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Special Issue "Observing the Ocean’s Interior from Satellite Remote Sensing"

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A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Xiao-Hai Yan (Website)

Center for Remote Sensing (CRS), College of Earth, Ocean and Environment, University of Delaware, 209 Robinson Hall, Newark, DE 19716, USA
Interests: satellite oceanography/ocean remote sensing; Physical oceanography/ocean circulation/climate change; remote sensing of estuaries, coastal and open ocean waters; remote sensing image processing; air-sea interactions and upper ocean dynamics; mirowave remote sensing (altimeter, scatterometer and SAR); environmental remote sensing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Most remotely sensed oceanographic observations are confined to either the sea surface or to the very top layer of the sea surface due to the limitations of the sensors. In the past 20 years some of the attempts to break the ocean’s surface have already made the headlines, such as the mixed layer depths, deep ocean eddies, certain ocean internal waves and so on. Although these methods break the ocean’s surface from the space successfully, still many important ocean processes in ocean interior need to be observed and studied from the space but not yet successful due to the limitations of the sensors and difficulties in the methodologies. Such deeper ocean processes include MOC (meridional overturning circulation), DOC (deep ocean convection), bottom topography, different types of internal waves and internal tides, mixed layer depth beneath sea ice, and some bio-geo-chemical deep ocean processes, etc, which relate and impact greatly to the global climate changes. This special issue will invite review of the background and status of the research on breaking the ocean’s surface from satellite remote sensing, and report some of the recent attempts to combine satellite altimetry, scatterometry, infrared, ocean color, and SAR with other ocean observations and techniques, and with ocean general circulation models to infer the three-dimensional, time varying ocean circulation, air-sea interactions, and global and regional oceanographic processes at ocean’s interior.

Prof. Dr. Xiao-Hai Yan
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • ocean remote sensing
  • upper ocean dynamics
  • multi-sensor remote sensing
  • climate changes
  • air-sea interactions
  • mixed layer
  • internal waves
  • subsurface Eddies
  • bottom topography
  • subsurface ocean processes
  • satellite oceanography

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Correlation between Synthetic Aperture Radar Surface Winds and Deep Water Velocity in the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica
Remote Sens. 2013, 5(8), 4088-4106; doi:10.3390/rs5084088
Received: 7 June 2013 / Revised: 10 July 2013 / Accepted: 6 August 2013 / Published: 16 August 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2530 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The recent observed thinning of the glacier ice shelves in the Amundsen Sea (Antarctica) has been attributed to warm deep currents, possibly induced by along-coast winds in the vicinity of the glacial ice sheet. Here, high resolution maps of wind fields derived [...] Read more.
The recent observed thinning of the glacier ice shelves in the Amundsen Sea (Antarctica) has been attributed to warm deep currents, possibly induced by along-coast winds in the vicinity of the glacial ice sheet. Here, high resolution maps of wind fields derived from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data have been studied and correlated with subsurface measurements of the deep water velocities in the Amundsen Sea area. Focus is on periods with low ice coverage in 2010 and 2011. In 2010, which had comparatively low ice coverage, the results indicate a more rapid response to wind forcing in the deep currents than in 2011. The SAR wind speed maps have better spatial resolution than available reanalysis data, and higher maximum correlation was obtained with SAR data than with reanalysis data despite the lower temporal resolution. The maximum correlation was R = 0.71, in a direction that is consistent with wind-driven Ekman theory. This is significantly larger than in previous studies. The larger correlation could be due to the better spatial resolution or the restriction to months with minimum ice coverage. The results indicate that SAR is a useful complement to infer the subsurface variability of the ocean circulation in remote areas in polar oceans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Observing the Ocean’s Interior from Satellite Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Unravelling Eastern Pacific and Central Pacific ENSO Contributions in South Pacific Chlorophyll-a Variability through Remote Sensing
Remote Sens. 2013, 5(8), 4067-4087; doi:10.3390/rs5084067
Received: 18 June 2013 / Revised: 22 July 2013 / Accepted: 5 August 2013 / Published: 13 August 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1836 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
El Niño—Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is regarded as the main driver of phytoplankton inter-annual variability. Remotely sensed surface chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), has made it possible to examine phytoplankton variability at a resolution and scale that allows for the investigation of climate [...] Read more.
El Niño—Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is regarded as the main driver of phytoplankton inter-annual variability. Remotely sensed surface chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), has made it possible to examine phytoplankton variability at a resolution and scale that allows for the investigation of climate signals such as ENSO. We provide empirical evidence of an immediate and lagged influence of ENSO on SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua derived global Chl-a concentrations. We use 13 years of Chl-a remotely sensed observations along with sea surface temperature (SST) observations across the Tropical and South Pacific to isolate and examine the spatial development of Chl-a anomalies during ENSO: its canonical or eastern Pacific (EP) mode, and El Niño Modoki or central Pacific (CP) mode, using the extended empirical orthogonal function (EEOF) technique. We describe how an EP ENSO phase transition affects Chl-a, and identify an interannual CP mode of variability induced spatial pattern. We argue that when ENSO is analysed as a propagating signal by the EEOF, CP ENSO is found to be more influential on Chl-a interannual to decadal variability than the canonical EP ENSO. Our results cannot confirm the independence of the two ENSO modes but clearly demonstrate that both ENSO flavors manifest a distinct biological response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Observing the Ocean’s Interior from Satellite Remote Sensing)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Surface Imprints of Water-Column Turbulence: A Case Study of Tidal Flow over an Estuarine Sill
Remote Sens. 2013, 5(7), 3239-3258; doi:10.3390/rs5073239
Received: 5 May 2013 / Revised: 25 June 2013 / Accepted: 26 June 2013 / Published: 4 July 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1719 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Turbulent mixing in the ocean can, in some cases, be so intense as to leave surface imprints, or “boils”, that are detectable from space. Examples include turbulent flow over a submerged obstacle and instability of large-amplitude internal waves. In this paper we [...] Read more.
Turbulent mixing in the ocean can, in some cases, be so intense as to leave surface imprints, or “boils”, that are detectable from space. Examples include turbulent flow over a submerged obstacle and instability of large-amplitude internal waves. In this paper we examine the particular case of tidal flow over a ~60-m-deep sill, which forms a barrier for the flow of dense water from the Pacific Ocean into the Strait of Georgia. The flow response during flood tide is illustrated using visible and thermal-band satellite and airborne imagery, the latter having high-resolution multi-looks that capture the formative stage of the boils. The image examples capture aspects of the expected flow response based on in situ measurements reported in the literature, but they also suggest differences, and they reveal the level of complexity of the surface structure. A new result is that, after the front is pushed well off the sill, boils emerge several hundred meters downstream from the sill crest, grow at a rate of ~60 m2/s, and attain a size of 3,800 m2 (an equivalent diameter of 70 m) after one minute. These boils appear to arise from vorticity generated by vertical shear at the sill crest, and provide an additional source of vertical mixing and (through wave breaking) air-sea gas exchange. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Observing the Ocean’s Interior from Satellite Remote Sensing)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Data Assimilation of the High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature Obtained from the Aqua-Terra Satellites (MODIS-SST) Using an Ensemble Kalman Filter
Remote Sens. 2013, 5(6), 3123-3139; doi:10.3390/rs5063123
Received: 20 May 2013 / Revised: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 18 June 2013 / Published: 21 June 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2665 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We develop an assimilation method of high horizontal resolution sea surface temperature data, provided from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-SST) sensors boarded on the Aqua and Terra satellites operated by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), focusing on the reproducibility of [...] Read more.
We develop an assimilation method of high horizontal resolution sea surface temperature data, provided from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-SST) sensors boarded on the Aqua and Terra satellites operated by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), focusing on the reproducibility of the Kuroshio front variations south of Japan in February 2010. Major concerns associated with the development are (1) negative temperature bias due to the cloud effects, and (2) the representation of error covariance for detection of highly variable phenomena. We treat them by utilizing an advanced data assimilation method allowing use of spatiotemporally varying error covariance: the Local Ensemble Transformation Kalman Filter (LETKF). It is found that the quality control, by comparing the model forecast variable with the MODIS-SST data, is useful to remove the negative temperature bias and results in the mean negative bias within −0.4 °C. The additional assimilation of MODIS-SST enhances spatial variability of analysis SST over 50 km to 25 km scales. The ensemble spread variance is effectively utilized for excluding the erroneous temperature data from the assimilation process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Observing the Ocean’s Interior from Satellite Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Large-Scale Oceanic Variability Associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation during the CINDY/DYNAMO Field Campaign from Satellite Observations
Remote Sens. 2013, 5(5), 2072-2092; doi:10.3390/rs5052072
Received: 14 February 2013 / Revised: 17 April 2013 / Accepted: 22 April 2013 / Published: 29 April 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1408 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During the CINDY/DYNAMO field campaign (fall/winter 2011), intensive measurements of the upper ocean, including an array of several surface moorings and ship observations for the area around 75°E–80°E, Equator-10°S, were conducted. In this study, large-scale upper ocean variations surrounding the intensive array [...] Read more.
During the CINDY/DYNAMO field campaign (fall/winter 2011), intensive measurements of the upper ocean, including an array of several surface moorings and ship observations for the area around 75°E–80°E, Equator-10°S, were conducted. In this study, large-scale upper ocean variations surrounding the intensive array during the field campaign are described based on the analysis of satellite-derived data. Surface currents, sea surface height (SSH), sea surface salinity (SSS), surface winds and sea surface temperature (SST) during the CINDY/DYNAMO field campaign derived from satellite observations are analyzed. During the intensive observation period, three active episodes of large-scale convection associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) propagated eastward across the tropical Indian Ocean. Surface westerly winds near the equator were particularly strong during the events in late November and late December, exceeding 10 m/s. These westerlies generated strong eastward jets (>1 m/s) on the equator. Significant remote ocean responses to the equatorial westerlies were observed in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres in the central and eastern Indian Oceans. The anomalous SSH associated with strong eastward jets propagated eastward as an equatorial Kelvin wave and generated intense downwelling near the eastern boundary. The anomalous positive SSH then partly propagated westward around 4°S as a reflected equatorial Rossby wave, and it significantly influenced the upper ocean structure in the Seychelles-Chagos thermocline ridge about two months after the last MJO event during the field campaign. For the first time, it is demonstrated that subseasonal SSS variations in the central Indian Ocean can be monitored by Aquarius measurements based on the comparison with in situ observations at three locations. Subseasonal SSS variability in the central Indian Ocean observed by RAMA buoys is explained by large-scale water exchanges between the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal through the zonal current variation near the equator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Observing the Ocean’s Interior from Satellite Remote Sensing)

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