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Special Issue "Amorphous Alloys"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2010)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Alain R. Yavari

Euronano-SIMaP, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble (INPG), 1130 rue de la Piscine, BP 75, 38402 Saint-Martin-d'Hères, France
Guest Editor
Dr. Konstantinos Georgarakis

WPI-AIMR, Tohoku University, Japan; Euronano-SIMaP-INP Grenoble, 1130 rue de la Piscine, BP 75, 38402 Saint-Martin-d'Hères, France

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Amorphous alloys are metastable materials that lack the long range order of conventional crystalline metals. They are often produced by casting and rapid quenching techniques, when nucleation and growth of crystalline phases are suppressed during cooling of liquid alloys. In addition, amorphous alloys can be obtained by several other methods such as electro-deposition, physical and chemical vapor deposition, spray deposition, solid state reactions and mechanical milling. In spite of their non-crystalline structure, the attractive interactions and the size differences between atomic species constituting an amorphous alloy, lead to a short and medium-range order characterized by clusters of atoms which connect to fill the space nearly as densely as their crystalline counterparts. The amorphous structure leads to a combination of exceptional mechanical, electrochemical, tribological and magnetic properties which are often superior to those of their crystalline counterparts and therefore attractive for “high-end” applications.
Thus, amorphous alloys have emerged with the progress in Materials Science as an important new category of materials with unique properties, unusual structures and high potential for cutting edge applications in various industrial sectors.

Prof. Dr. Alain. R. Yavari
Dr. Konstantinos Georgarakis
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • metallic glasses
  • amorphous alloys
  • liquid alloys
  • glassy atomic structure
  • suppression of crystallization
  • non crystalline metals
  • size dependence of properties

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Magnetization Dynamics of Amorphous Ribbons and Wires Studied by Inductance Spectroscopy
Materials 2011, 4(1), 37-54; doi:10.3390/ma4010037
Received: 5 November 2010 / Revised: 23 November 2010 / Accepted: 6 December 2010 / Published: 23 December 2010
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (798 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inductance spectroscopy is a particular formulation variant of the well known complex impedance formalism typically used for the electric characterization of dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric materials. It has been successfully exploited as a versatile tool for characterization of the magnetization dynamics in [...] Read more.
Inductance spectroscopy is a particular formulation variant of the well known complex impedance formalism typically used for the electric characterization of dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric materials. It has been successfully exploited as a versatile tool for characterization of the magnetization dynamics in amorphous ribbons and wires by means of simple experiments involving coils for sample holding and impedance analyzer equipment. This technique affords the resolution of the magnetization processes in soft magnetic materials, in terms of reversible deformation of pinned domain walls, domain wall displacements and spin rotation, for which characteristic parameters such as the alloy initial permeability and the relaxation frequencies, indicating the dispersion of each process, can be defined. Additionally, these parameters can be correlated with chemical composition variation, size effects and induced anisotropies, leading to a more physical insight for the understanding of the frequency dependent magnetic response of amorphous alloys, which is of prime interest for the development of novel applications in the field of telecommunication and sensing technologies. In this work, a brief overview, together with recent progress on the magnetization dynamics of amorphous ribbons, wires, microwires and biphase wires, is presented and discussed for the intermediate frequency interval between 10 Hz and 13 MHz. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amorphous Alloys)
Open AccessArticle Structure Analyses of Fe-based Metallic Glasses by Electron Diffraction
Materials 2010, 3(12), 5263-5273; doi:10.3390/ma3125263
Received: 24 November 2010 / Revised: 8 December 2010 / Accepted: 8 December 2010 / Published: 13 December 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (773 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanoscale structural information of amorphous structures has become obtainable by using nanobeam electron diffraction in combination with high resolution imaging. In addition, accurate radial distribution function analysis using energy filter has also become available to know averaged amorphous structures. In this paper, [...] Read more.
Nanoscale structural information of amorphous structures has become obtainable by using nanobeam electron diffraction in combination with high resolution imaging. In addition, accurate radial distribution function analysis using energy filter has also become available to know averaged amorphous structures. In this paper, we introduce some applications of these techniques, especially to several Fe-based metallic glasses. On the basis of these results, we discuss a relationship between the glass structure and the glass stability in Fe-based metallic glasses Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amorphous Alloys)
Open AccessArticle Positive and Negative Temperature Dependence in the Resistivity of Crystallized Zr-Fe-Ni Metallic Glasses
Materials 2010, 3(12), 5212-5219; doi:10.3390/ma3125212
Received: 4 November 2010 / Revised: 28 November 2010 / Accepted: 3 December 2010 / Published: 7 December 2010
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Abstract
Ni0.25Fe0.75Zr3 metallic glassy ribbons were annealed in evacuated quartz ampoules beyond the crystallization temperatures (Tx ~655 K) over the range 773 to 1,173 K for varying periods of time. The resistivity of samples annealed over the temperature [...] Read more.
Ni0.25Fe0.75Zr3 metallic glassy ribbons were annealed in evacuated quartz ampoules beyond the crystallization temperatures (Tx ~655 K) over the range 773 to 1,173 K for varying periods of time. The resistivity of samples annealed over the temperature range 923 to 1,073 K for periods less than four hours increased as a function of decreasing temperature, while it decreased for samples annealed for more than four hours or at temperatures below 923 K or above 1,073 K for any period of time. All the annealed samples were found to contain only Ni, Fe and Zr from energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amorphous Alloys)

Review

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Open AccessReview On Structure and Properties of Amorphous Materials
Materials 2011, 4(9), 1564-1598; doi:10.3390/ma4091564
Received: 15 July 2011 / Revised: 20 August 2011 / Accepted: 6 September 2011 / Published: 15 September 2011
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (3626 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mechanical, optical, magnetic and electronic properties of amorphous materials hold great promise towards current and emergent technologies. We distinguish at least four categories of amorphous (glassy) materials: (i) metallic; (ii) thin films; (iii) organic and inorganic thermoplastics; and (iv) amorphous permanent networks. [...] Read more.
Mechanical, optical, magnetic and electronic properties of amorphous materials hold great promise towards current and emergent technologies. We distinguish at least four categories of amorphous (glassy) materials: (i) metallic; (ii) thin films; (iii) organic and inorganic thermoplastics; and (iv) amorphous permanent networks. Some fundamental questions about the atomic arrangements remain unresolved. This paper focuses on the models of atomic arrangements in amorphous materials. The earliest ideas of Bernal on the structure of liquids were followed by experiments and computer models for the packing of spheres. Modern approach is to carry out computer simulations with prediction that can be tested by experiments. A geometrical concept of an ideal amorphous solid is presented as a novel contribution to the understanding of atomic arrangements in amorphous solids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amorphous Alloys)
Open AccessReview New Approaches to the Computer Simulation of Amorphous Alloys: A Review
Materials 2011, 4(4), 716-781; doi:10.3390/ma4040716
Received: 12 March 2011 / Accepted: 2 April 2011 / Published: 13 April 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3012 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work we review our new methods to computer generate amorphous atomic topologies of several binary alloys: SiH, SiN, CN; binary systems based on group IV elements like SiC; the GeSe2 chalcogenide; aluminum-based systems: AlN and AlSi, and the CuZr [...] Read more.
In this work we review our new methods to computer generate amorphous atomic topologies of several binary alloys: SiH, SiN, CN; binary systems based on group IV elements like SiC; the GeSe2 chalcogenide; aluminum-based systems: AlN and AlSi, and the CuZr amorphous alloy. We use an ab initio approach based on density functionals and computationally thermally-randomized periodically-continued cells with at least 108 atoms. The computational thermal process to generate the amorphous alloys is the undermelt-quench approach, or one of its variants, that consists in linearly heating the samples to just below their melting (or liquidus) temperatures, and then linearly cooling them afterwards. These processes are carried out from initial crystalline conditions using short and long time steps. We find that a step four-times the default time step is adequate for most of the simulations. Radial distribution functions (partial and total) are calculated and compared whenever possible with experimental results, and the agreement is very good. For some materials we report studies of the effect of the topological disorder on their electronic and vibrational densities of states and on their optical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amorphous Alloys)
Open AccessReview Role of Alloying Additions in Glass Formation and Properties of Bulk Metallic Glasses
Materials 2010, 3(12), 5320-5339; doi:10.3390/ma3125320
Received: 13 November 2010 / Accepted: 15 December 2010 / Published: 21 December 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (999 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alloying addition, as a means of improving mechanical properties and saving on costs of materials, has been applied to a broad range of uses and products in the metallurgical fields. In the field of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), alloying additions have also [...] Read more.
Alloying addition, as a means of improving mechanical properties and saving on costs of materials, has been applied to a broad range of uses and products in the metallurgical fields. In the field of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), alloying additions have also proven to play effective and important roles in promoting glass formation, enhancing thermal stability and improving plasticity of the materials. Here, we review the work on the role of alloying additions in glass formation and performance improvement of BMGs, with focus on our recent results of alloying additions in Pd-based BMGs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amorphous Alloys)

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