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Foods, Volume 6, Issue 9 (September 2017)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial To Nutraceuticals and Back: Rethinking a Concept
Foods 2017, 6(9), 74; doi:10.3390/foods6090074
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
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Abstract
The concept of nutraceuticals as pharma-foods comes fromfar. This termismade fromthe two words “nutrient” and “pharmaceutical”, was coined by Stephen DeFelice, and is defined as “a food or part of a food that provide medical or health benefits, including the prevention and/or treatment
[...] Read more.
The concept of nutraceuticals as pharma-foods comes fromfar. This termismade fromthe two words “nutrient” and “pharmaceutical”, was coined by Stephen DeFelice, and is defined as “a food or part of a food that provide medical or health benefits, including the prevention and/or treatment of a disease” [...]
Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals: The New Frontier)
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Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Action of Cinnamon and Oregano Oils, Cinnamaldehyde, Carvacrol, 2,5-Dihydroxybenzaldehyde, and 2-Hydroxy-5-Methoxybenzaldehyde against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map)
Foods 2017, 6(9), 72; doi:10.3390/foods6090072
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
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Abstract
The antimicrobial modes of action of six naturally occurring compounds, cinnamon oil, cinnamaldehyde, oregano oil, carvacrol, 2,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, and 2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde, previously found to inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) reported to infect food animals and humans and to be
[...] Read more.
The antimicrobial modes of action of six naturally occurring compounds, cinnamon oil, cinnamaldehyde, oregano oil, carvacrol, 2,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, and 2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde, previously found to inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) reported to infect food animals and humans and to be present in milk, cheese, and meat, were investigated. The incubation of Map cultures in the presence of all six compounds caused phosphate ions to leak into the extracellular environment in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Cinnamon oil and cinnamaldehyde decreased the intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration of Map cells, whereas oregano oil and carvacrol caused an initial decrease of intracellular ATP concentration that was restored gradually after incubation at 37 °C for 2 h. Neither 2,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde nor 2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde had a significant effect on intracellular ATP concentration. None of the compounds tested were found to cause leakage of ATP to the extracellular environment. Monolayer studies involving a Langmuir trough apparatus revealed that all anti-Map compounds, especially the essential oil compounds, altered the molecular packing characteristics of phospholipid molecules of model membranes, causing fluidization. The results of the physicochemical model microbial membrane studies suggest that the destruction of the pathogenic bacteria might be associated with the disruption of the bacterial cell membrane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Essential Oils in Food Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Cytotoxicity of the Essential Oil of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) from Tajikistan
Foods 2017, 6(9), 73; doi:10.3390/foods6090073
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
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Abstract
The essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is rich in lipophilic secondary metabolites, which can easily cross cell membranes by free diffusion. Several constituents of the oil carry reactive carbonyl groups in their ring structures. Carbonyl groups can react with amino
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The essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is rich in lipophilic secondary metabolites, which can easily cross cell membranes by free diffusion. Several constituents of the oil carry reactive carbonyl groups in their ring structures. Carbonyl groups can react with amino groups of amino acid residues in proteins or in nucleotides of DNA to form Schiff’s bases. Fennel essential oil is rich in anise aldehyde, which should interfere with molecular targets in cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil of fennel growing in Tajikistan. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the main components of F. vulgare oil were trans-anethole (36.8%); α-ethyl-p-methoxy-benzyl alcohol (9.1%); p-anisaldehyde (7.7%); carvone (4.9%); 1-phenyl-penta-2,4-diyne (4.8%) and fenchyl butanoate (4.2%). The oil exhibited moderate antioxidant activities. The potential cytotoxic activity was studied against HeLa (human cervical cancer), Caco-2 (human colorectal adenocarcinoma), MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), CCRF-CEM (human T lymphoblast leukaemia) and CEM/ADR5000 (adriamycin resistant leukaemia) cancer cell lines; IC50 values were between 30–210 mg L−1 and thus exhibited low cytotoxicity as compared to cytotoxic reference compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Essential Oils in Food Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Examining the Relationship between Free Sugars and Calorie Contents in Canadian Prepacked Foods and Beverages
Foods 2017, 6(9), 75; doi:10.3390/foods6090075
Received: 1 August 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
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Abstract
To align with broader public health initiatives, reformulation of products to be lower in sugars requires interventions that also aim to reduce calorie contents. Currently available foods and beverages with a range of nutrient levels can be used to project successful reformulation opportunities.
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To align with broader public health initiatives, reformulation of products to be lower in sugars requires interventions that also aim to reduce calorie contents. Currently available foods and beverages with a range of nutrient levels can be used to project successful reformulation opportunities. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between free sugars and calorie levels in Canadian prepackaged foods and beverages. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of the University of Toronto’s 2013 Food Label Database, limited to major sources of total sugar intake in Canada (n = 6755). Penalized B-spline regression modelling was used to examine the relationship between free sugar levels (g/100 g or 100 mL) and caloric density (kcal/100 g or 10mL), by subcategory. Significant relationships were observed for only 3 of 5 beverage subcategories and for 14 of 32 food subcategories. Most subcategories demonstrated a positive trend with varying magnitude, however, results were not consistent across related subcategories (e.g., dairy-based products). Findings highlight potential areas of concern for reformulation, and the need for innovative solutions to ensure free sugars are reduced in products within the context of improving overall nutritional quality of the diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Reformulation and Innovation for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Application of a Surimi-Based Coating to Improve the Quality Attributes of Shrimp during Refrigerated Storage
Foods 2017, 6(9), 76; doi:10.3390/foods6090076
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
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Abstract
Shrimp is a popular seafood throughout the world. However, shrimp is highly perishable due to biochemical, microbiological, or physical changes during postmortem storage. In this study, the effect of a surimi-based coating with and without montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay on shrimp quality was evaluated
[...] Read more.
Shrimp is a popular seafood throughout the world. However, shrimp is highly perishable due to biochemical, microbiological, or physical changes during postmortem storage. In this study, the effect of a surimi-based coating with and without montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay on shrimp quality was evaluated during eight days of refrigerator storage. Use of a surimi-based coating resulted in reductions of aerobic plate counts (APC) up to 2 log units. The combined effect of the MMT and coating was observed. Surimi-based coating with MMT resulted in lower APC (p < 0.05) toward the end of storage. The application of surimi-based coating with MMT to the shrimp samples improved sensory quality and delayed lipid oxidation and color deterioration during storage time. In general, better texture was observed when coating was applied either with or without MMT. This study suggests that surimi-based coating may improve the quality of shrimp during refrigerated storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Edible Films Characterization and Application in Foods)
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Open AccessArticle Honey Mitigates Radiation-Induced Oral Mucositis in Head and Neck Cancer Patients without Affecting the Tumor Response
Foods 2017, 6(9), 77; doi:10.3390/foods6090077
Received: 6 June 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 4 September 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
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Abstract
Radiation-induced mucositis is a dose-limiting factor in the effective treatment of head and neck (H & N) cancers. The objective of this study was to understand the efficacy of honey in mitigating radiation-induced mucositis and whether it would interfere with tumor control. This
[...] Read more.
Radiation-induced mucositis is a dose-limiting factor in the effective treatment of head and neck (H & N) cancers. The objective of this study was to understand the efficacy of honey in mitigating radiation-induced mucositis and whether it would interfere with tumor control. This was a single-blinded, randomized, controlled study and was carried out in patients with H & N cancer requiring curative radiotherapy (>62 Gy (Gray)). The patients meeting the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to receive either honey (n = 25) or povidone-iodine (active comparator) (n = 25) during radiotherapy. Oral mucositis was assessed using the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) grading system before the start, during, and at the end of the treatment by an investigator unaware of the treatment. The results indicate that when compared with the active comparator, honey reduced the radiation-induced oral mucositis, decreased the incidence of intolerable mucositis, treatment breaks, loss of treatment days (p < 0.0001 and < 0.0003) and did not affect the radiation-induced tumor response. The clinical observations indicate that honey mitigates the radiation-induced mucositis and does not interfere with tumor cell killing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Macular Carotenoids Lutein and Zeaxanthin Are Related to Increased Bone Density in Young Healthy Adults
Foods 2017, 6(9), 78; doi:10.3390/foods6090078
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 7 September 2017
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Abstract
Lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) status can be quantified by measuring their concentrations both in serum and, non-invasively, in retinal tissue. This has resulted in a unique ability to assess their role in a number of tissues ranging from cardiovascular to central nervous
[...] Read more.
Lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) status can be quantified by measuring their concentrations both in serum and, non-invasively, in retinal tissue. This has resulted in a unique ability to assess their role in a number of tissues ranging from cardiovascular to central nervous system tissue. Recent reports using animal models have suggested yet another role, a developmental increase in bone mass. To test this, we assessed L and Z status in 63 young healthy adults. LZ status was determined by measuring LZ in serum (using HPLC) and retina tissue (measuring macular pigment optical density, MPOD, using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry). Bone density was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Although serum LZ was generally not related to bone mass, MPOD was significantly related to bone density in the proximal femur and lumbar spine. In general, our results are consistent with carotenoids, specifically LZ, playing a role in optimal bone health. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Polyphenols in Raw and Cooked Cereals/Pseudocereals/Legume Pasta and Couscous
Foods 2017, 6(9), 80; doi:10.3390/foods6090080
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 4 September 2017 / Published: 11 September 2017
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Abstract
Pasta and couscous are popular foods manufactured (in their traditional form) from durum wheat semolina. In recent years, the consumers’ quest for novel, functional, gluten-free, wholegrain foods has prompted the industry to manufacture new pasta and couscous products in which durum wheat has
[...] Read more.
Pasta and couscous are popular foods manufactured (in their traditional form) from durum wheat semolina. In recent years, the consumers’ quest for novel, functional, gluten-free, wholegrain foods has prompted the industry to manufacture new pasta and couscous products in which durum wheat has been partially or totally replaced by other vegetable flours. Besides dietary fibre, these raw materials might be an interesting source of phytochemicals. In this work, 16 commercial samples of pasta and four samples of couscous representative of the new products and made of refined and wholegrain flours of different species of cereals, pseudocereals and legumes were analysed for free, hydrolysable bound and total polyphenol content by means of the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. Analyses were repeated on cooked samples to assess the quantity of polyphenols ingested by the consumers. The raw legume and pseudocereal products had a total polyphenol content higher than most cereal products (up to 1743.4 mg of Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE) per 100 g dry weight). Wholegrain products had higher contents than refined products. The free fraction underwent up to 46% loss with cooking, probably because of solubility in water. The water absorption of pasta and couscous during cooking was in a ratio of 2:3, resulting in higher dilution of polyphenols in the cooked couscous. Full article
Open AccessArticle Native and Heated Hydrolysates of Milk Proteins and Their Capacity to Inhibit Lipid Peroxidation in the Zebrafish Larvae Model
Foods 2017, 6(9), 81; doi:10.3390/foods6090081
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 24 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
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Abstract
Casein and whey proteins with and without heat treatment were obtained of whole milk and four commercial milks in Ecuador, and were hydrolyzed. Then, their capacity to inhibit the lipid peroxidation using the TBARS method was evaluated at concentrations of 0.02, 0.04, 0.2,
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Casein and whey proteins with and without heat treatment were obtained of whole milk and four commercial milks in Ecuador, and were hydrolyzed. Then, their capacity to inhibit the lipid peroxidation using the TBARS method was evaluated at concentrations of 0.02, 0.04, 0.2, and, 0.4 mg/mL. Native and heated hydrolysates of milk proteins present high inhibitions of lipid peroxidation with a dose dependent effect both in vivo and in vitro tests. Casein and whey proteins obtained from whole milk were the ones with the highest anti-oxidant activity in vitro and in vivo test. Native casein hydrolysate at 0.4 mg/mL present a value of 55.55% of inhibition of lipid peroxidation and heated casein hydrolysate at 0.4 mg/mL presents a value of 58.00% of inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Native whey protein at 0.4 mg/mL present a value of 34.84% of inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and heated whey protein at 0.4 mg/mL presents a value of 40.86% of inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Native and heated casein hydrolysates were more active than native and heated whey protein hydrolysates. Heat treatments have an effect of increasing the in vitro inhibition of lipid peroxidation of hydrolysates of milk protein. Casein and whey hydrolysates were able to inhibiting lipid peroxidation in the zebrafish larvae model. Native casein hydrolysate obtained of whole milk presents 48.35% of inhibition TBARS in vivo, this activity was higher in heated casein hydrolysate obtained of whole milk with a value of 56.28% of inhibition TBARS in vivo. Native whey protein hydrolysate obtained of whole milk presents 35.30% of inhibition TBARS, and heated whey protein hydrolysate obtained of whole milk was higher, with a value of 43.60% of inhibition TBARS in vivo. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Weakening Pin Bone Attachment in Fish Fillets Using High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound
Foods 2017, 6(9), 82; doi:10.3390/foods6090082
Received: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 8 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
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Abstract
High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) can be used for the localized heating of biological tissue through the conversion of sound waves into heat. Although originally developed for human medicine, HIFU may also be used to weaken the attachment of pin bones in fish
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High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) can be used for the localized heating of biological tissue through the conversion of sound waves into heat. Although originally developed for human medicine, HIFU may also be used to weaken the attachment of pin bones in fish fillets to enable easier removal of such bones. This was shown in the present study, where a series of experiments were performed on HIFU phantoms and fillets of cod and salmon. In thin objects such as fish fillets, the heat is mainly dissipated at the surfaces. However, bones inside the fillet absorb ultrasound energy more efficiently than the surrounding tissue, resulting in a “self-focusing” heating of the bones. Salmon skin was found to effectively block the ultrasound, resulting in a significantly lower heating effect in fillets with skin. Cod skin partly blocked the ultrasound, but only to a small degree, enabling HIFU treatment through the skin. The treatment of fillets to reduce the pin bone attachment yielded an average reduction in the required pulling force by 50% in cod fillets with skin, with little muscle denaturation, and 72% in skinned fillets, with significant muscle denaturation. Salmon fillets were treated from the muscle side of the fillet to circumvent the need for penetration through skin. The treatment resulted in a 30% reduction in the peak pulling force and 10% reduction in the total pulling work, with a slight denaturation of the fillet surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood Products: Safety and Quality)
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Open AccessArticle Glycemic Responses, Glycemic Index, and Glycemic Load Values of Some Street Foods Prepared from Plantain (Musa spp., AAB Genome) in Côte d’Ivoire
Foods 2017, 6(9), 83; doi:10.3390/foods6090083
Received: 13 June 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 July 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
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Abstract
The glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of four culinary preferences including five local street dishes prepared from three varieties of plantain at different maturity stages was determined. The GI was obtained following ISO/FDI 26642:2010 protocol, and the GL was calculated from
[...] Read more.
The glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of four culinary preferences including five local street dishes prepared from three varieties of plantain at different maturity stages was determined. The GI was obtained following ISO/FDI 26642:2010 protocol, and the GL was calculated from test foods’ GI, considering the amount of available carbohydrate in the traditional portion size. GI values were 44 for Klaclo (with Ameletiha variety at all black stage), 39 for Aloco (with Agnrin variety at full yellow stage), 39 for Aloco (with Agnrin variety at full yellow with black spots stage); 45 for Chips (with Ameletiha variety at green stage) and 89 for Banane braisée (with Afoto variety at light green stage). GI values were inversely correlated with the total sugar and carbohydrate in foods (p < 0.01), and no relationship existed between the GI values and the amount of protein (p = 0.89). Except for Chips (GL = 12), the GLs of the others foods were high (GL > 20). Contrary to Banane braisée, the consumption of Klaclo, Aloco, and Chips may promote the control of postprandial glucose response. Data provides the first GI published values of plantain-based foods commonly consumed in the urban area of Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire). Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Evaluation of Different Dose-Response Models for High Hydrostatic Pressure Inactivation of Microorganisms
Foods 2017, 6(9), 79; doi:10.3390/foods6090079
Received: 5 July 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 7 September 2017
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Abstract
Modeling of microbial inactivation by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) requires a plot of the log microbial count or survival ratio versus time data under a constant pressure and temperature. However, at low pressure and temperature values, very long holding times are needed to
[...] Read more.
Modeling of microbial inactivation by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) requires a plot of the log microbial count or survival ratio versus time data under a constant pressure and temperature. However, at low pressure and temperature values, very long holding times are needed to obtain measurable inactivation. Since the time has a significant effect on the cost of HHP processing it may be reasonable to fix the time at an appropriate value and quantify the inactivation with respect to pressure. Such a plot is called dose-response curve and it may be more beneficial than the traditional inactivation modeling since short holding times with different pressure values can be selected and used for the modeling of HHP inactivation. For this purpose, 49 dose-response curves (with at least 4 log10 reduction and ≥5 data points including the atmospheric pressure value (P = 0.1 MPa), and with holding time ≤10 min) for HHP inactivation of microorganisms obtained from published studies were fitted with four different models, namely the Discrete model, Shoulder model, Fermi equation, and Weibull model, and the pressure value needed for 5 log10 (P5) inactivation was calculated for all the models above. The Shoulder model and Fermi equation produced exactly the same parameter and P5 values, while the Discrete model produced similar or sometimes the exact same parameter values as the Fermi equation. The Weibull model produced the worst fit (had the lowest adjusted determination coefficient (R2adj) and highest mean square error (MSE) values), while the Fermi equation had the best fit (the highest R2adj and lowest MSE values). Parameters of the models and also P5 values of each model can be useful for the further experimental design of HHP processing and also for the comparison of the pressure resistance of different microorganisms. Further experiments can be done to verify the P5 values at given conditions. The procedure given in this study can also be extended for enzyme inactivation by HHP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Pressure Technologies in Food Processing)
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