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Special Issue "Plant Cell Compartmentation and Volume Control"

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A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Gian-Pietro Di Sansebastiano (Website)

DISTEBA, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies, University of Salento, Campus Ecotekne, 73100 Lecce, Italy
Phone: 00390832298714
Interests: endomembranes; compartmentalization in plant cells; organelle identity; traffic; ATPases; SNAREs; Rabs; transporters; in vitro culture

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The plant cell possesses numerous membranous compartments in which are held the most diverse physiological activities. Ontogenesis and identity definition of some of these compartments (e.g. TGN and vacuoles) are not fully understood despite their importance. Some of these compartments were never observed in other organisms (vacuoles such as PAC and SAV) or are organized differently (Golgi apparatus).

Very specific functions have to be assured by each compartment and all contribute to the cell life with essential roles: macromolecules synthesis, sorting and accumulation, detoxification, cellular homeostasis, control of volume and cell development itself.

Many genes coding proteins involved in the control of endomembrane traffic duplicated and differentiated to provide high specificity in vesicle targeting and to maintain membrane identity. Essential proteins characterize the membrane of compartments with peculiar functions, such as the generation of important membrane voltages performed by strongly electrogenic H+-ATPases or as the accumulation of solutes to generate turgor pressure for cell expansion.

This special issue aims to stimulate original contributions on the definition of the identity of membranes and membranous compartments. Some of them, performing unique functions in plant cells, may represent important opportunities for studying processes not easily visualized in other eukaryotic cells. Many actors such as SNAREs, Rabs, transporters, pumps, as well as sterols, phospholipids, phosphoinositides play important roles.

The understanding of compartment functional specificity and shape control regulation might possibly open the way to compartments manipulation for biotechnological purposes.

Dr. Gian-Pietro Di Sansebastiano
Guest Editor

XVII ENPER meeting, a partner of International Journal of Molecular Science, will be hold on 8-11 September 2014, Lecce, Italy. Selected papers from this meeting will be published in this issue. Detailed information of the meeting can be found at http://www.enper2014.com/.

Submission

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF.

Keywords

  • endomembranes
  • membranes
  • organelle identity
  • traffic
  • omeostasis
  • ATPases
  • SNAREs
  • rabs
  • transporters
  • permeability
  • phospholipids

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Transgenic Plants as Low-Cost Platform for Chemotherapeutic Drugs Screening
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 2174-2186; doi:10.3390/ijms16012174
Received: 30 November 2014 / Accepted: 9 January 2015 / Published: 20 January 2015
PDF Full-text (2734 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work we explored the possibility of using genetically modified Arabidopsis thaliana plants as a rapid and low-cost screening tool for evaluating human anticancer drugs action and efficacy. Here, four different inhibitors with a validated anticancer effect in humans and distinct [...] Read more.
In this work we explored the possibility of using genetically modified Arabidopsis thaliana plants as a rapid and low-cost screening tool for evaluating human anticancer drugs action and efficacy. Here, four different inhibitors with a validated anticancer effect in humans and distinct mechanism of action were screened in the plant model for their ability to interfere with the cytoskeletal and endomembrane networks. We used plants expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged microtubule-protein (TUA6-GFP), and three soluble GFPs differently sorted to reside in the endoplasmic reticulum (GFPKDEL) or to accumulate in the vacuole through a COPII dependent (AleuGFP) or independent (GFPChi) mechanism. Our results demonstrated that drugs tested alone or in combination differentially influenced the monitored cellular processes including cytoskeletal organization and endomembrane trafficking. In conclusion, we demonstrated that A. thaliana plants are sensitive to the action of human chemotherapeutics and can be used for preliminary screening of drugs efficacy. The cost-effective subcellular imaging in plant cell may contribute to better clarify drugs subcellular targets and their anticancer effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Compartmentation and Volume Control)
Figures

Open AccessArticle A Chrysanthemum Heat Shock Protein Confers Tolerance to Abiotic Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(3), 5063-5078; doi:10.3390/ijms15035063
Received: 15 December 2013 / Revised: 12 March 2014 / Accepted: 13 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (3006 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Heat shock proteins are associated with protection against various abiotic stresses. Here, the isolation of a chrysanthemum cDNA belonging to the HSP70 family is reported. The cDNA, designated CgHSP70, encodes a 647-residue polypeptide, of estimated molecular mass 70.90 kDa and pI [...] Read more.
Heat shock proteins are associated with protection against various abiotic stresses. Here, the isolation of a chrysanthemum cDNA belonging to the HSP70 family is reported. The cDNA, designated CgHSP70, encodes a 647-residue polypeptide, of estimated molecular mass 70.90 kDa and pI 5.12. A sub-cellular localization assay indicated that the cDNA product is deposited in the cytoplasm and nucleus. The performance of Arabidopsis thaliana plants constitutively expressing CgHSP70 demonstrated that the gene enhances tolerance to heat, drought and salinity. When CgHSP70 was stably over-expressed in chrysanthemum, the plants showed an increased peroxidase (POD) activity, higher proline content and inhibited malondialdehyde (MDA) content. After heat stress, drought or salinity the transgenic plants were better able to recover, demonstrating CgHSP70 positive effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Compartmentation and Volume Control)
Open AccessArticle New Insights on Plant Cell Elongation: A Role for Acetylcholine
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(3), 4565-4582; doi:10.3390/ijms15034565
Received: 12 February 2014 / Revised: 7 March 2014 / Accepted: 11 March 2014 / Published: 17 March 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2829 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigated the effect of auxin and acetylcholine on the expression of the tomato expansin gene LeEXPA2, a specific expansin gene expressed in elongating tomato hypocotyl segments. Since auxin interferes with clathrin-mediated endocytosis, in order to regulate cellular and developmental responses [...] Read more.
We investigated the effect of auxin and acetylcholine on the expression of the tomato expansin gene LeEXPA2, a specific expansin gene expressed in elongating tomato hypocotyl segments. Since auxin interferes with clathrin-mediated endocytosis, in order to regulate cellular and developmental responses we produced protoplasts from tomato elongating hypocotyls and followed the endocytotic marker, FM4-64, internalization in response to treatments. Tomato protoplasts were observed during auxin and acetylcholine treatments after transient expression of chimerical markers of volume-control related compartments such as vacuoles. Here we describe the contribution of auxin and acetylcholine to LeEXPA2 expression regulation and we support the hypothesis that a possible subcellular target of acetylcholine signal is the vesicular transport, shedding some light on the characterization of this small molecule as local mediator in the plant physiological response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Compartmentation and Volume Control)
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Open AccessArticle Isolation and Characterization of the Brassinosteroid Receptor Gene (GmBRI1) from Glycine max
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(3), 3871-3888; doi:10.3390/ijms15033871
Received: 1 December 2013 / Revised: 17 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 February 2014 / Published: 4 March 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3553 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Brassinosteroids (BRs) constitute a group of steroidal phytohormones that contribute to a wide range of plant growth and development functions. The genetic modulation of BR receptor genes, which play major roles in the BR signaling pathway, can create semi-dwarf plants that have [...] Read more.
Brassinosteroids (BRs) constitute a group of steroidal phytohormones that contribute to a wide range of plant growth and development functions. The genetic modulation of BR receptor genes, which play major roles in the BR signaling pathway, can create semi-dwarf plants that have great advantages in crop production. In this study, a brassinosteroid insensitive gene homologous with AtBRI1 and other BRIs was isolated from Glycine max and designated as GmBRI1. A bioinformatic analysis revealed that GmBRI1 shares a conserved kinase domain and 25 tandem leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) that are characteristic of a BR receptor for BR reception and reaction and bear a striking similarity in protein tertiary structure to AtBRI1. GmBRI1 transcripts were more abundant in soybean hypocotyls and could be upregulated in response to exogenous BR treatment. The transformation of GmBRI1 into the Arabidopsis dwarf mutant bri1-5 restored the phenotype, especially regarding pod size and plant height. Additionally, this complementation is a consequence of a restored BR signaling pathway demonstrated in the light/dark analysis, root inhibition assay and BR-response gene expression. Therefore, GmBRI1 functions as a BR receptor to alter BR-mediated signaling and is valuable for improving plant architecture and enhancing the yield of soybean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Compartmentation and Volume Control)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Formins: Linking Cytoskeleton and Endomembranes in Plant Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 1-18; doi:10.3390/ijms16010001
Received: 2 December 2014 / Accepted: 17 December 2014 / Published: 23 December 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4930 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The cytoskeleton plays a central part in spatial organization of the plant cytoplasm, including the endomebrane system. However, the mechanisms involved are so far only partially understood. Formins (FH2 proteins), a family of evolutionarily conserved proteins sharing the FH2 domain whose dimer [...] Read more.
The cytoskeleton plays a central part in spatial organization of the plant cytoplasm, including the endomebrane system. However, the mechanisms involved are so far only partially understood. Formins (FH2 proteins), a family of evolutionarily conserved proteins sharing the FH2 domain whose dimer can nucleate actin, mediate the co-ordination between actin and microtubule cytoskeletons in multiple eukaryotic lineages including plants. Moreover, some plant formins contain transmembrane domains and participate in anchoring cytoskeletal structures to the plasmalemma, and possibly to other membranes. Direct or indirect membrane association is well documented even for some fungal and metazoan formins lacking membrane insertion motifs, and FH2 proteins have been shown to associate with endomembranes and modulate their dynamics in both fungi and metazoans. Here we summarize the available evidence suggesting that formins participate in membrane trafficking and endomembrane, especially ER, organization also in plants. We propose that, despite some methodological pitfalls inherent to in vivo studies based on (over)expression of truncated and/or tagged proteins, formins are beginning to emerge as candidates for the so far somewhat elusive link between the plant cytoskeleton and the endomembrane system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Compartmentation and Volume Control)
Figures

Open AccessReview Contribution of Chitinase A’s C-Terminal Vacuolar Sorting Determinant to the Study of Soluble Protein Compartmentation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 11030-11039; doi:10.3390/ijms150611030
Received: 28 March 2014 / Revised: 6 June 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (890 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plant chitinases have been studied for their importance in the defense of crop plants from pathogen attacks and for their peculiar vacuolar sorting determinants. A peculiarity of the sequence of many family 19 chitinases is the presence of a C-terminal extension [...] Read more.
Plant chitinases have been studied for their importance in the defense of crop plants from pathogen attacks and for their peculiar vacuolar sorting determinants. A peculiarity of the sequence of many family 19 chitinases is the presence of a C-terminal extension that seems to be important for their correct recognition by the vacuole sorting machinery. The 7 amino acids long C-terminal vacuolar sorting determinant (CtVSD) of tobacco chitinase A is necessary and sufficient for the transport to the vacuole. This VSD shares no homology with other CtVSDs such as the phaseolin’s tetrapeptide AFVY (AlaPheValTyr) and it is also sorted by different mechanisms. While a receptor for this signal has not yet been convincingly identified, the research using the chitinase CtVSD has been very informative, leading to the observation of phenomena otherwise difficult to observe such as the presence of separate vacuoles in differentiating cells and the existence of a Golgi-independent route to the vacuole. Thanks to these new insights in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-vacuole transport, GFPChi (Green Fluorescent Protein carrying the chitinase A CtVSD) and other markers based on chitinase signals will continue to help the investigation of vacuolar biogenesis in plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Compartmentation and Volume Control)
Open AccessReview Transport Pathways—Proton Motive Force Interrelationship in Durum Wheat Mitochondria
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(5), 8186-8215; doi:10.3390/ijms15058186
Received: 27 February 2014 / Revised: 18 April 2014 / Accepted: 24 April 2014 / Published: 9 May 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1306 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In durum wheat mitochondria (DWM) the ATP-inhibited plant mitochondrial potassium channel (PmitoKATP) and the plant uncoupling protein (PUCP) are able to strongly reduce the proton motive force (pmf) to control mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species; under these conditions, mitochondrial [...] Read more.
In durum wheat mitochondria (DWM) the ATP-inhibited plant mitochondrial potassium channel (PmitoKATP) and the plant uncoupling protein (PUCP) are able to strongly reduce the proton motive force (pmf) to control mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species; under these conditions, mitochondrial carriers lack the driving force for transport and should be inactive. However, unexpectedly, DWM uncoupling by PmitoKATP neither impairs the exchange of ADP for ATP nor blocks the inward transport of Pi and succinate. This uptake may occur via the plant inner membrane anion channel (PIMAC), which is physiologically inhibited by membrane potential, but unlocks its activity in de-energized mitochondria. Probably, cooperation between PIMAC and carriers may accomplish metabolite movement across the inner membrane under both energized and de-energized conditions. PIMAC may also cooperate with PmitoKATP to transport ammonium salts in DWM. Interestingly, this finding may trouble classical interpretation of in vitro mitochondrial swelling; instead of free passage of ammonia through the inner membrane and proton symport with Pi, that trigger metabolite movements via carriers, transport of ammonium via PmitoKATP and that of the counteranion via PIMAC may occur. Here, we review properties, modulation and function of the above reported DWM channels and carriers to shed new light on the control that they exert on pmf and vice-versa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Compartmentation and Volume Control)
Open AccessReview Delivering of Proteins to the Plant Vacuole—An Update
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(5), 7611-7623; doi:10.3390/ijms15057611
Received: 28 February 2014 / Revised: 21 April 2014 / Accepted: 22 April 2014 / Published: 5 May 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (766 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Trafficking of soluble cargo to the vacuole is far from being a closed issue as it can occur by different routes and involve different intermediates. The textbook view of proteins being sorted at the post-Golgi level to the lytic vacuole via the [...] Read more.
Trafficking of soluble cargo to the vacuole is far from being a closed issue as it can occur by different routes and involve different intermediates. The textbook view of proteins being sorted at the post-Golgi level to the lytic vacuole via the pre-vacuole or to the protein storage vacuole mediated by dense vesicles is now challenged as novel routes are being disclosed and vacuoles with intermediate characteristics described. The identification of Vacuolar Sorting Determinants is a key signature to understand protein trafficking to the vacuole. Despite the long established vacuolar signals, some others have been described in the last few years, with different properties that can be specific for some cells or some types of vacuoles. There are also reports of proteins having two different vacuolar signals and their significance is questionable: a way to increase the efficiency of the sorting or different sorting depending on the protein roles in a specific context? Along came the idea of differential vacuolar sorting, suggesting a possible specialization of the trafficking pathways according to the type of cell and specific needs. In this review, we show the recent advances in the field and focus on different aspects of protein trafficking to the vacuoles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Compartmentation and Volume Control)
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Open AccessReview Degradation of Organelles or Specific Organelle Components via Selective Autophagy in Plant Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(5), 7624-7638; doi:10.3390/ijms15057624
Received: 16 March 2014 / Revised: 31 March 2014 / Accepted: 16 April 2014 / Published: 5 May 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1131 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) is a cellular mechanism dedicated to the degradation and recycling of unnecessary cytosolic components by their removal to the lytic compartment of the cell (the vacuole in plants). Autophagy is generally induced by stresses causing energy [...] Read more.
Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) is a cellular mechanism dedicated to the degradation and recycling of unnecessary cytosolic components by their removal to the lytic compartment of the cell (the vacuole in plants). Autophagy is generally induced by stresses causing energy deprivation and its operation occurs by special vesicles, termed autophagosomes. Autophagy also operates in a selective manner, recycling specific components, such as organelles, protein aggregates or even specific proteins, and selective autophagy is implicated in both cellular housekeeping and response to stresses. In plants, selective autophagy has recently been shown to degrade mitochondria, plastids and peroxisomes, or organelle components such as the endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) membrane and chloroplast-derived proteins such as Rubisco. This ability places selective-autophagy as a major factor in cellular steady-state maintenance, both under stress and favorable environmental conditions. Here we review the recent advances documented in plants for this cellular process and further discuss its impact on plant physiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Compartmentation and Volume Control)
Open AccessReview Autophagy-Related Direct Membrane Import from ER/Cytoplasm into the Vacuole or Apoplast: A Hidden Gateway also for Secondary Metabolites and Phytohormones?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(5), 7462-7474; doi:10.3390/ijms15057462
Received: 27 February 2014 / Revised: 18 March 2014 / Accepted: 18 March 2014 / Published: 29 April 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2480 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Transportation of low molecular weight cargoes into the plant vacuole represents an essential plant cell function. Several lines of evidence indicate that autophagy-related direct endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to vacuole (and also, apoplast) transport plays here a more general role than expected. This [...] Read more.
Transportation of low molecular weight cargoes into the plant vacuole represents an essential plant cell function. Several lines of evidence indicate that autophagy-related direct endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to vacuole (and also, apoplast) transport plays here a more general role than expected. This route is regulated by autophagy proteins, including recently discovered involvement of the exocyst subcomplex. Traffic from ER into the vacuole bypassing Golgi apparatus (GA) acts not only in stress-related cytoplasm recycling or detoxification, but also in developmentally-regulated biopolymer and secondary metabolite import into the vacuole (or apoplast), exemplified by storage proteins and anthocyanins. We propose that this pathway is relevant also for some phytohormones’ (e.g., auxin, abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA)) degradation. We hypothesize that SA is not only an autophagy inducer, but also a cargo for autophagy-related ER to vacuole membrane container delivery and catabolism. ER membrane localized enzymes will potentially enhance the area of biosynthetic reactive surfaces, and also, abundant ER localized membrane importers (e.g., ABC transporters) will internalize specific molecular species into the autophagosome biogenesis domain of ER. Such active ER domains may create tubular invaginations of tonoplast into the vacuoles as import intermediates. Packaging of cargos into the ER-derived autophagosome-like containers might be an important mechanism of vacuole and exosome biogenesis and cytoplasm protection against toxic metabolites. A new perspective on metabolic transformations intimately linked to membrane trafficking in plants is emerging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Compartmentation and Volume Control)
Open AccessReview No Stress! Relax! Mechanisms Governing Growth and Shape in Plant Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(3), 5094-5114; doi:10.3390/ijms15035094
Received: 23 December 2013 / Revised: 3 March 2014 / Accepted: 4 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1420 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The mechanisms through which plant cells control growth and shape are the result of the coordinated action of many events, notably cell wall stress relaxation and turgor-driven expansion. The scalar nature of turgor pressure would drive plant cells to assume spherical shapes; [...] Read more.
The mechanisms through which plant cells control growth and shape are the result of the coordinated action of many events, notably cell wall stress relaxation and turgor-driven expansion. The scalar nature of turgor pressure would drive plant cells to assume spherical shapes; however, this is not the case, as plant cells show an amazing variety of morphologies. Plant cell walls are dynamic structures that can display alterations in matrix polysaccharide composition and concentration, which ultimately affect the wall deformation rate. The wide varieties of plant cell shapes, spanning from elongated cylinders (as pollen tubes) and jigsaw puzzle-like epidermal cells, to very long fibres and branched stellate leaf trichomes, can be understood if the underlying mechanisms regulating wall biosynthesis and cytoskeletal dynamics are addressed. This review aims at gathering the available knowledge on the fundamental mechanisms regulating expansion, growth and shape in plant cells by putting a special emphasis on the cell wall-cytoskeleton system continuum. In particular, we discuss from a molecular point of view the growth mechanisms characterizing cell types with strikingly different geometries and describe their relationship with primary walls. The purpose, here, is to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the multitude of events through which plant cells manage to expand and control their final shapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Compartmentation and Volume Control)
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Open AccessReview Calcium Imaging Perspectives in Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(3), 3842-3859; doi:10.3390/ijms15033842
Received: 23 December 2013 / Revised: 18 February 2014 / Accepted: 20 February 2014 / Published: 4 March 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (376 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The calcium ion (Ca2+) is a versatile intracellular messenger. It provides dynamic regulation of a vast array of gene transcriptions, protein kinases, transcription factors and other complex downstream signaling cascades. For the past six decades, intracellular Ca2+ concentration has [...] Read more.
The calcium ion (Ca2+) is a versatile intracellular messenger. It provides dynamic regulation of a vast array of gene transcriptions, protein kinases, transcription factors and other complex downstream signaling cascades. For the past six decades, intracellular Ca2+ concentration has been significantly studied and still many studies are under way. Our understanding of Ca2+ signaling and the corresponding physiological phenomenon is growing exponentially. Here we focus on the improvements made in the development of probes used for Ca2+ imaging and expanding the application of Ca2+ imaging in plant science research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Compartmentation and Volume Control)

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