Special Issue "Stratosphere–Troposphere Exchanges"
A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433).
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 August 2018
The troposphere and the stratosphere have fundamentally different characteristics in terms of dynamical processes, static stability, and chemical composition. Air mass exchange between these two regions, and, more generally, dynamical, chemical and microphysical processes in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) are of great interest in a context of climate change. The thermal structure of the tropopause layer may affect the climate system through changes of clouds, especially cirrus clouds. In the tropics, recent studies have also suggested a possible link between the tropical tropopause layer and the intensity of tropical cyclones, whose upper tropospheric dynamics can induce stratospheric updraft of water into the lower stratosphere, and also stratospheric intrusions into the troposphere.
This Special Issue calls for contributions to document themes listed below:
- Model experiment, dedicated instruments and observational studies of Stratosphere–Troposphere exchanges and coupling.
- Proposal or practice of technical improvement in model development: Backtrajectory and Lagrangian methods, Eulerian modelisation on different spatial and temporal scales.
- Long term trends, variability and climatology of atmospheric constituents such as water vapor, ozone, aerosols and cirrus cloud which are controlled by these coupled processes, and have important impacts on the Earth’s radiation budget.
Dr. Jean Luc Baray
Dr. Philippe Keckhut
Manuscript Submission Information
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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.
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- Stratosphere–troposphere exchanges
- Observation and case studies
- Climatology and long term trends
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Tentative title: Long range transport of water channelize through the Southern Subtropical Jet
Authors: Eliane G. Larroza1,6,*, Walter M. Nakaema.2, Eduardo Landulfo1, Jean-Luc Baray3, Davide Dionisio4, Sergey Khaykin5, François Ravetta6, Hélène Vérèmes7 and Philippe Keckhut5
1 CLA, IPEN/CNEN-SP, Center for Lasers and Apllications, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 São Paulo – SP – Brazil, 05508-000
2 IFSP, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of São Paulo, Rua Pedro Vicente, 625 – Canindé – São Paulo – SP – Brazil, 01109-010}
3 OPGC/LaMP, Laboratoire de Météorologie Physique, UMR 6016 Université Blaise Pascal/CNRS, Clermont-Ferrand, France
4 ISAC-CNR, Via Fosso del Cavaliere, Rome, Italy
5 LATMOS/IPSL, UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, 11 boulevard d´Alembert, 78280 Guyancourt, France
6 LATMOS/IPSL, UMR8190, UPMC Univ. Paris 06 Sorbonne Universités, UVSQ, CNRS, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris, France
7 Laboratoire de l’Atmosphère et des Cyclones, UMR8105, Université de La Réunion, Météo-France, CNRS, Saint-Denis de La Réunion, France
Preliminary Abstract: In this study, an air mass (including a cirrus cloud) detected by lidar above São Paulo (Brazil) in June 2007 has been tracked around the globe via cirrus clouds occurrence offering an alternative path to improve our understanding of water vapor transport in the subtropical upper troposphere. An analysis of the air mass history based on LACYTRAJ backward and forward trajectories of the cirrus cloud was performed to explain the formation of this cloud as well as its lifetime. CALIPSO data were also used to provide locations of occurrence of cirrus in the globe and extract their respective macro physical parameters, i.e, altitude and temperature.
In this case, the backtrajectories showed that the cirrus cloud detected at São Paulo had origin from two different locations. One is from the active convective area located around the Equator that brings humidity in the upper troposphere inducing cirrus cloud formation. The other one is from the South Pacific Ocean following the subtropical jet stream. Air masses coming from equatorial convective regions are trapped by the jet which contributes to maintain the life of the cirrus cloud for a few days. The cloud disappears near the African continent due to a southern excursion and warmer temperature and then reappears in the rest of the way to be detected again by the lidar system in São Paulo, after completing 12 days. The cloud observed is located at a similar altitude revealing that sedimentation is small and/or compensate by radiative uplift.
Tentative title: The Madden-Julian Oscillation’s influences on Stratospheric Moisture
Authors: Joowan Kim et al.
Affiliations: National Center for Atmospheric Research
Preliminary Abstract: Influences of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on the properties of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and stratospheric moisture are examined using Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) GPS radio occultation and AURA microwave limb sounder (MLS) measurements. During the active phase of the MJO, organized deep convection and associated latent heat release cause a large-scale warming in the troposphere and a balanced cooling near the tropopause. The near tropopause cooling is well explained by the equatorial Kelvin waves and hydrostatic adjustment. The MJO-related tropopause cooling is robustly observed during the whole year, particularly over the Indian Ocean and western Pacific regions. The moisture measurements from MLS reveal a significant dry anomaly in the cooling region. The dry anomaly near the tropopause is transported horizontally by Gill-type circulation response and vertically by the enhanced Brewer-Dobson circulation. This process indicates that the MJO dehydrates the lower stratosphere by inducing a dynamical cooling and anomalous circulation responses in the TTL. This result also suggests that the MJO is an important process modulating the amount of water vapor in the stratosphere.
Tentative title: Changes in cosmogenic radionuclides (Na-22 and Be-7) activity concentrations in the ground-level air: a tool to derive information on the altitude of downdrafts
Authors: Masson Olivier et al.
Affiliations: Institut for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), BP 3, 13115, St Paul lez Durance, Cedex, France
Preliminary Abstract: Be-7 and Na-22 are cosmogenic radionuclides produced by spallation reactions of light nuclei (carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen for Be-7, Ar for Na-22) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Their production rate is inversely correlated with solar activity and modulated by different solar cycles (on a 1-year, 11-year and 80-year long cycles). On the occasion of STE (Stratosphere-to-Troposphere Exchange), their activity concentrations significantly increased at ground level. This knowledge is important to assess the transport of any proxy such as a particulate contaminant that could reach the upper troposphere or enter the stratosphere before going down to the ground level. This was the case during the nuclear weapon test era (1945 - 1980) where radioactive debris entered the stratosphere. To a certain extent, the knowledge of the ratio between both radionuclides can help discriminating the altitude of downdrafts. Based on a 3-decade long monitoring, we provide the weekly change of this ratio. We also comment on monthly and yearly changes that could help the interpretation of large scale atmospheric circulation.