Special Issue "Marine Energy Systems"

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A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2014)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Bela H. Buck (Website)

Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research AWI, Marine Aquaculture, Maritime Technologies and ICZM, Bussestrasse 27, D-27570 Bremerhaven, Germany
Fax: +49 471 4831 1149
Interests: applied marine biology and maritime technologies; multi-use of offshore wind farms; offshore aquaculture; shellfish & seaweed cultivation; culture techniques and system design; bioremediation and ecological engineering; site-selection
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Axel Bochert (Website)

University of Applied Sciences, An der Karlstadt 8, 27568 Bremerhaven, Germany
Fax: +49 471 4823 199
Interests: marine energy systems; marine instrumentation; location assessment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The oceans are most likely to become the main renewable energy sources of the future. Their total energy potential believed to be allocatable is enormous; however, the energy is spatially diffuse and can only be economically harnessed in areas where marine energy is concentrated.

Depending on the type of energy source, these areas of high energy concentration are diverse in mode and intensity. Furthermore, these areas spread over various regions and require different approaches:

- coastal areas with relatively large and regular waves,

- sites with high tidal currents,

- estuaries with tidal and salinity gradients,

- nearshore tropical areas for ocean thermal energy

- upwelling areas with bio-activity and

- conflicts with other existing stakeholders

The energy from these marine renewable sources will not contribute significantly to the world energy supply within short notice. Nevertheless, it can be foreseen that these will be of increasing importance in particular areas where the resource potential is of great relevance and the societal framing conditions (e.g., favourable political permitting procedures and high economic return) advance these efforts.

Indeed, the successful commercial development of marine energy systems will depend on other surrounding economic conditions, such as the future development of costs for fossil fuels. In the long term marine energy sources is likely to benefit on their economic competitive position if the costs for conventional energy sources will increase. To address this alteration of energy production, considerable joint efforts are already in progress in all fields of development of marine energy systems. In particular these are pertinent in the areas of systems which convert energy from ocean and tidal currents, energy from tidal range, energy from waves, energy from salinity gradients, and thermal energy gradients into electrical energy. Additionally, there are several encouraging developments on the multi-functional use of these offshore sites (e.g., offshore wind farms and offshore aquaculture of e.g., macroalgae for bio-fuels). One motivation striving for spatial efficiency in these ocean areas is the potential diversion of risks and cost-reduction of these yet highly costly and risky endeavours.

This special issue is launched to provide a compilation of current state of the art and future perspectives in development and design of marine energy systems.

Prof. Dr. Bela H. Buck
Prof. Dr. Axel Bochert
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • marine energy systems
  • wave energy
  • tidal energy
  • salinity gradient energy
  • wind energy
  • thermal energy
  • multi-use concepts
  • marine instrumentation
  • location assessment

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Study of Hard and Soft Countermeasures for Scour Protection of the Jacket-Type Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(3), 551-567; doi:10.3390/jmse2030551
Received: 18 February 2014 / Revised: 5 May 2014 / Accepted: 20 May 2014 / Published: 2 July 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1685 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Physical model tests with the scale of 1:36 are carried out in the Near-Shore Wave Basin (NSWB) at Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory (THL) with the jacket-type offshore wind turbine foundation (jacket-type foundation) and the combination of hard or soft scour protection in the [...] Read more.
Physical model tests with the scale of 1:36 are carried out in the Near-Shore Wave Basin (NSWB) at Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory (THL) with the jacket-type offshore wind turbine foundation (jacket-type foundation) and the combination of hard or soft scour protection in the test area. Scouring around the jacket-type foundation exposed to wave and current was conducted in the NSWB with a mobile bed experiment. Two locations (a water depth of 12 m and 16 m) of the foundations are separately simulated in this study. Based on the analysis from the former NSWB experimental results, one traditional hard scour protection usually used in Taiwan with four layers around the foundation is proposed for the mitigation of scouring. From the experimental results, a four-layer scour protection is tested and found to be effective in preventing scouring around the jacket-type foundation. Besides the hard scour protection countermeasure, the scour protection effect of an integrated offshore wind turbine and cage net aquaculture facility as a soft countermeasure for scour protection of the jacket-type foundation is further evaluated in this study. Meanwhile, a detailed analysis for stakeholders’ opinions on the integration of offshore wind farms and coastal aquaculture is also considered to obtain important experience and knowledge; and furthermore, to understand the real demand for adjusting the feasibility of this soft countermeasure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Energy Systems)
Open AccessArticle The Conceptual Design of a Tidal Power Plant in Taiwan
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(2), 506-533; doi:10.3390/jmse2020506
Received: 26 February 2014 / Revised: 25 April 2014 / Accepted: 5 May 2014 / Published: 10 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4347 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Located on the northwestern of Taiwan, the Matsu archipelago is near mainland China and comprises four islands: Nangan, Beigan, Juguang, and Dongyin. The population of Matsu totals 11,196 and is chiefly concentrated on Nangan and Beigan. From 1971 to 2000, Matsu built [...] Read more.
Located on the northwestern of Taiwan, the Matsu archipelago is near mainland China and comprises four islands: Nangan, Beigan, Juguang, and Dongyin. The population of Matsu totals 11,196 and is chiefly concentrated on Nangan and Beigan. From 1971 to 2000, Matsu built five oil-fired power plants with a total installed capacity of 47 MW. However, the emissions and noise generated by the oil-fired power plant has caused damage to Matsu’s environment, and the cost of fuel is high due to the long-distance shipping from Taiwan. Developing renewable energy in Matsu has therefore been a fervent topic for the Taiwan government, and tidal power is considered to be of the highest priority due to Matsu’s large tidal range (4.29 m in average) and its semidiurnal tide. Moreover, the islands of Nangan and Beigan are composed of granite and have natural harbors, rendering them ideal places for coastal engineering of tidal power plants. This paper begins with a renewable energy reserves assessment in Matsu to determine the amount of tidal energy. Next, a tidal turbine type of the lowest cost is chosen, and then its dynamic characteristic, performance, and related design are analyzed. Finally, the coastal engineering condition was investigated, and a conceptual design for tidal power plant is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Energy Systems)
Open AccessArticle On the Optimization of Point Absorber Buoys
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(2), 477-492; doi:10.3390/jmse2020477
Received: 15 January 2014 / Revised: 28 March 2014 / Accepted: 28 April 2014 / Published: 26 May 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1487 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A point absorbing wave energy converter (WEC) is a complicated dynamical system. A semi-submerged buoy drives a power take-off device (PTO), which acts as a linear or non-linear damper of the WEC system. The buoy motion depends on the buoy geometry and [...] Read more.
A point absorbing wave energy converter (WEC) is a complicated dynamical system. A semi-submerged buoy drives a power take-off device (PTO), which acts as a linear or non-linear damper of the WEC system. The buoy motion depends on the buoy geometry and dimensions, the mass of the moving parts of the system and on the damping force from the generator. The electromagnetic damping in the generator depends on both the generator specifications, the connected load and the buoy velocity. In this paper a velocity ratio has been used to study how the geometric parameters buoy draft and radius, assuming constant generator damping coefficient, affects the motion and the energy absorption of a WEC. It have been concluded that an optimal buoy geometry can be identified for a specific generator damping. The simulated WEC performance have been compared with experimental values from two WECs with similar generators but different buoys. Conclusions have been drawn about their behaviour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Energy Systems)
Open AccessArticle Basin Testing of Wave Energy Converters in Trondheim: Investigation of Mooring Loads and Implications for Wider Research
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(2), 326-335; doi:10.3390/jmse2020326
Received: 31 December 2013 / Revised: 28 February 2014 / Accepted: 3 March 2014 / Published: 1 April 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (735 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes the physical model testing of an array of wave energy devices undertaken in the NTNU (Norwegian University of Science and Technology) Trondheim basin between 8 and 20 October 2008 funded under the EU Hydralabs III initiative, and provides an [...] Read more.
This paper describes the physical model testing of an array of wave energy devices undertaken in the NTNU (Norwegian University of Science and Technology) Trondheim basin between 8 and 20 October 2008 funded under the EU Hydralabs III initiative, and provides an analysis of the extreme mooring loads. Tests were completed at 1/20 scale on a single oscillating water column device and on close-packed arrays of three and five devices following calibration of instrumentation and the wave and current test environment. One wave energy converter (WEC) was fully instrumented with mooring line load cells, optical motion tracker and accelerometers and tested in regular waves, short- and long-crested irregular waves and current. The wave and current test regimes were measured by six wave probes and a current meter. Arrays of three and five similar WECs, with identical mooring systems, were tested under similar environmental loading with partial monitoring of mooring forces and motions. The majority of loads on the mooring lines appeared to be broadly consistent with both logistic and normal distribution; whilst the right tail appeared to conform to the extreme value distribution. Comparison of the loads at different configurations of WEC arrays suggests that the results are broadly consistent with the hypothesis that the mooring loads should differ. In particular; the results from the tests in short crested seas conditions give an indication that peak loads in a multi WEC array may be considerably higher than in 1-WEC configuration. The test campaign has contributed essential data to the development of Simulink™ and Orcaflex™ models of devices, which include mooring system interactions, and data have also been obtained for inter-tank comparisons, studies of scale effects and validation of mooring system numerical models. It is hoped that this paper will help to draw the attention of a wider scientific community to the dataset freely available from the Marintek website. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Energy Systems)
Open AccessArticle Comparison and Sensitivity Investigations of a CALM and SALM Type Mooring System for Wave Energy Converters
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 93-122; doi:10.3390/jmse2010093
Received: 16 December 2013 / Revised: 15 January 2014 / Accepted: 23 January 2014 / Published: 18 February 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1675 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A quasi-static analysis and sensitivity investigation of two different mooring configurations—a single anchor leg mooring (SALM) and a three-legged catenary anchor leg system (CALM)—is presented. The analysis aims to indicate what can be expected in terms of requirements for the mooring system [...] Read more.
A quasi-static analysis and sensitivity investigation of two different mooring configurations—a single anchor leg mooring (SALM) and a three-legged catenary anchor leg system (CALM)—is presented. The analysis aims to indicate what can be expected in terms of requirements for the mooring system size and stiffness. The two mooring systems were designed for the same reference load case, corresponding to a horizontal design load at the wave energy converter (WEC) of 2000 kN and a water depth of 30 m. This reference scenario seems to be representative for large WECs operating in intermediate water depths, such as Weptos, Wave Dragon and many others, including reasonable design safety factors. Around this reference scenario, the main influential parameters were modified in order to investigate their impact on the specifications of the mooring system, e.g. the water depth, the horizontal design load, and a mooring design parameter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Energy Systems)

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