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Special Issue "Nutrition and Diabetes"

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A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Elsa M. Janle

Department of Nutrition Science, College of Health and Human Sciences, Purdue University, 700 West State St., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2059, USA
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +1 765 494 0906
Interests: diabetes and glucose control

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The effect on nutrition on diabetes and the complications of diabetes is complex. Not only is the proportion of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in the diet important but the character and quality of these macronutrients is important in glucose control and insulin sensitivity. The glycemic index and glycemic load are concepts which have been developed to aid in maintaining glycemic control. For carbohydrates resistant, starches and nanotechnology are emerging as technologies to influence glycemic index and glycemic load. The amount and type of fiber in the diet is important. For proteins, not only the quantity but the amino acid composition, specifically the branched chain amino acid composition, may be of importance. Saturated fats may increase the probability of heart disease, one of the long term complications of diabetes, whereas omega-3 fatty acids may decrease the probability. It is not only the macronutrients which may impact the outcomes of diabetes. The long-term complications of diabetes have been linked to the over production of reactive oxygen species in the mitochondria resulting from hyper glycemia. Fruits and vegetables, rich in antioxidants may have a role in decreasing oxidative stress and preventing or delaying the long term complications. Included in the potentially important compounds are the antioxidant vitamins, flavonoids, other polyphenols and micronutrients. The purpose of this special issue is to examine the role of dietary components in maintaining glucose control and prevention of long term complications.

Dr. Elsa M. Janle
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • carbohydrates
  • resistant starches
  • proteins
  • fats
  • antioxidants
  • glycemic index
  • glycemic load
  • supplements
  • fiber

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Daily Food and Nutrient Intake in Japanese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Using Dietary Reference Intakes
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2276-2288; doi:10.3390/nu5072276
Received: 8 February 2013 / Revised: 5 June 2013 / Accepted: 8 June 2013 / Published: 26 June 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (535 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to
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Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1) assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2) characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females) aged 40–79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1) the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2) excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3) excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diabetes)
Open AccessArticle Anti-Obesity Effects of Onion Extract in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats
Nutrients 2012, 4(10), 1518-1526; doi:10.3390/nu4101518
Received: 17 August 2012 / Revised: 28 September 2012 / Accepted: 15 October 2012 / Published: 22 October 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (434 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Anti-obesity effects of onion extract were determined in obesity and diabetes-prone Zucker diabetic fatty rats by measuring the efficacy of markers concerned with diabetes and obesity. Body and adipose tissue weights in 5% of onion extract-fed group were found to be significantly lower
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Anti-obesity effects of onion extract were determined in obesity and diabetes-prone Zucker diabetic fatty rats by measuring the efficacy of markers concerned with diabetes and obesity. Body and adipose tissue weights in 5% of onion extract-fed group were found to be significantly lower than the control group without onion extract. Fasting blood glucose and HOMA-IR levels were also improved, although the serum insulin and leptin levels did not show any remarkable difference. Serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in both the 3% and 5%-fed group were found to be reduced compared to the control group. Additionally the feeding of the onion extract increased the glucose tolerance. These results suggest that dietary onion extract is beneficial for improving diabetes by decreasing lipid levels. We also examined differentiation ability of rat white preadipocyte cells using the onion extract and its sulfur-containing components. Cycloalliin, S-methyl-l-cysteine, S-propyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide, dimethyl trisulfide, especially S-methyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide were reported to be effective in inhibiting formation of oil drop in the cells, suggesting that these compounds may be involved in the anti-obesity effect of the onion extract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diabetes)
Open AccessArticle Tocotrienols Reverse Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Liver Changes in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats
Nutrients 2012, 4(10), 1527-1541; doi:10.3390/nu4101527
Received: 13 September 2012 / Revised: 5 October 2012 / Accepted: 15 October 2012 / Published: 22 October 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (602 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this study,
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Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic, cardiovascular and liver dysfunction in rats. Rats fed a high carbohydrate, high fat diet for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance with increased ventricular stiffness, lower systolic function and reduced liver function. TRF treatment improved ventricular function, attenuated cardiac stiffness and hypertension, and improved glucose and insulin tolerance, with reduced left ventricular collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. TRF improved liver structure and function with reduced plasma liver enzymes, inflammatory cell infiltration, fat vacuoles and balloon hepatocytes. TRF reduced plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations but only omental fat deposition was decreased in the abdomen. These results suggest that tocotrienols protect the heart and liver, and improve plasma glucose and lipid profiles with minimal changes in abdominal obesity in this model of human metabolic syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diabetes)
Open AccessArticle Differential Development of Glucose Intolerance and Pancreatic Islet Adaptation in Multiple Diet Induced Obesity Models
Nutrients 2012, 4(10), 1367-1381; doi:10.3390/nu4101367
Received: 3 August 2012 / Revised: 24 August 2012 / Accepted: 10 September 2012 / Published: 28 September 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: The C57BL/6 mouse fed a high fat diet is a common and valuable model in experimental studies of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Different high fat diets are used and in order to determine which diet produces a model most
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Background: The C57BL/6 mouse fed a high fat diet is a common and valuable model in experimental studies of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Different high fat diets are used and in order to determine which diet produces a model most accurately resembling human T2D, they need to be compared head-to-head. Methods: Four different diets, the 60% high fat diet (HFD) and the 58% high fat-high sucrose Surwit diet (HFHS) and their respective controls, were compared in C57BL/6J mice using glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) and the euglycemic clamp. Results: Mice fed a HFD gained more weight than HFHS fed mice despite having similar energy intake. Both high fat diet models were glucose intolerant after eight weeks. Mice fed the HFD had elevated basal insulin, which was not seen in the HFHS group. The acute insulin response (AIR) was unchanged in the HFD group, but slightly increased in the HFHS diet group. The HFHS diet group had a threefold greater total insulin secretion during the IVGTT compared to its control, while no differences were seen in the HFD group. Insulin sensitivity was decreased fourfold in the HFD group, but not in the HFHS diet group. Conclusion: The HFD and HFHS diet models show differential effects on the development of insulin resistance and beta cell adaptation. These discrepancies are important to acknowledge in order to select the appropriate diet for specific studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diabetes)

Review

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Open AccessReview Nutritional Management of Insulin Resistance in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)
Nutrients 2013, 5(10), 4093-4114; doi:10.3390/nu5104093
Received: 18 May 2013 / Revised: 14 August 2013 / Accepted: 19 September 2013 / Published: 11 October 2013
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (323 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging global health concern. It is the most common form of chronic liver disease in Western countries, affecting both adults and children. NAFLD encompasses a broad spectrum of fatty liver disease, ranging from simple steatosis (NAFL)
[...] Read more.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging global health concern. It is the most common form of chronic liver disease in Western countries, affecting both adults and children. NAFLD encompasses a broad spectrum of fatty liver disease, ranging from simple steatosis (NAFL) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and is strongly associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. First-line therapy for NAFLD includes weight loss achieved through diet and physical activity. However, there is a lack of evidenced-based dietary recommendations. The American Diabetes Association’s (ADA) recommendations that aim to reduce the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease may also be applicable to the NAFLD population. The objectives of this review are to: (1) provide an overview of NAFLD in the context of insulin resistance, and (2) provide a rationale for applying relevant aspects of the ADA recommendations to the nutritional management of NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diabetes)
Open AccessReview Dietary Factors and Type 2 Diabetes in the Middle East: What Is the Evidence for an Association?––A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2013, 5(10), 3871-3897; doi:10.3390/nu5103871
Received: 28 April 2013 / Revised: 8 August 2013 / Accepted: 9 September 2013 / Published: 26 September 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (277 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review aims to search and summarise the available evidence on the association between dietary factors and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Middle Eastern populations, where diabetes prevalence is among the highest in the world. Electronic databases were searched; authors, libraries, and
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This review aims to search and summarise the available evidence on the association between dietary factors and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Middle Eastern populations, where diabetes prevalence is among the highest in the world. Electronic databases were searched; authors, libraries, and research centres in the Middle East were contacted for further studies and unpublished literature. Included studies assessed potential dietary factors for T2DM in Middle Eastern adults. Two reviewers assessed studies independently. Extensive searching yielded 17 studies which met the inclusion criteria for this review. The findings showed that whole-grain intake reduces the risk of T2DM, and potato consumption was positively correlated with T2DM. Vegetables and vegetable oil may play a protective role against T2DM. Dietary patterns that are associated with diabetes were identified, such as Fast Food and Refined Grains patterns. Two studies demonstrated that lifestyle interventions decreased the risk of T2DM. In summary, the identified studies support an association between some dietary factors and T2DM; however, many of the included studies were of poor methodological quality so the findings should be interpreted with caution. The review draws attention to major gaps in current evidence and the need for well-designed studies in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diabetes)

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