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Beverages, Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Electrochemistry of White Wine Polyphenols Using PEDOT Modified Electrodes
Beverages 2017, 3(3), 28; doi:10.3390/beverages3030028
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 28 June 2017
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Abstract
The conducting polymer PEDOT (poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) has been polymerized onto 3 mm and 10 µm electrodes from a propylene carbonate solution. The electrodes have then been tested in a Chardonnay wine, including dilutions in a model wine solution, with comparisons made to scans with
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The conducting polymer PEDOT (poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) has been polymerized onto 3 mm and 10 µm electrodes from a propylene carbonate solution. The electrodes have then been tested in a Chardonnay wine, including dilutions in a model wine solution, with comparisons made to scans with a glassy carbon electrode. A well-defined oxidation peak was obtained for the white wine at PEDOT in the 400 to 450 mV (Ag/AgCl) range, where peaks were also obtained for the representative phenolics caffeic acid and catechin. The voltammetry at PEDOT was typical of a surface-confined process. Significant preconcentration, leading to an increased current response, was noted over a period of 20 min of holding time. Extensive PEDOT growth was observed in the microelectrode case, leading to current densities for the oxidation of caffeic acid over 1000 times greater than those observed at the macroelectrode, matching the high surface area and fractal-type growth observed in SEM images. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds in Fruit Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle Wine Phenolic Compounds: Antimicrobial Properties against Yeasts, Lactic Acid and Acetic Acid Bacteria
Beverages 2017, 3(3), 29; doi:10.3390/beverages3030029
Received: 24 April 2017 / Revised: 2 June 2017 / Accepted: 23 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
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Abstract
Microorganisms play an important role in the conversion of grape juice into wine. Yeasts belonging the genus Saccharomyces are mainly responsible for the production of ethanol, but members of other genera are known as producers of off-flavors, e.g., volatile phenols. Lactic acid and
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Microorganisms play an important role in the conversion of grape juice into wine. Yeasts belonging the genus Saccharomyces are mainly responsible for the production of ethanol, but members of other genera are known as producers of off-flavors, e.g., volatile phenols. Lactic acid and acetic acid bacteria also occur regularly in must and wine. They are mostly undesirable due to their capacity to produce wine-spoiling compounds (acetic acid, biogenic amines, N-heterocycles, diacetyl, etc.). In conventional winemaking, additions of sulfite or lysozyme are used to inhibit growth of spoilage microorganisms. However, there is increasing concern about the health risks connected with these enological additives and high interest in finding alternatives. Phenols are naturally occurring compounds in grapes and wine and are well known for their antimicrobial and health-promoting activities. In this study, we tested a selection of phenolic compounds for their effect on growth and viability of wine-associated yeasts and bacteria. Our investigations confirmed the antimicrobial activities of ferulic acid and resveratrol described in previous studies. In addition, we found syringaldehyde highly efficient against wine-spoiling bacteria at concentrations of 250–1000 µg/mL. The promising bioactive activities of this aromatic aldehyde and its potential for winemaking deserves further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds in Fruit Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Additional Information on Consumer Acceptance: An Example with Pomegranate Juice and Green Tea Blends
Beverages 2017, 3(3), 30; doi:10.3390/beverages3030030
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 2 July 2017
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Abstract
Pomegranate Juice (PJ) and Green Tea (GT) products have increased in popularity because of their beneficial health properties. Consumers look for healthier beverages, and rely on labels, claims, and product packaging when choosing a product. The objectives of this study were to determine
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Pomegranate Juice (PJ) and Green Tea (GT) products have increased in popularity because of their beneficial health properties. Consumers look for healthier beverages, and rely on labels, claims, and product packaging when choosing a product. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the sensory profiles and acceptance of PJ and GT blends; (2) whether additional information would have an effect on consumer acceptance; and (3) the total phenolic content (TPC) of the samples. Six PJ and GT blends were evaluated by a descriptive panel in order to explore sensory differences in flavor characteristics. A consumer panel (n = 100) evaluated the samples before and after beneficial health information about the samples was provided to them. The blends that were higher in tea concentration were higher in Green and GT-like flavors, and lower in berry, beet, floral, sweetness, and cherry flavors. The overall liking scores of all of the samples increased after the information was provided to the consumers. The sample highest in PJ and lowest in GT blend was liked the most. In addition, as the samples increased in PJ, the TPC content increased. These results may be of interest to the beverage industry, providing information of consumer liking of beverage blends, and how information on health related claims affects consumer acceptance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Physicochemical Stability, Antioxidant Activity, and Acceptance of Beet and Orange Mixed Juice During Refrigerated Storage
Beverages 2017, 3(3), 36; doi:10.3390/beverages3030036
Received: 23 May 2017 / Revised: 4 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to mix beet juice and orange juice in two proportions (1:1 and 1:2 v/v), evaluate their physicochemical stability and antioxidant activity during storage (4 °C for 30 days), and evaluate their acceptance by consumers.
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The objective of this study was to mix beet juice and orange juice in two proportions (1:1 and 1:2 v/v), evaluate their physicochemical stability and antioxidant activity during storage (4 °C for 30 days), and evaluate their acceptance by consumers. Beet juice (with or without pasteurization) and pasteurized orange juice were used as controls. The presence of orange juice contributed to the pH, betacyanin, betaxanthin, and antioxidant capacity stabilities during storage, whereas the presence of beet improved the color stability. The mixed juices showed high total phenolic compounds (484–485 µg gallic acid/mL), DPPH scavenging capacity (2083–1930 µg Trolox/mL), and ABTS (1854–1840 µg Trolox/mL), as well as better sensory acceptance than the pasteurized beet juice. However, the mixed juices had a more significant reduction in the ascorbic acid content (completely lost at 15 days of storage) than the pasteurized orange juice (25% reduction at 30 days). The beet and orange mixed juice is an alternative functional beverage that can contribute to an increase in the consumption of beet and orange. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds in Fruit Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Milk Sphingomyelin Reduces Systemic Inflammation in Diet-Induced Obese Mice and Inhibits LPS Activity in Macrophages
Beverages 2017, 3(3), 37; doi:10.3390/beverages3030037
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
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Abstract
High-fat diets (HFD) increase lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activity in the blood and may contribute to systemic inflammation with obesity. We hypothesized that dietary milk sphingomyelin (SM), which reduces lipid absorption and colitis in mice, would reduce inflammation and be mediated through effects on gut
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High-fat diets (HFD) increase lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activity in the blood and may contribute to systemic inflammation with obesity. We hypothesized that dietary milk sphingomyelin (SM), which reduces lipid absorption and colitis in mice, would reduce inflammation and be mediated through effects on gut health and LPS activity. C57BL/6J mice were fed high-fat, high-cholesterol diets (HFD, n = 14) or the same diets with milk SM (HFD-MSM, 0.1% by weight, n = 14) for 10 weeks. HFD-MSM significantly reduced serum inflammatory markers and tended to lower serum LPS (p = 0.08) compared to HFD. Gene expression related to gut barrier function and macrophage inflammation were largely unchanged in colon and mesenteric adipose tissues. Cecal gut microbiota composition showed greater abundance of Acetatifactor genus in mice fed milk SM, but minimal changes in other taxa. Milk SM significantly attenuated the effect of LPS on pro-inflammatory gene expression in RAW264.7 macrophages. Milk SM lost its effects when hydrolysis was blocked, while long-chain ceramides and sphingosine, but not dihydroceramides, were anti-inflammatory. Our data suggest that dietary milk SM may be effective in reducing systemic inflammation through inhibition of LPS activity and that hydrolytic products of milk SM are important for these effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk: Bioactive Components and Role in Human Nutrition)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Some Topics on the Physics of Bubble Dynamics in Beer
Beverages 2017, 3(3), 38; doi:10.3390/beverages3030038
Received: 15 May 2017 / Revised: 18 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 27 July 2017
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Abstract
Besides being the favorite beverage of a large percentage of the population, a glass or bottle of beer is a test bench for a myriad of phenomena involving mass transfer, bubble-laden flows, natural convection, and many more topics of interest in Physical Chemistry.
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Besides being the favorite beverage of a large percentage of the population, a glass or bottle of beer is a test bench for a myriad of phenomena involving mass transfer, bubble-laden flows, natural convection, and many more topics of interest in Physical Chemistry. This paper summarizes some representative physical problems related to bubbles that occur in beer containers, pointing out their practical importance for the industry of beverage processing, as well as their potential connection to other processes occurring in natural sciences. More specifically, this paper describes the physics behind the sudden foam explosion occurring after a beer bottled is tapped on its mouth, gushing, buoyancy-induced motions in beer glasses, and bubble growth in stout beers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer)
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Open AccessArticle An Exploratory Study to Develop Korean Food and Wine Pairing Criteria
Beverages 2017, 3(3), 40; doi:10.3390/beverages3030040
Received: 16 October 2016 / Revised: 22 July 2017 / Accepted: 28 July 2017 / Published: 9 August 2017
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Abstract
Despite the increased sales of wine in Korea, fewer Koreans consume wine with Korean food, although many Koreans believe that Western food pairs well with wine. This could reduce wine consumption in Korea and critically influence the future growth of the Korean wine
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Despite the increased sales of wine in Korea, fewer Koreans consume wine with Korean food, although many Koreans believe that Western food pairs well with wine. This could reduce wine consumption in Korea and critically influence the future growth of the Korean wine market. Therefore, this study aims to develop Korean food and wine pairing criteria by examining the adaptability of food and wine pairing guidelines to the Korean palate. This exploratory study uses sequential mixed methods. The qualitative study was done by performing 12 one-on-one interviews and one focus group interview. The characteristics influencing Korean food and wine pairing were identified from the qualitative study. The quantitative study was followed by a survey of Korean wine consumers. Of the 151 questionnaires distributed, 138 valid responses were received. The qualitative results were tested and showed the following outcomes: spiciness, strong flavors, and hot food temperature were identified as three specific characteristics that hinder wine pairing. Although wine-friendly Korean dishes did not commonly include those features. Koreans’ daily diet has influenced their different wine preference. A segment of Korean wine consumers enjoy the burning sensation in the mouth and prefer to match tannic red wine to spicy dishes. As a result, nine criteria of Korean food and wine pairing were developed. Among them, two criteria were newly identified from this research, and are the main focus of this study: wine with an oak flavor pairs well with food that has a soy sauce flavor; and dry, tannic wine can be paired with spicy dishes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Wine Pairing)
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Open AccessArticle Biochemical and Microbiological Changes during the Ivorian Sorghum Beer Deterioration at Different Storage Temperatures
Beverages 2017, 3(3), 43; doi:10.3390/beverages3030043
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 17 August 2017 / Accepted: 22 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
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Abstract
In order to extend shelf life of traditional sorghum beers, it is of importance to evaluate their spoilage characteristics. Therefore, the microbiological, biochemical, and sensory changes of the Ivorian sorghum beer tchapalo during storage at ambient temperature (28 to 30 °C) for four
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In order to extend shelf life of traditional sorghum beers, it is of importance to evaluate their spoilage characteristics. Therefore, the microbiological, biochemical, and sensory changes of the Ivorian sorghum beer tchapalo during storage at ambient temperature (28 to 30 °C) for four days and at 4 °C for six days were assessed. The aerobic mesophilic bacteria and the yeast counts remained stable during the storage time. However, variations were observed in the lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria counts. The deteriorating tchapalo acidity did not show significant variations. In contrast, the total soluble solids decreased at ambient temperature and remained stable at 4 °C. Lactic acid was a major compound during storage, and acetic acid was found at a detectable level of 1.26 mg/mL after the third day at ambient temperature. The ethanol contents increased significantly at ambient temperature after two days and then decreased but showed a fair decrease at 4 °C. Evaluating the beer’s appearance, odor, and taste, a panel considered the beers to be spoiled after two days when stored at 28 to 30 °C and after three days when stored at 4 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer)
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Open AccessArticle Application of Cross-Flow Filtration Technique in Purification and Concentration of Juice from Vietnamese Fruits
Beverages 2017, 3(3), 44; doi:10.3390/beverages3030044
Received: 1 July 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 26 August 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
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Abstract
This study is to offer a 1st insight in the use of membrane process for the purification and concentration of Vietnamese fruit juices: cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale Line.), dragon fruit (Cactus hémiépiphytes), pineapple (Ananas comosus), pomelo (Citrus
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This study is to offer a 1st insight in the use of membrane process for the purification and concentration of Vietnamese fruit juices: cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale Line.), dragon fruit (Cactus hémiépiphytes), pineapple (Ananas comosus), pomelo (Citrus grandis L.), and gac aril oil (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.). On a laboratory scale, the effect of different operating parameters such as trans-membrane pressures (TMP), temperature and membrane pore sizes on permeate flux was determined in order to optimize process conditions that would ensure acceptable flux with adequate juice quality. The quality of the samples coming from the ultrafiltration (UF) process was evaluated in terms of: total soluble solids (TSS), suspended solids (SS), and vitamin C. For example, the purification process of cashew apple juice by cross-flow filtration was optimized at 0.5 μm membrane pore size, 2.5 bars TMP, and 60 min filtration time. Besides, this technique was applied to enhance carotenoids concentration from gac oil. Optimum conditions for a high permeate flux and a good carotenoids retention are 5 nm, 2 bars, and 40 °C of membrane pore size, TMP, and temperature, respectively. Carotenoids were concentrated higher than that in feeding oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technology: Beverage Industry Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Detection of Intra-Varietal Diversity Based on Differences in the Accumulation of Secondary Metabolites for Winemaking Management of High-Quality Red Wines
Beverages 2017, 3(3), 45; doi:10.3390/beverages3030045
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 11 September 2017
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Abstract
The goal of biodiversity preservation is the conservation and enhancement of diversity, which is often stored in different clones of the same grape variety. Fourteen different autochthonous accessions of Aglianico grown in the same area (Vulture, Italy) have been investigated to evaluate the
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The goal of biodiversity preservation is the conservation and enhancement of diversity, which is often stored in different clones of the same grape variety. Fourteen different autochthonous accessions of Aglianico grown in the same area (Vulture, Italy) have been investigated to evaluate the possible significant differences in terms of secondary metabolites belonging to the polyphenolic class, compounds which show a number of beneficial health related properties. During winemaking, grape polyphenols are extracted into wine, therefore the knowledge of the polyphenolic composition of grape is important for the appropriate design of the winemaking process, especially in winemaking management of high-quality red wines. The results of this study are useful tools for the individuation of the most promising candidates in the perspective of Aglianico del Vulture clonal selections from a winemaking point of view. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Metabolomics and Proteomics)
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Open AccessArticle Research to Understand Milk Consumption Behaviors in a Food-Insecure Low-Income SNAP Population in the US
Beverages 2017, 3(3), 46; doi:10.3390/beverages3030046
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 24 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
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Abstract
Milk, due to its affordability and nutritional value, can fortify the diets of families that experience food insecurity or find a high-quality diet cost-prohibitive. However, it can also be a leading source of excess calories and saturated fat. Yet, little is known about
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Milk, due to its affordability and nutritional value, can fortify the diets of families that experience food insecurity or find a high-quality diet cost-prohibitive. However, it can also be a leading source of excess calories and saturated fat. Yet, little is known about what influences consumer behavior of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) recipients toward the type of milk used or the prevalence of low-fat milk use among this population. This cross-sectional telephone survey of SNAP recipients (n = 520) documented that 7.5% of this population usually consumes low-fat milk, a prevalence that lags behind national figures (34.4%) for the same time-period. There was a weak association between sociodemographic characteristics of SNAP recipients and low-fat milk use. Instead, less low-fat milk consumption was associated with a knowledge gap and misperceptions of the nutritional properties of the different types of milk. Promoting low-fat milk use by correcting these misperceptions can improve the diet of America’s low-income population and reduce food insecurity by maximizing the nutritional value of the foods consumed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk: Bioactive Components and Role in Human Nutrition)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Therapeutic Potential of Milk Whey
Beverages 2017, 3(3), 31; doi:10.3390/beverages3030031
Received: 25 April 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 5 July 2017
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Abstract
Milk whey—commonly known as cheese whey—is a by-product of cheese or casein in the dairy industry and contains usually high levels of lactose, low levels of nitrogenous compounds, protein, salts, lactic acid and small amounts of vitamins and minerals. Milk whey contains several
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Milk whey—commonly known as cheese whey—is a by-product of cheese or casein in the dairy industry and contains usually high levels of lactose, low levels of nitrogenous compounds, protein, salts, lactic acid and small amounts of vitamins and minerals. Milk whey contains several unique components like immunoglobulins (Igs), lactoferrin (Lf), lactoperoxidase (Lp), glycomacropeptide (GMP) and sphingolipids that possess some important antimicrobial and antiviral properties. Some whey components possess anticancer properties such as sphingomyelin, which have the potential to inhibit colon cancer. Immunoglobulin-G (IgGs), Lp and Lf concentrated from whey participates in host immunity. IgGs binds with bacterial toxins and lowers the bacterial load in the large bowel. There are some whey-derived carbohydrate components that possess prebiotic activity. Lactose support lactic acid bacteria (such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli). Stallic acids, an oligosaccharide in whey, are typically attached to proteins, and possess prebiotic properties. The uniqueness of whey proteins is due to their ability to boost the level of glutathione (GSH) in various tissues and also to optimize various processes of the immune system. The role of GSH is very critical as it protects the cells against free radical damage, infections, toxins, pollution and UV exposure. Overall GSH acts as a centerpiece of the body’s antioxidant defense system. It has been widely observed that individuals suffering from cancer, HIV, chronic fatigue syndrome and many other immune-compromising conditions have very poor levels of glutathione. The sulphur-containing amino-acids (cysteine and methionine) are also found in high levels in whey protein. Thus, the present review will focus on the therapeutic potential of milk whey such as antibiotic, anti-cancer, anti-toxin, immune-enhancer, prebiotic property etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk: Bioactive Components and Role in Human Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Communication Strategies to Improve Healthy Food Consumption among Schoolchildren: Focus on Milk
Beverages 2017, 3(3), 32; doi:10.3390/beverages3030032
Received: 13 February 2017 / Revised: 22 June 2017 / Accepted: 30 June 2017 / Published: 5 July 2017
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Abstract
This work provides an updated picture of communication strategies developed to improve healthy dietary habits in schoolchildren, with a focus on the importance of milk consumption. The paper has investigated two main areas: the definition of the main orientations and key points of
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This work provides an updated picture of communication strategies developed to improve healthy dietary habits in schoolchildren, with a focus on the importance of milk consumption. The paper has investigated two main areas: the definition of the main orientations and key points of research approach relative to the communication methods, with special attention to multiple strategies and the identification of their peculiarities to increase daily milk consumption. The school environment is considered as a unique environment to help increase the adoption of a correct dietary habit and lifestyle; it increases physical activity by facilitating the flow of health-related information. In this regard, several studies have highlighted the importance and effectiveness of school-based interventions on a large-scale, also considering multiple contexts, early interventions as well as the involvement of teachers, students and families. The effective actions range from interventions on prices and the availability of desirable and undesirable foods to educational programmes that improve food knowledge and the choices of students and/or their parents. From the nutritional point of view, milk is an important component of a well-balanced diet—especially for children—because it contains essential nutrients. It is a substantial contributor to the daily energy intake; however, its consumption often declines with aging and becomes insufficient. Therefore, developing strategies to increase its consumption is an important objective to reach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk: Bioactive Components and Role in Human Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Does the Shape of the Drinking Receptacle Influence Taste/Flavour Perception? A Review
Beverages 2017, 3(3), 33; doi:10.3390/beverages3030033
Received: 3 June 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
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Abstract
In this review, we summarize the latest evidence demonstrating that the shape and feel of the glassware (and other receptacles) that we drink from can influence our perception of the taste/flavour of the contents. Such results, traditionally obtained in the world of wine,
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In this review, we summarize the latest evidence demonstrating that the shape and feel of the glassware (and other receptacles) that we drink from can influence our perception of the taste/flavour of the contents. Such results, traditionally obtained in the world of wine, have often been interpreted in terms of changes in physico-chemical properties (resulting from the retention, or release, of specific volatile aromatic molecules), or the differing ways in which the shape of the glassware funnels the flow of the liquid across the tongue. It is, however, not always clear that any such physico-chemical differences do, in fact, lead to perceptible differences. Others, meanwhile, have stressed the importance of cultural factors, and the perceived appropriateness, or congruency, of the receptacle to the drink, based on prior experience. Here, though, we argue that there is also a much more fundamental association at work between shape properties and taste/flavour. In particular, the suggestion is made that the shape properties of the drinking receptacle (e.g., whether it be more rounded or angular)—regardless of whether the receptacle is seen, felt, or both—can prime certain expectations in the mind of the drinker. And, based on the theory of crossmodal correspondence, this priming is thought to accentuate certain aspects of the tasting experience, likely as a result of a taster’s attention being focused on the attributes that have been subtly primed. Full article
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Open AccessReview Role of Proteins and of Some Bioactive Peptides on the Nutritional Quality of Donkey Milk and Their Impact on Human Health
Beverages 2017, 3(3), 34; doi:10.3390/beverages3030034
Received: 25 May 2017 / Revised: 25 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 10 July 2017
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Abstract
Donkey milk could be considered a good and safer alternative, compared to other types of milk, for infants affected by cow’s milk protein allergy, when breastfeeding is not possible. Interestingly, donkey milk has low allergenicity, mainly due to the low total casein amount,
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Donkey milk could be considered a good and safer alternative, compared to other types of milk, for infants affected by cow’s milk protein allergy, when breastfeeding is not possible. Interestingly, donkey milk has low allergenicity, mainly due to the low total casein amount, and the content of some whey proteins that act as bioactive peptides. The amount of lysozyme, an antibacterial agent, is 1.0 g/L, similar to human milk. Lactoferrin content is 0.08 g/L, with this protein being involved in the regulation of iron homoeostasis, anti-microbial and anti-viral functions, and protection against cancer development. Lactoperoxidase, another protein with antibacterial function, is present in donkey milk, but in very low quantities (0.11 mg/L). β-lactoglobulin content in donkey milk is 3.75 g/L—this protein is able to bind and transport several hydrophobic molecules. Donkey milk’s α-lactalbumin concentration is 1.8 g/L, very close to that of human milk. α-lactalbumin shows antiviral, antitumor, and anti-stress properties. Therefore, donkey milk can be considered as a set of nutraceuticals properties and a beverage suitable, not only for the growing infants, but for all ages, especially for convalescents and for the elderly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk: Bioactive Components and Role in Human Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview Oenology in the Kitchen: The Sensory Experience Offered by Culinary Dishes Cooked with Alcoholic Drinks, Grapes and Grape Leaves
Beverages 2017, 3(3), 42; doi:10.3390/beverages3030042
Received: 21 June 2017 / Revised: 5 August 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
A good pairing is based on the complementary role of wine on the four important factors of food: components, textures, flavors and colors. Common wine and food examples of food preparation with wine or vine products, such as grapes or vine leaves, exemplify
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A good pairing is based on the complementary role of wine on the four important factors of food: components, textures, flavors and colors. Common wine and food examples of food preparation with wine or vine products, such as grapes or vine leaves, exemplify numerous similarities and contrasting characteristics in those four parameters, which we can find in an enjoyable meal. The knowledge of the internal anatomy and composition of both grape berries, which includes the skin, the mesocarp and the endocarp, and vine leaf, which includes the vascular system, parenchymatous mesophyll and epidermis, is essential to know how to develop new, tastier and healthier dishes. An understanding of these ideas is important when defining gastronomic tourism strategies and even local restaurant concepts and ideas. The aim of this review is to provide some insights about the sensory experiences offered by culinary dishes cooked with grapes, vine leaves and wines and other alcoholic beverages like distilled spirits and liqueurs, bearing in mind that wine will be the drink of elation for accompanying such dishes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Wine Pairing)
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Other

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Open AccessShort Note Milk and Its Sugar-Lactose: A Picture of Evaluation Methodologies
Beverages 2017, 3(3), 35; doi:10.3390/beverages3030035
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
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Abstract
Lactose is the major disaccharide found in milk, and is catabolized into glucose and galactose by the enzyme lactase. Lactose is an important energy source and ssometimes it is referred to simply as milk sugar, as it is present in high percentages in
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Lactose is the major disaccharide found in milk, and is catabolized into glucose and galactose by the enzyme lactase. Lactose is an important energy source and ssometimes it is referred to simply as milk sugar, as it is present in high percentages in dairy products. Lactose is the primary source of carbohydrates during mammal development, and represents 40% of the energy consumed during the nursing period. Lactose-intolerance individuals have a lactase deficiency; therefore, lactose is not completely catabolized. Lactose intolerance is a significant factor in the choice of diet for many sick people, therefore its content in foods must be monitored to avoid disorders and illnesses. This has created the need to develop simple methods, such as polarimetry, gravimetric, middle infrared, differential pH and enzymatic monitoring, but all these methods are time-consuming, because they required extensive sample preparation and cannot differentiate individual sugars. In order to quantify low levels of lactose, new and more accurate analytical methods have been developed. Generally, they require equipment such as HPLC or High Performance Anion Exchange with Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAE-PAD). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk: Bioactive Components and Role in Human Nutrition)
Open AccessShort Note Organic vs. Conventional Milk: Some Considerations on Fat-Soluble Vitamins and Iodine Content
Beverages 2017, 3(3), 39; doi:10.3390/beverages3030039
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
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Abstract
The organic food market is considerably expanding all over the world, and the related dairy market represents its third most important sector. The reason lies in the fact that consumers tend to associate organic dairy products with positive perceptions: organic milk is eco-
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The organic food market is considerably expanding all over the world, and the related dairy market represents its third most important sector. The reason lies in the fact that consumers tend to associate organic dairy products with positive perceptions: organic milk is eco- and animal-friendly, is not produced with antibiotics or hormones, and according to general opinion, provides additional nutrients and beneficial properties. These factors justify its higher cost. These are the reasons that explain extensive research into the comparison of the differences in the amount of chemical compounds between organic and conventional milk. However, it is not simple to ascertain the potential advantage of organic food from the nutritional point of view, because this aspect should be determined within the context of the total diet. Thus, considering all the factors described above, the purpose of this work is to compare the amount of selected nutrients (i.e., iodine and the fat-soluble vitamins such as alfa-tocopherol and beta-carotene) in organic and conventional milk, expressed as the percentage of recommended daily intakes in one serving. In detail, in order to establish the real share of these biologically active compounds to the total diet, their percent contribution was calculated using the Dietary Reference Values for adults (both men and women) adopted by the European Food Safety Authority. According to these preliminary considerations, the higher cost of organic milk can mainly be explained by the high costs of the management of specific farms and no remarkable or substantial benefits in human health can be ascribed to the consumption of organic milk. In this respect, this paper wants to make a small contribution to the estimation of the potential value and nutritional health benefits of organic food, even though further studies are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk: Bioactive Components and Role in Human Nutrition)
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Open AccessShort Note Bioactive Peptides in Milk: From Encrypted Sequences to Nutraceutical Aspects
Beverages 2017, 3(3), 41; doi:10.3390/beverages3030041
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 1 August 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 14 August 2017
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Abstract
Milk provides a wide range of biologically active compounds that protect humans against diseases and pathogens. The purpose of this work is to describe the main aspects and research lines concerning bioactive peptides: from their chemistry, bioavailability, and biochemical properties to their applications
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Milk provides a wide range of biologically active compounds that protect humans against diseases and pathogens. The purpose of this work is to describe the main aspects and research lines concerning bioactive peptides: from their chemistry, bioavailability, and biochemical properties to their applications in the healthcare sector. In this context, the uses of bioactive peptides in nutraceutical and functional foods have been highlighted, also taking into account the perspective of innovative applications in the field of circular bioeconomy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk: Bioactive Components and Role in Human Nutrition)
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