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Special Issue "Advances in Petroleum Engineering"

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A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Turgay Ertekin

Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, College of Earth and Mineral Sciences, University Park, PA 16802-5000, USA

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle The Potential of a Surfactant/Polymer Flood in a Middle Eastern Reservoir
Energies 2012, 5(1), 58-70; doi:10.3390/en5010058
Received: 8 August 2011 / Revised: 4 January 2012 / Accepted: 5 January 2012 / Published: 11 January 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (593 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An integrated full-field reservoir simulation study has been performed to determine the reservoir management and production strategies in a mature sandstone reservoir. The reservoir is a candidate for an enhanced oil recovery process or otherwise subject to abandonment. Based on its charateristics, [...] Read more.
An integrated full-field reservoir simulation study has been performed to determine the reservoir management and production strategies in a mature sandstone reservoir. The reservoir is a candidate for an enhanced oil recovery process or otherwise subject to abandonment. Based on its charateristics, the reservoir was found to be most suited for a surfactant/polymer (SP) flood. The study started with a large data gathering and the building of a full-field three-dimensional geological model. Subsequently, a full field simulation model was built and used to history match the water flood. The history match of the water flood emphasizes the areas with remaining high oil saturations, establishes the initial condition of the reservoir for an SP flood, and generates a forecast of reserves for continued water flood operations. A sector model was constructed from the full field model and then used to study different design parameters to maximize the project profitability from the SP flood. An economic model, based on the estimated recovery, residual oil in-place, oil price, and operating costs, has been implemented in order to optimize the project profitability. The study resulted in the selection of surfactant and polymer concentrations and slug size that yielded the best economic returns when applied in this reservoir. The study shows that, in today’s oil prices, surfactant/polymer flood when applied in this reservoir has increased the ultimate oil recovery and provide a significant financial returns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Petroleum Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Analysis of Injection and Production Data for Open and Large Reservoirs
Energies 2011, 4(11), 1950-1972; doi:10.3390/en4111950
Received: 27 July 2011 / Revised: 2 November 2011 / Accepted: 2 November 2011 / Published: 14 November 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1626 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Numerous studies have concluded that connectivity is one of the most important factors controlling the success of improved oil recovery processes. Interwell connectivity evaluation can help identify flow barriers and conduits and provide tools for reservoir management and production optimization. The multiwell [...] Read more.
Numerous studies have concluded that connectivity is one of the most important factors controlling the success of improved oil recovery processes. Interwell connectivity evaluation can help identify flow barriers and conduits and provide tools for reservoir management and production optimization. The multiwell productivity index (MPI)-based method provides the connectivity indices between well pairs based on injection/production data. By decoupling the effects of well locations, skin factors, injection rates, and the producers’ bottomhole pressures from the calculated connectivity, the heterogeneity matrix obtained by this method solely represents the heterogeneity and possible anisotropy of the formation. Previously, the MPI method was developed for bounded reservoirs with limited numbers of wells. In this paper, we extend the MPI method to deal with cases of large numbers of wells and open reservoirs. To handle open reservoirs, we applied some modifications to the MPI method by adding a virtual well to the system. In cases with large numbers of wells, we applied a model reduction strategy based on the location of the wells, called windowing. Integration of these approaches with the MPI method can quickly and efficiently model field data to optimize well patterns and flood parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Petroleum Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Kaolinite and Silica Dispersions in Low-Salinity Environments: Impact on a Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsion Stability
Energies 2011, 4(10), 1763-1778; doi:10.3390/en4101763
Received: 11 August 2011 / Revised: 17 October 2011 / Accepted: 19 October 2011 / Published: 24 October 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2010 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This research aims at providing evidence of particle suspension contributions to emulsion stability, which has been cited as a contributing factor in crude oil recovery by low-salinity waterflooding. Kaolinite and silica particle dispersions were characterized as functions of brine salinity. A reference [...] Read more.
This research aims at providing evidence of particle suspension contributions to emulsion stability, which has been cited as a contributing factor in crude oil recovery by low-salinity waterflooding. Kaolinite and silica particle dispersions were characterized as functions of brine salinity. A reference aqueous phase, representing reservoir brine, was used and then diluted with distilled water to obtain brines at 10 and 100 times lower Total Dissolved Solid (TDS). Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were used to examine at the morphology and composition of clays. The zeta potential and particle size distribution were also measured. Emulsions were prepared by mixing a crude oil with brine, with and without dispersed particles to investigate emulsion stability. The clay zeta potential as a function of pH was used to investigate the effect of particle charge on emulsion stability. The stability was determined through bottle tests and optical microscopy. Results show that both kaolinite and silica promote emulsion stability. Also, kaolinite, roughly 1 mm in size, stabilizes emulsions better than larger clay particles. Silica particles of larger size (5 µm) yielded more stable emulsions than smaller silica particles do. Test results show that clay particles with zero point of charge (ZPC) at low pH become less effective at stabilizing emulsions, while silica stabilizes emulsions better at ZPC. These result shed light on emulsion stabilization in low-salinity waterflooding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Petroleum Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Performance of a Polymer Flood with Shear-Thinning Fluid in Heterogeneous Layered Systems with Crossflow
Energies 2011, 4(8), 1112-1128; doi:10.3390/en4081112
Received: 13 May 2011 / Revised: 23 June 2011 / Accepted: 27 July 2011 / Published: 2 August 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (378 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Assessment of the potential of a polymer flood for mobility control requires an accurate model on the viscosities of displacement fluids involved in the process. Because most polymers used in EOR exhibit shear-thinning behavior, the effective viscosity of a polymer solution is [...] Read more.
Assessment of the potential of a polymer flood for mobility control requires an accurate model on the viscosities of displacement fluids involved in the process. Because most polymers used in EOR exhibit shear-thinning behavior, the effective viscosity of a polymer solution is a highly nonlinear function of shear rate. A reservoir simulator including the model for the shear-rate dependence of viscosity was used to investigate shear-thinning effects of polymer solution on the performance of the layered reservoir in a five-spot pattern operating under polymer flood followed by waterflood. The model can be used as a quantitative tool to evaluate the comparative studies of different polymer flooding scenarios with respect to shear-rate dependence of fluids’ viscosities. Results of cumulative oil recovery and water-oil ratio are presented for parameters of shear-rate dependencies, permeability heterogeneity, and crossflow. The results of this work have proven the importance of taking non-Newtonian behavior of polymer solution into account for the successful evaluation of polymer flood processes. Horizontal and vertical permeabilities of each layer are shown to impact the predicted performance substantially. In reservoirs with a severe permeability contrast between horizontal layers, decrease in oil recovery and sudden increase in WOR are obtained by the low sweep efficiency and early water breakthrough through highly permeable layer, especially for shear-thinning fluids. An increase in the degree of crossflow resulting from sufficient vertical permeability is responsible for the enhanced sweep of the low permeability layers, which results in increased oil recovery. It was observed that a thinning fluid coefficient would increase injectivity significantly from simulations with various injection rates. A thorough understanding of polymer rheology in the reservoir and accurate numerical modeling are of fundamental importance for the exact estimation on the performance of polymer flood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Petroleum Engineering)

Review

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Open AccessReview Experimental Study of Formation Damage during Underbalanced-Drilling in Naturally Fractured Formations
Energies 2011, 4(10), 1728-1747; doi:10.3390/en4101728
Received: 2 June 2011 / Revised: 1 September 2011 / Accepted: 17 October 2011 / Published: 24 October 2011
PDF Full-text (381 KB) | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes an experimental investigation of formation damage in a fractured carbonate core sample under underbalanced drilling (UBD) conditions. A major portion of this study has concentrated on problems which are often associated with UBD and the development of a detailed [...] Read more.
This paper describes an experimental investigation of formation damage in a fractured carbonate core sample under underbalanced drilling (UBD) conditions. A major portion of this study has concentrated on problems which are often associated with UBD and the development of a detailed protocol for proper design and execution of an UBD program. Formation damage effects, which may occur even if the underbalanced pressure condition is maintained 100% of the time during drilling operation, have been studied. One major concern for formation damage during UBD operations is the loss of the under-balanced pressure condition. Hence, it becomes vital to evaluate the sensitivity of the formation to the effect of an overbalanced pulse situation. The paper investigates the effect of short pulse overbalance pressure during underbalanced conditions in a fractured chalk core sample. Special core tests using a specially designed core holder are conducted on the subject reservoir core. Both overbalance and underbalanced tests were conducted with four UBD drilling fluids. Core testing includes measurements of the initial permeability and return permeability under two different pressure conditions (underbalanced and overbalanced). Then the procedure is followed by applying a differential pressure on the core samples to mimic the drawdown effect to determine the return permeability capacity. In both UBD and short pulse OBP four mud formulations are used which are: lab oil, brine (3% KCL), water-based mud (bentonite with XC polymer) and fresh water. The return permeability measurements show that a lab oil system performed fairly well during UBD and short OB conditions. The results indicate that a short overbalance pressure provides a significant reduction in permeability of the fractured formations. In most tests, even application of a high drawdown pressure during production cannot restore the initial permeability by more than 40%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Petroleum Engineering)

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