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Special Issue "Role of Lipids in Virus Replication"

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A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Akira Ono (Website)

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, 5736 Medical Science Building II, 1150 W. Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0620, USA
Phone: 734-615-4407
Fax: +1 734 764 3562
Interests: roles played by membrane microdomain structures (lipid rafts) and phosphoinositides in virus replication; molecular mechanisms that determine the sites of virus assembly

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Viruses and Lipids
Viruses 2010, 2(5), 1236-1238; doi:10.3390/v2051236
Received: 17 May 2010 / Accepted: 18 May 2010 / Published: 20 May 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (22 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As obligatory intracellular pathogens, viruses exploit various cellular molecules and structures, such as cellular membranes, for their propagation. Enveloped viruses acquire lipid membranes as their outer coat through interactions with cellular membranes during morphogenesis within, and egress from, infected cells. In contrast, [...] Read more.
As obligatory intracellular pathogens, viruses exploit various cellular molecules and structures, such as cellular membranes, for their propagation. Enveloped viruses acquire lipid membranes as their outer coat through interactions with cellular membranes during morphogenesis within, and egress from, infected cells. In contrast, non-enveloped viruses typically exit cells by cell lysis, and lipid membranes are not part of the released virions. However, non-enveloped viruses also interact with lipid membranes at least during entry into target cells. Therefore, lipids, as part of cellular membranes, inevitably play some roles in life cycle of viruses. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Lipids in Virus Replication)

Review

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessReview Role of Lipids on Entry and Exit of Bluetongue Virus, a Complex Non-Enveloped Virus
Viruses 2010, 2(5), 1218-1235; doi:10.3390/v2051218
Received: 17 March 2010 / Revised: 4 May 2010 / Accepted: 11 May 2010 / Published: 18 May 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1529 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Non-enveloped viruses such as members of Picornaviridae and Reoviridae are assembled in the cytoplasm and are generally released by cell lysis. However, recent evidence suggests that some non-enveloped viruses exit from infected cells without lysis, indicating that these viruses may also utilize [...] Read more.
Non-enveloped viruses such as members of Picornaviridae and Reoviridae are assembled in the cytoplasm and are generally released by cell lysis. However, recent evidence suggests that some non-enveloped viruses exit from infected cells without lysis, indicating that these viruses may also utilize alternate means for egress. Moreover, it appears that complex, non-enveloped viruses such as bluetongue virus (BTV) and rotavirus interact with lipids during their entry process as well as with lipid rafts during the trafficking of newly synthesized progeny viruses. This review will discuss the role of lipids in the entry, maturation and release of non-enveloped viruses, focusing mainly on BTV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Lipids in Virus Replication)
Open AccessReview Lipid Metabolism and HCV Infection
Viruses 2010, 2(5), 1195-1217; doi:10.3390/v2051195
Received: 22 March 2010 / Revised: 5 May 2010 / Accepted: 6 May 2010 / Published: 11 May 2010
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chronic infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV) can lead to severe liver disease and is a global healthcare problem. The liver is highly metabolically active and one of its key functions is to control the balance of lipid throughout the body. A [...] Read more.
Chronic infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV) can lead to severe liver disease and is a global healthcare problem. The liver is highly metabolically active and one of its key functions is to control the balance of lipid throughout the body. A number of pathologies have been linked to the impact of HCV infection on liver metabolism. However, there is also growing evidence that hepatic metabolic processes contribute to the HCV life cycle. This review summarizes the relationship between lipid metabolism and key stages in the production of infectious HCV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Lipids in Virus Replication)
Open AccessReview The Role of Lipids in Retrovirus Replication
Viruses 2010, 2(5), 1146-1180; doi:10.3390/v2051146
Received: 22 March 2010 / Revised: 23 April 2010 / Accepted: 27 April 2010 / Published: 6 May 2010
Cited by 47 | PDF Full-text (933 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Retroviruses undergo several critical steps to complete a replication cycle. These include the complex processes of virus entry, assembly, and budding that often take place at the plasma membrane of the host cell. Both virus entry and release involve membrane fusion/fission reactions [...] Read more.
Retroviruses undergo several critical steps to complete a replication cycle. These include the complex processes of virus entry, assembly, and budding that often take place at the plasma membrane of the host cell. Both virus entry and release involve membrane fusion/fission reactions between the viral envelopes and host cell membranes. Accumulating evidence indicates important roles for lipids and lipid microdomains in virus entry and egress. In this review, we outline the current understanding of the role of lipids and membrane microdomains in retroviral replication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Lipids in Virus Replication)
Open AccessReview Role of Cellular Lipids in Positive-Sense RNA Virus Replication Complex Assembly and Function
Viruses 2010, 2(5), 1055-1068; doi:10.3390/v2051055
Received: 31 January 2010 / Revised: 7 April 2010 / Accepted: 22 April 2010 / Published: 29 April 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1025 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Positive-sense RNA viruses are responsible for frequent and often devastating diseases in humans, animals, and plants. However, the development of effective vaccines and anti-viral therapies targeted towards these pathogens has been hindered by an incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in [...] Read more.
Positive-sense RNA viruses are responsible for frequent and often devastating diseases in humans, animals, and plants. However, the development of effective vaccines and anti-viral therapies targeted towards these pathogens has been hindered by an incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in viral replication. One common feature of all positive-sense RNA viruses is the manipulation of host intracellular membranes for the assembly of functional viral RNA replication complexes. This review will discuss the interplay between cellular membranes and positive-sense RNA virus replication, and will focus specifically on the potential structural and functional roles for cellular lipids in this process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Lipids in Virus Replication)
Open AccessReview Glycosphingolipids as Receptors for Non-Enveloped Viruses
Viruses 2010, 2(4), 1011-1049; doi:10.3390/v2041011
Received: 2 March 2010 / Revised: 9 April 2010 / Accepted: 13 April 2010 / Published: 15 April 2010
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (996 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Glycosphingolipids are ubiquitous molecules composed of a lipid and a carbohydrate moiety. Their main functions are as antigen/toxin receptors, in cell adhesion/recognition processes, or initiation/modulation of signal transduction pathways. Microbes take advantage of the different carbohydrate structures displayed on a specific cell [...] Read more.
Glycosphingolipids are ubiquitous molecules composed of a lipid and a carbohydrate moiety. Their main functions are as antigen/toxin receptors, in cell adhesion/recognition processes, or initiation/modulation of signal transduction pathways. Microbes take advantage of the different carbohydrate structures displayed on a specific cell surface for attachment during infection. For some viruses, such as the polyomaviruses, binding to gangliosides determines the internalization pathway into cells. For others, the interaction between microbe and carbohydrate can be a critical determinant for host susceptibility. In this review, we summarize the role of glycosphingolipids as receptors for members of the non-enveloped calici-, rota-, polyoma- and parvovirus families. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Lipids in Virus Replication)
Open AccessReview Lipid Membranes in Poxvirus Replication
Viruses 2010, 2(4), 972-986; doi:10.3390/v2040972
Received: 5 March 2010 / Revised: 26 March 2010 / Accepted: 30 March 2010 / Published: 6 April 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (223 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Poxviruses replicate in the cytoplasm, where they acquire multiple lipoprotein membranes. Although a proposal that the initial membrane arises de novo has not been substantiated, there is no accepted explanation for its formation from cellular membranes. A subsequent membrane-wrapping step involving modified [...] Read more.
Poxviruses replicate in the cytoplasm, where they acquire multiple lipoprotein membranes. Although a proposal that the initial membrane arises de novo has not been substantiated, there is no accepted explanation for its formation from cellular membranes. A subsequent membrane-wrapping step involving modified trans-Golgi or endosomal cisternae results in a particle with three membranes. These wrapped virions traverse the cytoplasm on microtubules; the outermost membrane is lost during exocytosis, the middle one is lost just prior to cell entry, and the remaining membrane fuses with the cell to allow the virus core to enter the cytoplasm and initiate a new infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Lipids in Virus Replication)
Open AccessReview Alphavirus Entry and Membrane Fusion
Viruses 2010, 2(4), 796-825; doi:10.3390/v2040796
Received: 2 March 2010 / Revised: 19 March 2010 / Accepted: 23 March 2010 / Published: 26 March 2010
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (471 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The study of enveloped animal viruses has greatly advanced our understanding of the general properties of membrane fusion and of the specific pathways that viruses use to infect the host cell. The membrane fusion proteins of the alphaviruses and flaviviruses have many [...] Read more.
The study of enveloped animal viruses has greatly advanced our understanding of the general properties of membrane fusion and of the specific pathways that viruses use to infect the host cell. The membrane fusion proteins of the alphaviruses and flaviviruses have many similarities in structure and function. As reviewed here, alphaviruses use receptor-mediated endocytic uptake and low pH-triggered membrane fusion to deliver their RNA genomes into the cytoplasm. Recent advances in understanding the biochemistry and structure of the alphavirus membrane fusion protein provide a clearer picture of this fusion reaction, including the protein’s conformational changes during fusion and the identification of key domains. These insights into the alphavirus fusion mechanism suggest new areas for experimental investigation and potential inhibitor strategies for anti-viral therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Lipids in Virus Replication)

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