a pre-post design with control groups (N = 40) showed some growth in ethical sensitivity and social awareness. Qualitative measures indicated that participants developed a broader view on society and demonstrated a more open and active attitude towards others after the course. Experiential learning was considered a powerful aspect of the pedagogical approach. The results are discussed in relation to a developmental process whereby students gain awareness of global justice issues. Full article
Open AccessArticle Empirical Evidence Illuminating Gendered Regimes in UK Higher Education: Developing a New Conceptual Framework
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8020081
Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 5 May 2018 / Accepted: 25 May 2018 / Published: 5 June 2018
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Abstract
Debates on the absence of women in senior organizational roles continue to proliferate but relatively little attention is paid to the Higher Education (HE) context in which women in leadership roles are seriously under-represented. However, higher education is now central to UK political
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Debates on the absence of women in senior organizational roles continue to proliferate but relatively little attention is paid to the Higher Education (HE) context in which women in leadership roles are seriously under-represented. However, higher education is now central to UK political discourse given the growing controversy around student fees, vice chancellors’ remuneration’ and Brexit. This paper draws on a collaborative research study on the experiences of 105 senior women leaders across 3 UK Universities, which elicited accounts of constraints, successes and career highlights. Our research findings present empirical insights that expose the continuing gender inequalities most notable in senior Higher Education roles. Women’s accounts include stories of diverse experiences, on-going discriminatory practices and a failure to recognise the embedded gendered inequalities that continue to prevail in these institutions. Through a critical interrogation of the narratives of female professors and building on insights from a seminal paper by Broadbridge and Simpson a conceptual framework is offered as a heuristic device to capture critical and reflexive data in future studies of equality and inequality in leadership roles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender and Leadership)
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Open AccessArticle Teaching Pre-Service Teachers How to Utilize Web 2.0 Platforms to Support the Educational Needs of Students with Disabilities in General Education Classrooms
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8020080
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 26 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 2 June 2018
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Abstract
It is without question that technology in schools is here to stay. Educators have always been interested in the extent to which technology can be used to transform education and enhance student learning; however, the degree to which it is utilized in teacher
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It is without question that technology in schools is here to stay. Educators have always been interested in the extent to which technology can be used to transform education and enhance student learning; however, the degree to which it is utilized in teacher preparation programs for pre-service teachers in terms of Web 2.0 use with future students is under debate. Web 2.0 use can be a particularly interesting tool for teachers to use in differentiating instructional strategies for students with disabilities in inclusive settings. Therefore, it is worthwhile for teacher preparation programs to look at how Web 2.0 platforms can further support students in special education in such settings. The following study delineates data from a study of N = 82 pre-service teachers. Throughout the course of this study, all students were administered a pre- and post-survey that asked questions specific to current knowledge of Web 2.0 and the extent to which they thought it could be used in their future teaching practices. In addition, all students completed an assignment within their respective courses that embedded a specific Web 2.0 component. This assignment required pre-service teacher candidates to utilize the Pinterest platform to find and ‘pin’ educational materials specific to students with whom they will work with in future inclusive classrooms, relative to the various categories of special education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Enhancing the Skills of Students with Disabilities)
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Open AccessArticle The Index Number Problem with DEA: Insights from European University Efficiency Data
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8020079
Received: 23 April 2018 / Revised: 24 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
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Abstract
An increasing effort has been put into dealing with the question of time-series analysis regarding institutional efficiency, including in the area of higher education. Universities are important institutions for economies and societies and are expected to provide excellence as well as efficiency in
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An increasing effort has been put into dealing with the question of time-series analysis regarding institutional efficiency, including in the area of higher education. Universities are important institutions for economies and societies and are expected to provide excellence as well as efficiency in their processes and outputs. This is reflected in the context of an increased global competitive environment by more refined international university rankings. Combining the two areas, this paper points towards a methodological challenge in comparing different ranking datasets for their use in a data envelopment analysis (DEA) Malmquist index time-series efficiency analysis, namely, index-based data compared to additive data. The problem is discussed in a theoretical framework and complemented with an empirical application: calculations for 70 European universities with budget and staff input data and different ranking output data for the timeframe of 2011–2016 show that there is no evidence for a specific index data problem. Important implications regarding university management and higher education policies are outlined. Efficiency improvements among the analyzed universities are significant but also unevenly distributed and not easy to obtain for individual institutions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle SavingLife: An Educational Technology for Basic and Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8020078
Received: 14 April 2018 / Revised: 20 May 2018 / Accepted: 24 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
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Abstract
The development of information and communication technologies and the accessibility of mobile devices has increased the possibilities of the teaching and learning process anywhere and anytime. Mobile and web application allows the production of constructive teaching and learning models in various educational settings,
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The development of information and communication technologies and the accessibility of mobile devices has increased the possibilities of the teaching and learning process anywhere and anytime. Mobile and web application allows the production of constructive teaching and learning models in various educational settings, showing the potential for active learning in health. The objective of this study was to present the design and development of an educational technology (SavingLife, a web, and mobile-based application) for learning cardiopulmonary resuscitation and advanced cardiovascular life support for adults. SavingLife is a technological production, based on the concept of virtual learning and problem-based learning approaches. SavingLife was developed using five phases (analyze, design, develop, implement, evaluate) of the instructional systems development process. The technology presents 10 scenarios and 12 simulations, covering different aspects of basic and advanced cardiac life support skills. The contents can be accessed in a non-linear way leaving the students free to build their knowledge based on their previous experience. Each scenario is presented through interactive tools such as scenario description, assessment, diagnose, intervention and re-evaluation. Animated ECG rhythms, text documents, images, and videos are provided to support procedural and active learning considering the real-life situations. Accessible equally on small to large devices with or without an internet connection, SavingLife offers a dynamic, interactive and flexible tool, placing students at the center of the learning process. SavingLife can contribute to the student’s learning in the assessment and management of basic and advanced cardiac life support for adults, in a safe and ethical way. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Application of Hofstede’s Cultural Dimension among Female Educational Leaders
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8020077
Received: 20 March 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 22 May 2018 / Published: 29 May 2018
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Abstract
With the exponential advancement of technology, global sharing, industrialization and economic development, national and global cultures are becoming more collective. More importantly, this fundamental paradigm shift is affecting national and global educational leadership cultures. Therefore, the power/distance index (PDI); individualism versus collectivism (IDV);
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With the exponential advancement of technology, global sharing, industrialization and economic development, national and global cultures are becoming more collective. More importantly, this fundamental paradigm shift is affecting national and global educational leadership cultures. Therefore, the power/distance index (PDI); individualism versus collectivism (IDV); uncertainty avoidance index (UAI); masculinity/femininity (MAS); and long-term orientation versus short-term orientation (LTO); are of interest when considering national and global cultures. These cultural dimensions can be exemplified in the responses of eight female educational leaders: three Canadians and one from Jamaica and Trinidad; two Grenadians and one Lebanese. This qualitative methodology in the form of a phenomenological study found that all respondents displayed varying degrees of each aspect of Hofstede’s five cultural dimensions which can be charted along a continuum from high to low index factors. Each dimension is linked to different leadership styles. PDI is linked to servant leadership, IDV is linked to shared/participatory leadership, UAI is linked to transformational leadership and emergent leadership, and MAS is linked to people versus task-oriented leadership. In each case, the slight variances in responses reflect the microcosm of the macrocosm where each country’s particular culture is mirrored. Recommendations are made for a more androgynous leadership style as well as more androgynous socialization processes if national and global educational leadership cultures are to become less gendered and more instrumental and functional based on the demands of the particular environment. It is expected that a focus could be placed on transcultural rather than intercultural studies in leadership and education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Societal Culture and Educational/School Leadership)
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Open AccessArticle ‘Culture’, ‘Context’, School Leadership and Entrepreneurialism: Evidence from Sixteen Countries
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8020076
Received: 21 March 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 22 May 2018 / Published: 29 May 2018
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Abstract
In the face of ongoing school budget cuts, increasing student numbers and national educational policy environments that demand more from schools, like it or not, school leaders are being forced to be much more market-oriented in their thinking and ways of being than
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In the face of ongoing school budget cuts, increasing student numbers and national educational policy environments that demand more from schools, like it or not, school leaders are being forced to be much more market-oriented in their thinking and ways of being than at any other time before. A school is an important site for social development, and in some communities in some countries, there may be only one school in an entire community. Nevertheless, as countries continue to grapple with reduced government funding on education, many schools risk the threat of closure. And, as education consumers (parents) and users (students) demand more and better value and results from schools, competition between schools have simultaneously increased. Thus, the environment in which school leaders’ work is requiring and fostering entrepreneurial leadership. The findings reported in this paper, derive from a larger sixteen country, five continent study of 61 school leaders on the “Nature of School Leadership”. The main conclusions presented in this paper are that, male and female school leaders approach entrepreneurial in very different ways; “national culture” and “national context” significantly influences and shape the work, and thus the attitudes and behaviours of school leaders, who must embrace entrepreneurialism as an essential skill, and a response to changes in school funding arrangements, and the changing role of education in national educational policy agendas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Societal Culture and Educational/School Leadership)
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