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Special Issue "Vegetarian Nutrition"

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A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Winston Craig (Website)

Department of Nutrition and Wellness, Marsh Hall 301C, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Michigan 49104-0210, USA
Interests: herbal therapies; health-promoting phytochemicals; cardiovascular disease; vegetarian diet

Keywords

  • vegetarian nutrition and cancer
  • vegetarian nutrition and diabetes
  • vegetarian nutrition and cardiovascular disease
  • nutritional status of vegetarians
  • vegetarian nutrition and osteoporosis
  • B12 and vegetarians
  • vitamin D and vegetarians
  • iron and vegetarians
  • calcium and vegetarians
  • vegetarian diets and pregnancy
  • vegetarian diets and children
  • DHA and vegetarians
  • zinc status of vegetarians
  • plant-based diets and the environment

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Nutritional Status of Flemish Vegetarians Compared with Non-Vegetarians: A Matched Samples Study
Nutrients 2010, 2(7), 770-780; doi:10.3390/nu2070770
Received: 17 June 2010 / Revised: 9 July 2010 / Accepted: 12 July 2010 / Published: 14 July 2010
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (101 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study compares the nutritional status of vegetarian (V) with non-vegetarian (NV) subjects. A three-day food record and a health questionnaire were completed by 106 V and 106 NV matched for following characteristics: sex, age, BMI, physical activity, tobacco use and alcohol consumption. Total energy intake was not significantly different (men: V: 2,346 ± 685 kcal/d; NV: 2,628 ± 632 kcal/d; p = 0.078; women: V: 1,991 ± 539 kcal/d; NV: 1,973 ± 592 kcal/d; p = 0.849). Macronutrients intake differed significantly between the V and NV subjects for protein (men: V:12.7 ± 2.3 E%; NV:15.3 ± 4.5 E%; p = 0.003; women: V: 13.2 ± 2.3 E%; NV:16.0 ± 4.0 E%; p < 0.001), fat (men: V: 29.3 ± 8.4 E%; NV: 33.8 ± 5.3 E%; p = 0.010; women: V: 29.7 ± 6.9 E%; NV: 34.7 ± 9.0 E%; p < 0.001), and carbohydrate (men: V: 55.3 ± 10.1 E%; NV: 47.4 ± 6.9 E%; p < 0.001; women: V: 55.1 ± 7.6 E%; NV: 47.2 ± 8.2 E%; p < 0.001). The intake of most minerals was significantly different between the V and the NV subjects. V had a lower sodium intake, higher calcium, zinc, and iron intake compared to the NV subjects. Our results clearly indicate that a vegetarian diet can be adequate to sustain the nutritional demands to at least the same degree as that of omnivores. The intakes of the V subjects were closer to the recommendations for a healthy diet when compared to a group of well matched NV subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegetarian Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Beliefs and Attitudes toward Vegetarian Lifestyle across Generations
Nutrients 2010, 2(5), 523-531; doi:10.3390/nu2050523
Received: 20 April 2010 / Revised: 12 May 2010 / Accepted: 14 May 2010 / Published: 17 May 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (277 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of the study was to examine whether reasons to adopt vegetarian lifestyle differ significantly among generations. Using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), we identified that 4% of the participants were vegans, 25% lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 4% pesco-vegetarians and 67% non-vegetarian. Younger people [...] Read more.
The objective of the study was to examine whether reasons to adopt vegetarian lifestyle differ significantly among generations. Using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), we identified that 4% of the participants were vegans, 25% lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 4% pesco-vegetarians and 67% non-vegetarian. Younger people significantly agreed more with the moral reason and with the environmental reason. People ages 41–60 significantly agreed more with the health reason. There are significant differences across generations as to why people choose to live a vegetarian lifestyle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegetarian Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Vegetarian Nutrition–A Nutrition Ecological Perspective
Nutrients 2010, 2(5), 496-504; doi:10.3390/nu2050496
Received: 22 March 2010 / Revised: 12 April 2010 / Accepted: 29 April 2010 / Published: 10 May 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (374 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although vegetarian nutrition is a complex issue, the multidimensionality and interrelatedness of its effects are rarely explored. This article aims to demonstrate the complexity of vegetarian nutrition by means of the nutrition ecological modeling technique NutriMod. The integrative qualitative cause-effect model, which [...] Read more.
Although vegetarian nutrition is a complex issue, the multidimensionality and interrelatedness of its effects are rarely explored. This article aims to demonstrate the complexity of vegetarian nutrition by means of the nutrition ecological modeling technique NutriMod. The integrative qualitative cause-effect model, which is based on scientific literature, provides a comprehensive picture of vegetarian nutrition. The nutrition ecological perspective offers a basis for the assessment of the effects of worldwide developments concerning shifts in diets and the effects of vegetarian nutrition on global problems like climate change. Furthermore, new research areas on the complexity of vegetarian nutrition can be identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegetarian Nutrition)
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Review

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Open AccessReview The Role of Soy in Vegetarian Diets
Nutrients 2010, 2(8), 855-888; doi:10.3390/nu2080855
Received: 2 July 2010 / Revised: 31 July 2010 / Accepted: 3 August 2010 / Published: 6 August 2010
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soyfoods have long been prized among vegetarians for both their high protein content and versatility. Soybeans differ markedly in macronutrient content from other legumes, being much higher in fat and protein, and lower in carbohydrate. In recent years however, soyfoods and specific [...] Read more.
Soyfoods have long been prized among vegetarians for both their high protein content and versatility. Soybeans differ markedly in macronutrient content from other legumes, being much higher in fat and protein, and lower in carbohydrate. In recent years however, soyfoods and specific soybean constituents, especially isoflavones, have been the subject of an impressive amount of research. Nearly 2,000 soy-related papers are published annually. This research has focused primarily on the benefits that soyfoods may provide independent of their nutrient content. There is particular interest in the role that soyfoods have in reducing risk of heart disease, osteoporosis and certain forms of cancer. However, the estrogen-like effects of isoflavones observed in animal studies have also raised concerns about potential harmful effects of soyfood consumption. This review addresses questions related to soy and chronic disease risk, provides recommendations for optimal intakes, and discusses potential contraindications. As reviewed, the evidence indicates that, with the exception of those individuals allergic to soy protein, soyfoods can play a beneficial role in the diets of vegetarians. Concerns about adverse effects are not supported by the clinical or epidemiologic literature. Based on the soy intake associated with health benefits in the epidemiologic studies and the benefits noted in clinical trials, optimal adult soy intake would appear to be between two and four servings per day. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegetarian Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Health Benefits of Nut Consumption
Nutrients 2010, 2(7), 652-682; doi:10.3390/nu2070652
Received: 14 May 2010 / Revised: 1 June 2010 / Accepted: 17 June 2010 / Published: 24 June 2010
Cited by 78 | PDF Full-text (677 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nuts (tree nuts and peanuts) are nutrient dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty and other bioactive compounds: high-quality vegetable protein, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely to beneficially impact [...] Read more.
Nuts (tree nuts and peanuts) are nutrient dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty and other bioactive compounds: high-quality vegetable protein, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely to beneficially impact health outcomes. Epidemiologic studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced incidence of coronary heart disease and gallstones in both genders and diabetes in women. Limited evidence also suggests beneficial effects on hypertension, cancer, and inflammation. Interventional studies consistently show that nut intake has a cholesterol-lowering effect, even in the context of healthy diets, and there is emerging evidence of beneficial effects on oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular reactivity. Blood pressure, visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome also appear to be positively influenced by nut consumption. Thus it is clear that nuts have a beneficial impact on many cardiovascular risk factors. Contrary to expectations, epidemiologic studies and clinical trials suggest that regular nut consumption is unlikely to contribute to obesity and may even help in weight loss. Safety concerns are limited to the infrequent occurrence of nut allergy in children. In conclusion, nuts are nutrient rich foods with wide-ranging cardiovascular and metabolic benefits, which can be readily incorporated into healthy diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegetarian Nutrition)
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