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Special Issue "Biocompatibility of Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2017

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Mohan Jacob

Electronic Materials Research Lab, College of Science and Engineering, Technology and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +61 (0)7 4781 6788
Interests: polymer thin films; plasma polymerisation; biocompatibility; biotechnology; biofouling; electronic materials; organic semiconductors; microwave characterisation of superconductors and dielectric materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biocompatibility is a very important requirement for developing materials for implantable devices, especially since the interaction of living systems or tissue with the device can influence the possible rate of infection. It is vital that the materials used for developing implantable electronic devices or for encapsulation of devices should have good biocompatibility so that immunological rejection can be avoided. A biocompatibility study can reveal the impending toxicity ensuing from bodily contact with a foreign body, material or implanted device. Medical devices are generally fabricated using biocompatible materials, but it is also critical to test the biocompatibility of the full device. The objective of this Special Issue entitled “Biocompatibility of Materials” is to report on biocompatibility studies of novel and/or improved advanced materials that can be used for biomedical applications and medical devices. High quality papers highlighting reviews and original research work in the area of biomaterials, biocompatible materials, bio-resorbable materials, biofouling and any materials or devices that can be used for biomedical applications are sought.

Mohan V. Jacob
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

• Biocompatibility
• Biomaterials
• Implantable devices
• Biotechnology
• Biofouling

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Comparison of Two Xenograft Materials Used in Sinus Lift Procedures: Material Characterization and In Vivo Behavior
Materials 2017, 10(6), 623; doi:10.3390/ma10060623
Received: 13 February 2017 / Revised: 29 May 2017 / Accepted: 30 May 2017 / Published: 7 June 2017
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Abstract
Detailed information about graft material characteristic is crucial to evaluate their clinical outcomes. The present study evaluates the physico-chemical characteristics of two xenografts manufactured on an industrial scale deproteinized at different temperatures (non-sintered and sintered) in accordance with a protocol previously used in
[...] Read more.
Detailed information about graft material characteristic is crucial to evaluate their clinical outcomes. The present study evaluates the physico-chemical characteristics of two xenografts manufactured on an industrial scale deproteinized at different temperatures (non-sintered and sintered) in accordance with a protocol previously used in sinus lift procedures. It compares how the physico-chemical properties influence the material’s performance in vivo by a histomorphometric study in retrieved bone biopsies following maxillary sinus augmentation in 10 clinical cases. An X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the typical structure of hydroxyapatite (HA) for both materials. Both xenografts were porous and exhibited intraparticle pores. Strong differences were observed in terms of porosity, crystallinity, and calcium/phosphate. Histomorphometric measurements on the bone biopsies showed statistically significant differences. The physic-chemical assessment of both xenografts, made in accordance with the protocol developed on an industrial scale, confirmed that these products present excellent biocompatibilitity, with similar characteristics to natural bone. The sintered HA xenografts exhibited greater osteoconductivity, but were not completely resorbable (30.80 ± 0.88% residual material). The non-sintered HA xenografts induced about 25.92 ± 1.61% of new bone and a high level of degradation after six months of implantation. Differences in the physico-chemical characteristics found between the two HA xenografts determined a different behavior for this material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle SEM-EDX Study of the Degradation Process of Two Xenograft Materials Used in Sinus Lift Procedures
Materials 2017, 10(5), 542; doi:10.3390/ma10050542
Received: 20 February 2017 / Revised: 24 March 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 17 May 2017
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Abstract
Some studies have demonstrated that in vivo degradation processes are influenced by the material’s physico-chemical properties. The present study compares two hydroxyapatites manufactured on an industrial scale, deproteinized at low and high temperatures, and how physico-chemical properties can influence the mineral degradation process
[...] Read more.
Some studies have demonstrated that in vivo degradation processes are influenced by the material’s physico-chemical properties. The present study compares two hydroxyapatites manufactured on an industrial scale, deproteinized at low and high temperatures, and how physico-chemical properties can influence the mineral degradation process of material performance in bone biopsies retrieved six months after maxillary sinus augmentation. Residual biomaterial particles were examined by field scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to determine the composition and degree of degradation of the bone graft substitute material. According to the EDX analysis, the Ca/P ratio significantly lowered in the residual biomaterial (1.08 ± 0.32) compared to the initial composition (2.22 ± 0.08) for the low-temperature sintered group, which also presented high porosity, low crystallinity, low density, a large surface area, poor stability, and a high resorption rate compared to the high-temperature sintered material. This demonstrates that variations in the physico-chemical properties of bone substitute material clearly influence the degradation process. Further studies are needed to determine whether the resorption of deproteinized bone particles proceeds slowly enough to allow sufficient time for bone maturation to occur. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Cytotoxicity of Light-Cured Dental Materials according to Different Sample Preparation Methods
Materials 2017, 10(3), 288; doi:10.3390/ma10030288
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 14 March 2017
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Abstract
Dental light-cured resins can undergo different degrees of polymerization when applied in vivo. When polymerization is incomplete, toxic monomers may be released into the oral cavity. The present study assessed the cytotoxicity of different materials, using sample preparation methods that mirror clinical conditions.
[...] Read more.
Dental light-cured resins can undergo different degrees of polymerization when applied in vivo. When polymerization is incomplete, toxic monomers may be released into the oral cavity. The present study assessed the cytotoxicity of different materials, using sample preparation methods that mirror clinical conditions. Composite and bonding resins were used and divided into four groups according to sample preparation method: uncured; directly cured samples, which were cured after being placed on solidified agar; post-cured samples were polymerized before being placed on agar; and “removed unreacted layer” samples had their oxygen-inhibition layer removed after polymerization. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using an agar diffusion test, MTT assay, and confocal microscopy. Uncured samples were the most cytotoxic, while removed unreacted layer samples were the least cytotoxic (p < 0.05). In the MTT assay, cell viability increased significantly in every group as the concentration of the extracts decreased (p < 0.05). Extracts from post-cured and removed unreacted layer samples of bonding resin were less toxic than post-cured and removed unreacted layer samples of composite resin. Removal of the oxygen-inhibition layer resulted in the lowest cytotoxicity. Clinicians should remove unreacted monomers on the resin surface immediately after restoring teeth with light-curing resin to improve the restoration biocompatibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Biocompatibility and Inflammatory Potential of Titanium Alloys Cultivated with Human Osteoblasts, Fibroblasts and Macrophages
Materials 2017, 10(1), 52; doi:10.3390/ma10010052
Received: 13 October 2016 / Revised: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 4 January 2017 / Published: 10 January 2017
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Abstract
The biomaterials used to maintain or replace functions in the human body consist mainly of metals, ceramics or polymers. In orthopedic surgery, metallic materials, especially titanium and its alloys, are the most common, due to their excellent mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility.
[...] Read more.
The biomaterials used to maintain or replace functions in the human body consist mainly of metals, ceramics or polymers. In orthopedic surgery, metallic materials, especially titanium and its alloys, are the most common, due to their excellent mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. Aside from the established Ti6Al4V alloy, shape memory materials such as nickel-titanium (NiTi) have risen in importance, but are also discussed because of the adverse effects of nickel ions. These might be reduced by specific surface modifications. In the present in vitro study, the osteoblastic cell line MG-63 as well as primary human osteoblasts, fibroblasts, and macrophages were cultured on titanium alloys (forged Ti6Al4V, additive manufactured Ti6Al4V, NiTi, and Diamond-Like-Carbon (DLC)-coated NiTi) to verify their specific biocompatibility and inflammatory potential. Additive manufactured Ti6Al4V and NiTi revealed the highest levels of metabolic cell activity. DLC-coated NiTi appeared as a suitable surface for cell growth, showing the highest collagen production. None of the implant materials caused a strong inflammatory response. In general, no distinct cell-specific response could be observed for the materials and surface coating used. In summary, all tested titanium alloys seem to be biologically appropriate for application in orthopedic surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Materials)
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