Special Issue "Earthquake Resistant Buildings"

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A special issue of Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ali M. Memari

The Pennsylvania Housing Research Center (PHRC), Department of Architectural Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, 219 Sackett, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +1-814-863-9788
Interests: residential and commercial buildings analysis; evaluation; testing; and design; laboratory testing; evaluation; development of light-frame; masonry; cladding; envelope systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Comparison of the number of casualties caused by failure of building parts or entire building collapse in earthquakes that have occurred in many developing countries with that in industrial countries, in particular the ones that seriously practice seismic design provisions and codes, shows the results of proper earthquake resistant design and retrofit of buildings. The significantly lower number in the latter indicates that it is not the earthquake that kills people, it is how we design and construct buildings. The development and advancement of earthquake design provisions in modern building codes is therefore a success story. Today, it is established that if buildings are designed according to the modern seismic codes incorporating sound structural lateral force resisting systems and constructed using good quality materials, workmanship, and inspection, the chance of building collapse is minimized, although damage to structural systems and nonstructural (e.g., architectural) components cannot be entirely prevented.

Many types of nonstructural components are actually manufactured products that are mainly specified by architects and that are not necessarily recognized by building codes. Acceptable seismic performance of such components is generally established through component mockup testing. Past damaging earthquakes have in particular revealed the vulnerability of architectural components (e.g., building envelope) to significant damage with potential life-safety hazard. This emphasizes the need for appropriate testing (e.g., racking) of such products/systems to ensure satisfactory performance under building design acceleration or drift.

For this special issue of the Buildings Journal, authors are invited to submit papers related to the general theme of the Special Issue for all types of buildings. Among relevant topics, submission of papers discussing earthquake analysis and design methods and guidelines, experimental testing of structural and nonstructural building components, and retrofit techniques is highly encouraged. In addition, it is of interest to invite contributions that address innovative structural and nonstructural systems with minimal seismic damage potential, as well as earthquake resistant structural systems appropriate for residential construction.

Prof. Dr. Ali M. Memari
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • seismic code
  • earthquake resistant design
  • racking test
  • seismic retrofit
  • nonstructural components
  • building envelope
  • glazing system
  • masonry walls
  • cladding panels
  • curtain walls
  • pushover analysis
  • collapse prevention

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Seismic Vulnerability of a Historical Masonry Building
Buildings 2012, 2(3), 332-358; doi:10.3390/buildings2030332
Received: 9 July 2012 / Accepted: 10 August 2012 / Published: 13 September 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3483 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A multidisciplinary approach for assessing the seismic vulnerability of heritage masonry buildings is described throughout the paper. The procedure is applied to a specific case study that represents a very common typology of masonry building in Italy. The seismic vulnerability of the examined
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A multidisciplinary approach for assessing the seismic vulnerability of heritage masonry buildings is described throughout the paper. The procedure is applied to a specific case study that represents a very common typology of masonry building in Italy. The seismic vulnerability of the examined building was assessed after the following: (a) historical investigation about the building and the surrounding area, (b) detailed geometrical relieves, (c) identification of materials by means of surveys and literature indications, (d) dynamic in-situ tests, (e) foundation soil characterization, (f) dynamic identification of the structure by means of a refined Finite Element (FE) model. After these steps, the FE model was used to assess the safety level of the building by means of non-linear static analyses according to the provisions of Eurocode 8 and estimate of the q-factor. Some parametric studies were also carried out by means of both linear dynamic and non-linear static analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Earthquake Resistant Buildings)
Open AccessArticle Innovative Procedures to Assess Seismic Behaviour of Existing Structures by Means of Non Linear Static Analysis: Polar Spectrum and Capacity Domains
Buildings 2012, 2(3), 271-282; doi:10.3390/buildings2030271
Received: 3 April 2012 / Revised: 11 June 2012 / Accepted: 25 June 2012 / Published: 18 July 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (536 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the last few years, the need to evaluate the seismic performances of buildings on sustaining strong motion has encouraged the development of simplified non-linear static analyses. Several procedures are available today to assess the behavior of plane-frame systems or plan-regular framed buildings
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In the last few years, the need to evaluate the seismic performances of buildings on sustaining strong motion has encouraged the development of simplified non-linear static analyses. Several procedures are available today to assess the behavior of plane-frame systems or plan-regular framed buildings suitable for engineering purposes. Less accurate procedures are instead available for irregular structures. This study introduces new tools to assess the seismic performance of irregular structures by using capacity domains and polar spectra. In particular, the capacity domains, plotted in terms of base shear and node control displacements and obtained by means of static non-linear analyses, lead to the evaluation of the direction of least seismic capacity of the investigated structure. The polar spectrum, instead, leads to taking into account the directivity and site effects of seismic events. In particular, the polar spectrum represents the spectral seismic response evaluated for different in-plan directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Earthquake Resistant Buildings)
Open AccessArticle Uncertainty in Seismic Capacity of Masonry Buildings
Buildings 2012, 2(3), 218-230; doi:10.3390/buildings2030218
Received: 17 April 2012 / Revised: 25 May 2012 / Accepted: 19 June 2012 / Published: 6 July 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (828 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Seismic assessment of masonry structures is plagued by both inherent randomness and model uncertainty. The former is referred to as aleatory uncertainty, the latter as epistemic uncertainty because it depends on the knowledge level. Pioneering studies on reinforced concrete buildings have revealed a
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Seismic assessment of masonry structures is plagued by both inherent randomness and model uncertainty. The former is referred to as aleatory uncertainty, the latter as epistemic uncertainty because it depends on the knowledge level. Pioneering studies on reinforced concrete buildings have revealed a significant influence of modeling parameters on seismic vulnerability. However, confidence in mechanical properties of existing masonry buildings is much lower than in the case of reinforcing steel and concrete. This paper is aimed at assessing whether and how uncertainty propagates from material properties to seismic capacity of an entire masonry structure. A typical two-story unreinforced masonry building is analyzed. Based on previous statistical characterization of mechanical properties of existing masonry types, the following random variables have been considered in this study: unit weight, uniaxial compressive strength, shear strength at zero confining stress, Young’s modulus, shear modulus, and available ductility in shear. Probability density functions were implemented to generate a significant number of realizations and static pushover analysis of the case-study building was performed for each vector of realizations, load combination and lateral load pattern. Analysis results show a large dispersion in displacement capacity and lower dispersion in spectral acceleration capacity. This can directly affect decision-making because both design and retrofit solutions depend on seismic capacity predictions. Therefore, engineering judgment should always be used when assessing structural safety of existing masonry constructions against design earthquakes, based on a series of seismic analyses under uncertain parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Earthquake Resistant Buildings)
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Energy Dissipation, Stiffness, and Damage of Structural Oriented Strand Board (OSB), Conventional Gypsum, and Viscoelastic Gypsum Shearwalls Subjected to Cyclic Loads
Buildings 2012, 2(3), 173-202; doi:10.3390/buildings2030173
Received: 3 May 2012 / Accepted: 11 June 2012 / Published: 28 June 2012
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Abstract
A key element in the seismic load resisting system of a wood framed structure is the shear wall which is typically sheathed on one side with plywood or oriented strand board (OSB) and gypsum on the other. The shear capacity of gypsum sheathed
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A key element in the seismic load resisting system of a wood framed structure is the shear wall which is typically sheathed on one side with plywood or oriented strand board (OSB) and gypsum on the other. The shear capacity of gypsum sheathed shear walls is typically neglected in high seismic areas due to the susceptibility of conventional drywall screw connections to damage caused by earthquakes. The earthquake resistance of an innovative viscoelastic (VE) gypsum shearwall is evaluated and compared to conventional structural and non-structural walls. Ten 8 ft × 8 ft wood framed wall specimens of three configurations [nailed-OSB, screw-gypsum, and VE polymer-gypsum] were subjected to a cyclic test protocol. The energy dissipation, stiffness, and damage characteristics of all shearwalls are reported herein. Testing results indicate the VE-gypsum walls can dissipate more energy than the OSB structural panels and 500% more energy that the conventional gypsum sheathed walls and contains a constant source of energy dissipation not seen in the structural and non-structural walls. The wall stiffness of the OSB wall degrades at a far greater rate that the VE gypsum wall and at continued cycling degrades below the VE wall stiffness. Unlike both of the conventional wall types, the VE wall showed no visible or audible signs of damage when subjected to shear displacements up to 1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Earthquake Resistant Buildings)
Open AccessArticle An Introduction to the Methodology of Earthquake Resistant Structures of Uniform Response
Buildings 2012, 2(2), 107-125; doi:10.3390/buildings2020107
Received: 9 December 2011 / Revised: 22 March 2012 / Accepted: 24 April 2012 / Published: 2 May 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (279 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Structures of Uniform Response are special earthquake resistant frames in which members of similar groups such as beams, columns and braces of similar nature share the same demand-capacity ratios regardless of their location within the group. The fundamental idea behind this presentation is
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Structures of Uniform Response are special earthquake resistant frames in which members of similar groups such as beams, columns and braces of similar nature share the same demand-capacity ratios regardless of their location within the group. The fundamental idea behind this presentation is that seismic structural response is largely a function of design and construction, rather than analysis. Both strength and stiffness are induced rather than investigated. Failure mechanisms and stability conditions are enforced rather than tested. Structures of Uniform Response are expected to sustain relatively large inelastic displacements during major earthquakes. A simple technique has been proposed to control and address the gradual softening of such structures due to local/partial instabilities and formation of plastic hinges. In structures of uniform response, the magnitude and shape of distribution of lateral forces affects the distribution of story stiffness in proportion with story moments, therefore affecting the dynamic behavior of the system as a whole. Simple closed form formulae describing the nonlinear behavior of moment frames of uniform response have been proposed. While the scope of this contribution is limited to moment frames, the proposed method can successfully be extended to all types of recognized earthquake resisting systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Earthquake Resistant Buildings)
Open AccessArticle Seismic Analysis of Historic Masonry Buildings: The Vicarious Palace in Pescia (Italy)
Buildings 2012, 2(2), 63-82; doi:10.3390/buildings2020063
Received: 22 February 2012 / Revised: 1 April 2012 / Accepted: 11 April 2012 / Published: 24 April 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3994 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent Italian earthquakes have underlined the need for wide monitoring and safety assessment of architectonical heritage. This has emerged also from requirements of the new Italian Technical Recommendations for buildings. Within this subject the paper investigates the seismic vulnerability of a specific monumental
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Recent Italian earthquakes have underlined the need for wide monitoring and safety assessment of architectonical heritage. This has emerged also from requirements of the new Italian Technical Recommendations for buildings. Within this subject the paper investigates the seismic vulnerability of a specific monumental masonry building: the Vicarious Palace (Palazzo del Vicario) in Pescia, a small town near Florence. The structural behavior of the Palace was investigated using a finite element model in which the non-linearities of the masonry were considered by proper constitutive assumptions. The seismic behavior was evaluated by the pushover method, according to the Italian Technical Recommendations. The results were compared with the ones obtained by a simplified approach based on the kinematic theorem of limit analysis. Comparisons of the expected seismic demand vs the seismic capacity of the Palace confirm the weakness of this type of building to suffer extensive damage under earthquakes, as frequently observed in similar construction typologies. Additionally, the comprehension of the structural behavior under seismic loading allows the identification of a proper retrofitting strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Earthquake Resistant Buildings)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview A Review of Seismic Isolation for Buildings: Historical Development and Research Needs
Buildings 2012, 2(3), 300-325; doi:10.3390/buildings2030300
Received: 24 April 2012 / Revised: 12 July 2012 / Accepted: 18 July 2012 / Published: 3 August 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1082 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Seismic isolation is a technique that has been used around the world to protect building structures, nonstructural components and content from the damaging effects of earthquake ground shaking. This paper summarizes current practices, describes widely used seismic isolation hardware, chronicles the history and
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Seismic isolation is a technique that has been used around the world to protect building structures, nonstructural components and content from the damaging effects of earthquake ground shaking. This paper summarizes current practices, describes widely used seismic isolation hardware, chronicles the history and development of modern seismic isolation through shake table testing of isolated buildings, and reviews past efforts to achieve three-dimensional seismic isolation. The review of current practices and past research are synthesized with recent developments from full-scale shake table testing to highlight areas where research is needed to achieve full seismic damage protection of buildings. The emphasis of this paper is on the application of passive seismic isolation for buildings primarily as practiced in the United States, though systems used in other countries will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Earthquake Resistant Buildings)

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