Special Issue "Inhibitors of Melanogenesis Related Processes: Application to Food, Agricultural and Cosmetic Industry-2014"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2014)
Prof. Dr. Manickam Sugumaran
Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Blvd, Boston, MA 02125, USA
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Phone: +1 617-287-6598
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Interests: enzymology; post translational modifications; aromatic metabolism; phenolic biochemistry; reactions of quinonoid compounds; invertebrate immunity; insect cuticular sclerotization; phenoloxidase; quinone isomerases; oxidative browning; melanin biosynthesis; catecholic antibiotics
Melanogenesis is a pigment-producing process that occurs ubiquitously in all animals, as well as in a wide variety of microorganisms and plants. The enzyme tyrosinase (also known as phenoloxidase) initiates melanogenesis by hydroxylating monophenols to create o-diphenols; these o-diphenols are further oxidized by tyrosinase into o-quinones. The unstable o-quinones undergo rapid transformations that are both nonenzymatic and enzyme catalyzed. Eventually, these transformations create different kinds of polymeric products.
Quinones in general are very reactive and tend to deplete cellular antioxidant pools. They also have deleterious effects on cellular macromolecules. In light of the above, inhibitors of melanogensis have great commercial potential.
For example, oxidative browning reactions reduce the nutritive values of plants. On the other hand, these reactions are advantageous for plants because they help fight off infection and invasion by other organisms. Nevertheless, oxidative browning certainly reduces the market value of food products.
The melanosis observed in crustaceans similarly reduces the market value of seafood drastically. In arthropods and especially insects, melanogenesis is used for wound healing and defense reactions (invertebrate immunity). A parallel process called sclerotization (which is initated through phenoloxidases), ensures the hardening of insect exoskeletons, so as to protect these soft-bodied animals from their environmental enemies. Arrest or even delay of sclerotization has devastating consequences for insects. Consequently, the inhibition of sclerotization provides a valuable tool for fighting noxious insects, and for developing new kinds of insecticides for future use.
Mammals use melanin mostly as skin, coat, and eye pigments. In recent years, dermal melanin production inhibitors have become a valuable tool for the cosmetic industry to produce lighter skin.
Thus, melanogenesis inhibitors have many useful applications. Naturally, lots of research groups have been engaged in discovering novel inhibitors of these enzymes. This Special Issue, which is the second of a series, will cover broad range topics, which include phenoloxidase/tyrosinase chemistry, biochemistry of inhibitors, and methods of either discovering or developing novel bioactive compounds (both natural and synthetic) that inhibit melanogenesis and related processes. This new Special Issue aims to cover the most recent progress made in this area, and will include research papers and authoritative review articles.
Prof. Manickam Sugumaran
Manuscript Submission Information
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- phenoloxidase inhibitors
- tyrosinase inhibitors
- inhibitors of melanogenesis
- skin color lightening
- prevention of oxidative browning
- cuticular sclerotization
- invertebrate immunity and melanin