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Special Issue "Advances in Ferroelectric & Piezoelectric Materials"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials for Energy Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2010)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Sergei V. Kalinin

Research Staff Member, Materials Science and Technology Division and the center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA
Website | E-Mail
Guest Editor
Dr. Hiroshi Funakubo

Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, 226-8502, Japan
Website | E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Ferroelectrics and multiferroics have recently emerged as perspective materials for information technology and data storage applications, as well as ideal model platforms for studying polarization-mediated phenomena on surfaces and interfaces. Fundamental studies of polarization dynamics and coupling between polarization and other functional properties requires these to be studied on the nanoscale using either material confinement in the form of thin films, nanowires, and nanodots, or field confinement by an SPM probe. This issue of Materials aims to summarize recent advances in ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials on the nanoscale, with the coverage ranging from synthesis, growth, and patterning, to nanofabrication and device fabrication. The contribution on recent advances in characterization both using SPM based methods as well as scattering and nanodevice structures are particularly welcome. Finally, we aim to broadly represent the less-conventional applications of ferroelectric and electromechanically active materials – from biologic piezo- and ferroelectrics to energy harvesting systems.

Guest Editor
Dr. Sergei V. Kalinin

Keywords

  • ferroelectric
  • piezoelectric
  • hysteresis loop
  • piezoresponse force microscopy
  • electromechanics
  • domains
  • domain walls

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Chemistry of the Fe2O3/BiFeO3 Interface in BiFeO3 Thin Film Heterostructures
Materials 2010, 3(12), 5274-5282; doi:10.3390/ma3125274
Received: 10 November 2010 / Revised: 2 December 2010 / Accepted: 13 December 2010 / Published: 14 December 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (616 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigate the interfacial chemistry of secondary Fe2O3 phases formed in a BiFeO3 (BFO) layer in BFO/ La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO)/SrTiO3 (STO) heterostructures. A combination of high-resolution spherical aberration corrected scanning TEM and spectroscopy results,
[...] Read more.
We investigate the interfacial chemistry of secondary Fe2O3 phases formed in a BiFeO3 (BFO) layer in BFO/ La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO)/SrTiO3 (STO) heterostructures. A combination of high-resolution spherical aberration corrected scanning TEM and spectroscopy results, reveals that specific chemical and crystallographic similarities between Fe2O3 and BFO, enable the BFO layer to form a facile host for Fe2O3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ferroelectric & Piezoelectric Materials)
Open AccessArticle Probing the Nanodomain Origin and Phase Transition Mechanisms in (Un)Poled PMN-PT Single Crystals and Textured Ceramics
Materials 2010, 3(12), 5007-5028; doi:10.3390/ma3125007
Received: 8 October 2010 / Revised: 9 November 2010 / Accepted: 21 November 2010 / Published: 25 November 2010
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (554 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Outstanding electrical properties of solids are often due to the composition heterogeneity and/or the competition between two or more sublattices. This is true for superionic and superprotonic conductors and supraconductors, as well as for many ferroelectric materials. As in PLZT ferroelectric materials, the
[...] Read more.
Outstanding electrical properties of solids are often due to the composition heterogeneity and/or the competition between two or more sublattices. This is true for superionic and superprotonic conductors and supraconductors, as well as for many ferroelectric materials. As in PLZT ferroelectric materials, the exceptional ferro- and piezoelectric properties of the PMN-PT ((1−x)PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3−xPbTiO3) solid solutions arise from the coexistence of different symmetries with long and short scales in the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) region. This complex physical behavior requires the use of experimental techniques able to probe the local structure at the nanoregion scale. Since both Raman signature and thermal expansion behavior depend on the chemical bond anharmonicity, these techniques are very efficient to detect and then to analyze the subtitle structural modifications with an efficiency comparable to neutron scattering. Using the example of poled (field cooling or room temperature) and unpoled PMN-PT single crystal and textured ceramic, we show how the competition between the different sublattices with competing degrees of freedom, namely the Pb-Pb dominated by the Coulombian interactions and those built of covalent bonded entities (NbO6 and TiO6), determine the short range arrangement and the outstanding ferro- and piezoelectric properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ferroelectric & Piezoelectric Materials)
Open AccessArticle Mapping Disorder in Polycrystalline Relaxors: A Piezoresponse Force Microscopy Approach
Materials 2010, 3(11), 4860-4870; doi:10.3390/ma3114860
Received: 12 September 2010 / Accepted: 22 October 2010 / Published: 28 October 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (581 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Relaxors constitute a large class of ferroelectrics where disorder is introduced by doping with ions of different size and valence, in order to maximize their useful properties in a broad temperature range. Polarization disorder in relaxors is typically studied by dielectric and scattering
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Relaxors constitute a large class of ferroelectrics where disorder is introduced by doping with ions of different size and valence, in order to maximize their useful properties in a broad temperature range. Polarization disorder in relaxors is typically studied by dielectric and scattering techniques that do not allow direct mapping of relaxor parameters, such as correlation length or width of the relaxation time spectrum. In this paper, we introduce a novel method based on measurements of local vibrations by Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) that detects nanoscale polarization on the relaxor surface. Random polarization patterns are then analyzed via local Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and the FFT PFM parameters, such as amplitude, correlation radius and width of the spectrum of spatial correlations, are mapped along with the conventional topography. The results are tested with transparent (Pb, La) (Zr, Ti)O3 ceramics where local disorder is due to doping with La3+. The conclusions are made about the distribution of the defects responsible for relaxor behavior and the role of the grain boundaries in the macroscopic response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ferroelectric & Piezoelectric Materials)

Review

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Open AccessReview Magnetoelectric Interactions in Lead-Based and Lead-Free Composites
Materials 2011, 4(4), 651-702; doi:10.3390/ma4040651
Received: 10 February 2011 / Revised: 15 March 2011 / Accepted: 23 March 2011 / Published: 6 April 2011
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (1940 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Magnetoelectric (ME) composites that simultaneously exhibit ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism have recently gained significant attention as evident by the increasing number of publications. These research activities are direct results of the fact that multiferroic magnetoelectrics offer significant technological promise for multiple devices. Appropriate choice
[...] Read more.
Magnetoelectric (ME) composites that simultaneously exhibit ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism have recently gained significant attention as evident by the increasing number of publications. These research activities are direct results of the fact that multiferroic magnetoelectrics offer significant technological promise for multiple devices. Appropriate choice of phases with co-firing capability, magnetostriction and piezoelectric coefficient, such as Ni-PZT and NZFO-PZT, has resulted in fabrication of prototype components that promise transition. In this manuscript, we report the properties of Ni-PZT and NZFO-PZT composites in terms of ME voltage coefficients as a function of frequency and magnetic DC bias. In order to overcome the problem of toxicity of lead, we have conducted experiments with Pb-free piezoelectric compositions. Results are presented on the magnetoelectric performance of Ni-NKN, Ni-NBTBT and NZFO-NKN, NZFO-NBTBT systems illustrating their importance as an environmentally friendly alternative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ferroelectric & Piezoelectric Materials)
Open AccessReview A Review of Domain Modelling and Domain Imaging Techniques in Ferroelectric Crystals
Materials 2011, 4(2), 417-447; doi:10.3390/ma4020417
Received: 11 January 2011 / Accepted: 14 February 2011 / Published: 16 February 2011
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (1403 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present paper reviews models of domain structure in ferroelectric crystals, thin films and bulk materials. Common crystal structures in ferroelectric materials are described and the theory of compatible domain patterns is introduced. Applications to multi-rank laminates are presented. Alternative models employing phase-field
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The present paper reviews models of domain structure in ferroelectric crystals, thin films and bulk materials. Common crystal structures in ferroelectric materials are described and the theory of compatible domain patterns is introduced. Applications to multi-rank laminates are presented. Alternative models employing phase-field and related techniques are reviewed. The paper then presents methods of observing ferroelectric domain structure, including optical, polarized light, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray and neutron diffraction, atomic force microscopy and piezo-force microscopy. Use of more than one technique for unambiguous identification of the domain structure is also described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ferroelectric & Piezoelectric Materials)
Open AccessReview Electronic and Structural Properties of ABO3: Role of the B-O Coulomb Repulsions for Ferroelectricity
Materials 2011, 4(1), 260-273; doi:10.3390/ma4010260
Received: 30 December 2010 / Accepted: 14 January 2011 / Published: 17 January 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2722 KB)
Abstract
We have investigated the role of the Ti–O Coulomb repulsions in the appearance of the ferroelectric state in BaTiO3 as well as the role of the Zn–O Coulomb repulsions in BiZn0.5Ti0.5O3, using a first-principles calculation with optimized structures. In tetragonal BaTiO3, it is
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We have investigated the role of the Ti–O Coulomb repulsions in the appearance of the ferroelectric state in BaTiO3 as well as the role of the Zn–O Coulomb repulsions in BiZn0.5Ti0.5O3, using a first-principles calculation with optimized structures. In tetragonal BaTiO3, it is found that the Coulomb repulsions between Ti 3s and 3p states and O 2s and 2p states have an important role for the appearance of Ti ion displacement. In BiZn0.5Ti0.5O3, on the other hand, the stronger Zn–O Coulomb repulsions, which are due to the 3s, 3p, and 3d (d10) states of the Zn ion, have more important role than the Ti–O Coulomb repulsions for the appearance of the tetragonal structure. Our suggestion is consistent with the other ferroelectric perovskite oxides ABO3 in the appearance of tetragonal structures as well as rhombohedral structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ferroelectric & Piezoelectric Materials)
Open AccessReview Piezoelectric Materials Synthesized by the Hydrothermal Method and Their Applications
Materials 2010, 3(12), 5236-5245; doi:10.3390/ma3125236
Received: 14 October 2010 / Revised: 11 November 2010 / Accepted: 30 November 2010 / Published: 9 December 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (526 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Synthesis by the hydrothermal method has various advantages, including low reaction temperature, three-dimensional substrate availability, and automatic polarization alignment during the process. In this review, powder synthesis, the fabrication of piezoelectric thin films, and their applications are introduced. A polycrystalline lead zirconate titanate
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Synthesis by the hydrothermal method has various advantages, including low reaction temperature, three-dimensional substrate availability, and automatic polarization alignment during the process. In this review, powder synthesis, the fabrication of piezoelectric thin films, and their applications are introduced. A polycrystalline lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin film was applied to a micro ultrasonic motor, and an epitaxial lead titanate (PbTiO3) thin film was estimated as a ferroelectric data storage medium. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties were successfully obtained for epitaxial PbTiO3 films. As lead-free piezoelectric powders, KNbO3 and NaNbO3 powders were synthesized by the hydrothermal method and sintered together to form (K,Na)NbO3 ceramics, from which reasonable piezoelectric performance was achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ferroelectric & Piezoelectric Materials)
Open AccessReview Applications of Piezoelectric Materials in Structural Health Monitoring and Repair: Selected Research Examples
Materials 2010, 3(12), 5169-5194; doi:10.3390/ma3125169
Received: 12 October 2010 / Revised: 26 November 2010 / Accepted: 30 November 2010 / Published: 6 December 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (745 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper reviews the recent applications of piezoelectric materials in structural health monitoring and repair conducted by the authors. First, commonly used piezoelectric materials in structural health monitoring and structure repair are introduced. The analysis of plain piezoelectric sensors and actuators and interdigital
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The paper reviews the recent applications of piezoelectric materials in structural health monitoring and repair conducted by the authors. First, commonly used piezoelectric materials in structural health monitoring and structure repair are introduced. The analysis of plain piezoelectric sensors and actuators and interdigital transducer and their applications in beam, plate and pipe structures for damage detection are reviewed in detail. Second, an overview is presented on the recent advances in the applications of piezoelectric materials in structural repair. In addition, the basic principle and the current development of the technique are examined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ferroelectric & Piezoelectric Materials)
Open AccessReview Recent Progress of Ferroelectric-Gate Field-Effect Transistors and Applications to Nonvolatile Logic and FeNAND Flash Memory
Materials 2010, 3(11), 4950-4964; doi:10.3390/ma3114950
Received: 18 October 2010 / Revised: 12 November 2010 / Accepted: 16 November 2010 / Published: 18 November 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (1588 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have investigated ferroelectric-gate field-effect transistors (FeFETs) with Pt/SrBi2Ta2O9/(HfO2)x(Al2O3)1−x (Hf-Al-O) and Pt/SrBi2Ta2O9/HfO2 gate stacks. The fabricated FeFETs have excellent data retention
[...] Read more.
We have investigated ferroelectric-gate field-effect transistors (FeFETs) with Pt/SrBi2Ta2O9/(HfO2)x(Al2O3)1−x (Hf-Al-O) and Pt/SrBi2Ta2O9/HfO2 gate stacks. The fabricated FeFETs have excellent data retention characteristics: The drain current ratio between the on- and off-states of a FeFET was more than 2 × 106 after 12 days, and the decreasing rate of this ratio was so small that the extrapolated drain current ratio after 10 years is larger than 1 × 105. A fabricated self-aligned gate Pt/SrBi2Ta2O9/Hf-Al-O/Si FET revealed a sufficiently large drain current ratio of 2.4 × 105 after 33.5 day, which is 6.5 × 104 after 10 years by extrapolation. The developed FeFETs also revealed stable retention characteristics at an elevated temperature up to 120 °C and had small transistor threshold voltage (Vth) distribution. The Vth can be adjusted by controlling channel impurity densities for both n-channel and p-channel FeFETs. These performances are now suitable to integrated circuit application with nonvolatile functions. Fundamental properties for the applications to ferroelectric-CMOS nonvolatile logic-circuits and to ferroelectric-NAND flash memories are demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ferroelectric & Piezoelectric Materials)
Open AccessReview The Electronic Structure and Secondary Pyroelectric Properties of Lithium Tetraborate
Materials 2010, 3(9), 4550-4579; doi:10.3390/ma3094550
Received: 26 July 2010 / Accepted: 19 August 2010 / Published: 1 September 2010
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (1540 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We review the pyroelectric properties and electronic structure of Li2B4O7(110) and Li2B4O7(100) surfaces. There is evidence for a pyroelectric current along the [110] direction of stoichiometric Li2B4O
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We review the pyroelectric properties and electronic structure of Li2B4O7(110) and Li2B4O7(100) surfaces. There is evidence for a pyroelectric current along the [110] direction of stoichiometric Li2B4O7 so that the pyroelectric coefficient is nonzero but roughly 103 smaller than along the [001] direction of spontaneous polarization. Abrupt decreases in the pyroelectric coefficient along the [110] direction can be correlated with anomalies in the elastic stiffness  contributing to the concept that the pyroelectric coefficient is not simply a vector but has qualities of a tensor, as expected. The time dependent surface photovoltaic charging suggests that surface charging is dependent on crystal orientation and doping, as well as temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ferroelectric & Piezoelectric Materials)

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