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Special Issue "Study, Development and Management of Water in Volcanic Areas"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 April 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. María del Pino Palacios Díaz

Dpto Producción Animal, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Campus Universitario de Arucas 35416, Geovol, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Water, soil, irrigation systems, reclaimed water, water management, water quality, crops, forage, vadose zone, livestock effluents
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. María del Carmen Cabrera Santana

Dpto de Física, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Geovol, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Groundwater resources, hydrogeochemistry and water quality, seawater intrusion, coastal aquifers, contamination of groundwater, vadose zone, Hydrogeology of volcanic terrains. Water-rock interaction.

Special Issue Information


Dear Colleagues,

Volcanic islands are isolated territories that are often densely inhabited ones, in which the need to obtain water resources presents peculiar features and problems. The Canary Islands are an example of a territory in an volcanic environment with semi-arid climatic conditions, where a complex system of production and water management has been developed. In this environment, the technology associated with the production of unconventional resources, studies on its use, and progress on optimizing its management, can be transferred to other areas with less experience in their use. At the same time, knowledge about how to keep the quantity but, above all, the quality of conventional resources is based on the understanding of the hydrological cycle, the study of the groundwater that still comprises the substantial majority of the available resources.

The scope of the present workshop is to discuss all the relevant aspects of the production, availability, quality, use, and management in volcanic areas of an absolutely necessary resource: water.

All actors involved in decisions about water management should have a voice if we want to promote the sustainable use of this resource--not only to produce water but to manage it sustainably, fairly and effectively. It is therefore an open-participation workshop to all those interested and involved in the sector, to share their ideas in this scientific meeting. With the richness of the diversity of approaches, our knowledge will solidly advance in serving society.

Prof. Dr. María del Pino Palacios Díaz
Prof. Dr. María del Carmen Cabrera Santana
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Water
  • reclaimed water
  • ground water
  • water quality
  • volcanic areas
  • vadose zone
  • soil management
  • contaminants
  • public health
  • sustainability
  • irrigation
  • crop production

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Reclaimed Water Use in Biofuel Production
Water 2015, 7(9), 4848-4857; doi:10.3390/w7094848
Received: 13 April 2015 / Revised: 7 July 2015 / Accepted: 6 August 2015 / Published: 4 September 2015
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Abstract
Jatropha curcas L., a toxic species that does not interfere with the food chain, produces biodiesel of better environmental quality than mineral oils. However, in order to cultivate it sustainably, it is necessary to optimize the limited resources used, mainly water and soil.
[...] Read more.
Jatropha curcas L., a toxic species that does not interfere with the food chain, produces biodiesel of better environmental quality than mineral oils. However, in order to cultivate it sustainably, it is necessary to optimize the limited resources used, mainly water and soil. Therefore, in arid areas, it is necessary to cultivate under intensive conditions, irrigate with reclaimed water and cut production costs. To optimize water consumption, partial root-zone drying (PRD), which keeps a part of the root system dry, was used. This water management strategy, employed successfully in other oil crops, yielded less fruit per bunch, but more fruit bunches per plant. This fact will probably allow to establish higher planting density and, consequently, higher productivity per surface unit. This is one of the few available options for improving profitability as production per tree is stable (1.25 kg seed plant−1 year−1 for the most productive trees, with excellent climate and soil, and no limitations water use). A high percentage of fruit lying on the ground (24%) and non-uniform timing in fruit production (except some specimens) greatly hinder its mechanization. Although this crop’s environmental and socio-economic benefits are not taken into account, it is very difficult, with only the calculated water consumption (15.5 m3 water per L of oil or 5.6 m3 water per L of oil according to our best estimations), to consider it a profitable option. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study, Development and Management of Water in Volcanic Areas)
Open AccessCommunication Influence of Policy Making in the Profitability of Forage Production Irrigated with Reclaimed Water
Water 2015, 7(8), 4274-4282; doi:10.3390/w7084274
Received: 13 April 2015 / Accepted: 28 July 2015 / Published: 4 August 2015
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Abstract
The limited availability of water at low prices and the current scheme for specific supply arrangements (SSA/REA), both determined at the political level, explain that the goal of being self-sufficient in terms of forage consumption is currently unattainable in the Canaries. The “PFORCA”
[...] Read more.
The limited availability of water at low prices and the current scheme for specific supply arrangements (SSA/REA), both determined at the political level, explain that the goal of being self-sufficient in terms of forage consumption is currently unattainable in the Canaries. The “PFORCA” Plan aims to counteract this reality and increase their level of self-sufficiency. The financial aid relating to the REA reduces the amount payable for the imported fodder (annual 83,000 t) versus local product, which influences the decision making by farmers. According to calculations, performed by reusing the water instead of discharging, Maralfalfa production could be competitive against imports, being financially viable with water prices in a range of 0.20–0.30 €/m3 (prices perfectly acceptable for reclaimed water with low levels of treatment, but fulfilling requirements reuse of Spanish law, RD 1620/2007). The economic contribution of forage crops could represent the creation of 640 new jobs, the enhancement of land currently abandoned, plus an increase in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the archipelago on more than 23 million € (M€), product of the substitution of imports by local production. Also, it would help to save the REA’s aid (6 M€). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study, Development and Management of Water in Volcanic Areas)
Open AccessArticle Quantification of Fog Water Collection in Three Locations of Tenerife (Canary Islands)
Water 2015, 7(7), 3306-3319; doi:10.3390/w7073306
Received: 10 April 2015 / Revised: 2 June 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 26 June 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2638 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present the results of fog water collection obtained with cylindrical fog gauges at three locations on the northern side of Tenerife island (Spain): La Esperanza (1093 m a.s.l.), Taborno (1015 m a.s.l.), and El Gaitero (1747 m a.s.l.). Concomitant meteorological variables were
[...] Read more.
We present the results of fog water collection obtained with cylindrical fog gauges at three locations on the northern side of Tenerife island (Spain): La Esperanza (1093 m a.s.l.), Taborno (1015 m a.s.l.), and El Gaitero (1747 m a.s.l.). Concomitant meteorological variables were also measured. We show that fog precipitation was more frequent than rainfall. However, the volumes and frequency of daily fog water collection varied among the three studied sites, usually not exceeding 10–40 L d−1/m2 of collecting surface. In La Esperanza, fog water harvesting occurred frequently, but was considerably lower than in the other two locations. However, while in Taborno fog water collection episodes were distributed throughout the period, in El Gaitero these were mainly concentrated in two periods, during autumn and winter 2012–2013. The study of the relationships between daily fog water yields and the averages of meteorological variables did not show any clear trend, but it suggested that the greater volumes of collected fog water were logically associated with higher wind speeds and lower solar radiation conditions. Fog water collection in La Esperanza and in Taborno typically occurred within a similar temperature interval (7.5–12.5 °C), while in El Gaitero the phenomenon was associated with a lower temperature range (2.5–10 °C). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study, Development and Management of Water in Volcanic Areas)
Open AccessArticle Spatial Distribution of Field Physico-Chemical Parameters in the Vulcano Island (Italy) Coastal Aquifer: Volcanological and Hydrogeological Implications
Water 2015, 7(7), 3206-3224; doi:10.3390/w7073206
Received: 17 April 2015 / Revised: 12 June 2015 / Accepted: 16 June 2015 / Published: 25 June 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (8879 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vulcano, the southernmost of the Aeolian island arc (Italy), is characterized by a shallow coastal aquifer resulting from the mixing of seawater, meteoric recharge and volcanogenic fluids. The aquifer has been intensively studied during the last decades, but a comprehensive hydrogeological model has
[...] Read more.
Vulcano, the southernmost of the Aeolian island arc (Italy), is characterized by a shallow coastal aquifer resulting from the mixing of seawater, meteoric recharge and volcanogenic fluids. The aquifer has been intensively studied during the last decades, but a comprehensive hydrogeological model has never been developed due to the lack of direct information about the litho-stratigraphic columns of the wells and the depth of water bearing levels. We present and discuss here the time and spatial analysis of water table elevation, temperature and electric conductivity data, acquired during the last 20 years in 33 wells located at Vulcano Island, with the aim of developing a groundwater circulation scheme able to fit the field observations. We retrieved a circulation scheme characterized by an intricate geometry of flow paths driven by horizontal and vertical permeability variations, accounting for the strong variability of geochemical data evidenced in this area by the related scientific literature. Extending these results to a general context, particular care must be taken in approaching the study of aquifers in volcanic islands, because a strong, small spatial scale variability of the hydrogeochemical parameters is expected, and a reliable knowledge of the local conditions is required for developing successful groundwater circulation schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study, Development and Management of Water in Volcanic Areas)
Open AccessArticle Comments on Uncertainty in Groundwater Governance in the Volcanic Canary Islands, Spain
Water 2015, 7(6), 2952-2970; doi:10.3390/w7062952
Received: 30 March 2015 / Revised: 4 June 2015 / Accepted: 8 June 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5114 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The uncertainty associated with natural magnitudes and processes is conspicuous in water resources and groundwater evaluation. This uncertainty has an essential component and a part that can be reduced to some extent by increasing knowledge, improving monitoring coverage, continuous elaboration of data and
[...] Read more.
The uncertainty associated with natural magnitudes and processes is conspicuous in water resources and groundwater evaluation. This uncertainty has an essential component and a part that can be reduced to some extent by increasing knowledge, improving monitoring coverage, continuous elaboration of data and accuracy and addressing the related economic and social aspects involved. Reducing uncertainty has a cost that may not be justified by the improvement that is obtainable, but that has to be known to make the right decisions. With this idea, this paper contributes general comments on the evaluation of groundwater resources in the semiarid Canary Islands and on some of the main sources of uncertainty, but a full treatment is not attempted, nor how to reduce it. Although the point of view is local, these comments may help to address similar situations on other islands where similar problems appear. A consequence of physical and hydrological uncertainty is that different hydrogeological and water resource studies and evaluations may yield different results. Understanding and coarsely evaluating uncertainty helps in reducing administrative instability, poor decisions that may harm groundwater property rights, the rise of complaints and the sub-optimal use of the scarce water resources available in semiarid areas. Transparency and honesty are needed, but especially a clear understanding of what numbers mean and the uncertainty around them, to act soundly and avoid conflicting and damaging rigid attitudes. However, the different situations could condition that what may be good in a place, may not always be the case in other places. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study, Development and Management of Water in Volcanic Areas)
Open AccessArticle Hydraulic Behavior and Chemical Characterization of Lapilli as Material for Natural Filtering of Slurry
Water 2015, 7(6), 2840-2850; doi:10.3390/w7062840
Received: 13 April 2015 / Accepted: 5 June 2015 / Published: 15 June 2015
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Abstract
Livestock effluents are a beneficial nutrient supply for crops, whereby their use is critical to ensure the sustainability of the farms global management. However, they can cause serious ecological problems if misused, polluting soils and groundwater. Combining “soft technology” and local materials is
[...] Read more.
Livestock effluents are a beneficial nutrient supply for crops, whereby their use is critical to ensure the sustainability of the farms global management. However, they can cause serious ecological problems if misused, polluting soils and groundwater. Combining “soft technology” and local materials is a low cost solution in terms of finance and energy. The REAGUA project (REuso AGUA, Water reuse in Spanish) analyzes the possibility of using “picon” (lapilli) as a material for the treatment of liquid manure from ruminants, for later use in subsurface drip irrigation system to produce forage and biofuels, in which the soil acts as a subsequent advanced treatment. A three-phase system, in which the effluent was poured with a vertical subsurface flow in an unsaturated medium, is designed. In order to determine the management conditions that optimize the filter, it was necessary to characterize the hydraulic behavior of lapilli and its ability to remove substances. Using three lapilli-filled columns, unsaturated flux, and a ruminant effluent, the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand after 5 days (BOD5) and ammonia, phosphorus and suspension solids (SS) obtained was over 80%, 90%, and 95% respectively, assumable values for irrigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study, Development and Management of Water in Volcanic Areas)
Open AccessArticle Water Institutions and Management in Cape Verde
Water 2015, 7(6), 2641-2655; doi:10.3390/w7062641
Received: 30 March 2015 / Revised: 13 May 2015 / Accepted: 20 May 2015 / Published: 29 May 2015
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Abstract
The water-management model used in Cape Verde for irrigation water is a singular one involving both public and private institutions. The institutional framework adopted since independence (1975) includes influences of both Portuguese colonial occupation and African culture. Water is a common-pool resource,
[...] Read more.
The water-management model used in Cape Verde for irrigation water is a singular one involving both public and private institutions. The institutional framework adopted since independence (1975) includes influences of both Portuguese colonial occupation and African culture. Water is a common-pool resource, which can take the form of communal, private or state property, or not be subject to any form of ownership. Thus, this case study enables us to compare theories about managing. From a neo-liberal point of view, the common administration of resources of this kind is inefficient, but for one school of the institutional theory, solutions can come “from within”; in other words, from user groups themselves, who can co-operate, once they have defined commitments. Research based on surveys and interviews with private sector administrators leads to the conclusion that user association management is successful, whereas, individual management can lead to squandering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study, Development and Management of Water in Volcanic Areas)
Open AccessArticle Improving Water Use in Fodder Production
Water 2015, 7(6), 2612-2621; doi:10.3390/w7062612
Received: 13 April 2015 / Revised: 10 May 2015 / Accepted: 21 May 2015 / Published: 27 May 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (747 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water deficit in semi-arid regions limits the future of the livestock sector. Also, its high price represents a percentage of the total cost of forage production. Non-conventional water resources applied by subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), in which the safe use lies in the
[...] Read more.
Water deficit in semi-arid regions limits the future of the livestock sector. Also, its high price represents a percentage of the total cost of forage production. Non-conventional water resources applied by subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), in which the safe use lies in the management and not on the level of water treatment, would enhance the ruminant production sustainability. To obtain the optimal benefit, the transformation of water per kilogram of dry matter produced must have a high grade of effectiveness. Under this premise, a maralfalfa crop (Penissetum sp, hybridum) has been established with an SDI system and reclaimed water. Forage yield is analyzed with respect to a 40% irrigation reduction. This study shows that, with the use of these good irrigation management practices, it is possible to harvest an annual production of 90 to 72 t·ha−1 in the warmer regions of the Canary Islands. This implies water consumption between 13,200 and 8100 m3·ha−1. A water consumption of 21,000 m3·ha−1 per year for the same production, at a ratio of 230 L·t−1, can be estimated for the rest of the Canary Islands coastal regions. The use of the water management described in this paper can be profitable in the Canary Islands for fodder production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study, Development and Management of Water in Volcanic Areas)
Open AccessArticle Radon in Groundwater of the Northeastern Gran Canaria Aquifer
Water 2015, 7(6), 2575-2590; doi:10.3390/w7062575
Received: 10 April 2015 / Revised: 15 May 2015 / Accepted: 19 May 2015 / Published: 27 May 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4694 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
222Rn has been detected in 28 groundwater samples from the northeast of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain) utilizing a closed loop system consisting of an AlphaGUARD monitor that measures radon activity concentration in the air by means of an ionization chamber, and
[...] Read more.
222Rn has been detected in 28 groundwater samples from the northeast of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain) utilizing a closed loop system consisting of an AlphaGUARD monitor that measures radon activity concentration in the air by means of an ionization chamber, and an AquaKIT set that transfers dissolved radon in the water samples to the air within the circuit. Radon concentration in the water samples studied varies between 0.3 and 76.9 Bq/L. Spanish radiological protection regulations limit the concentration of 222Rn for drinking water to 100 Bq/L, therefore the values obtained for all the analyzed samples are below this threshold. The hydrogeological study reveals a significant correspondence between the radon activity concentration and the material characteristics of the aquifer. For a selected group of samples with high radon concentrations, gross alpha activity has been determined to have values higher than the prescriptive screening level (0.1 Bq/L). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study, Development and Management of Water in Volcanic Areas)
Open AccessArticle Estimating Natural Recharge by Means of Chloride Mass Balance in a Volcanic Aquifer: Northeastern Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain)
Water 2015, 7(6), 2555-2574; doi:10.3390/w7062555
Received: 9 April 2015 / Accepted: 19 May 2015 / Published: 27 May 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (10285 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The chloride mass balance method was used to estimate the average diffuse groundwater recharge on northeastern Gran Canaria (Canary Islands), where the largest recharge to the volcanic island aquifer occurs. Rainwater was sampled monthly in ten rainwater collectors to determine the bulk deposition
[...] Read more.
The chloride mass balance method was used to estimate the average diffuse groundwater recharge on northeastern Gran Canaria (Canary Islands), where the largest recharge to the volcanic island aquifer occurs. Rainwater was sampled monthly in ten rainwater collectors to determine the bulk deposition rate of chloride for the 2008–2014 period. Average chloride deposition decreases inwardly from more than 10 g·m−2·year−1 to about 4 g·m−2·year−1. The application of the chloride mass balance method resulted in an estimated average recharge of about 28 hm3/year or 92 mm/year (24% of precipitation) in the study area after subtracting chloride loss with surface runoff. The average storm runoff was estimated to be 12 hm3/year (9% of precipitation) for the 1980–2014 period. Runoff was sampled during scarce rainy periods, which produce surface water flow. Average recharge varies from less than a few mm/year near the coast up to 270 mm/year in the highlands (about 33% of average rainfall), with a close-to-linear increase inwardly of about 18 mm·year−1·km−1. Recharge rate uncertainty corresponds to an estimated CV of 0.3–0.4 because of the short data series available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study, Development and Management of Water in Volcanic Areas)
Open AccessArticle Aquifer Recharge Estimation through Atmospheric Chloride Mass Balance at Las Cañadas Caldera, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain
Water 2015, 7(5), 2451-2471; doi:10.3390/w7052451
Received: 27 March 2015 / Revised: 11 May 2015 / Accepted: 18 May 2015 / Published: 22 May 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5670 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The atmospheric chloride mass balance (CMB) method was used to estimate net aquifer recharge in Las Cañadas Caldera, an endorheic summit aquifer area about 2000 m a.s.l. with negligible surface runoff, which hosts the largest freshwater reserve in Tenerife Island, Canary Islands, Spain.
[...] Read more.
The atmospheric chloride mass balance (CMB) method was used to estimate net aquifer recharge in Las Cañadas Caldera, an endorheic summit aquifer area about 2000 m a.s.l. with negligible surface runoff, which hosts the largest freshwater reserve in Tenerife Island, Canary Islands, Spain. The wet hydrological year 2005–2006 was selected to compare yearly atmospheric chloride bulk deposition and average chloride content in recharge water just above the water table, both deduced from periodical sampling. The potential contribution of chloride to groundwater from endogenous HCl gas may invalidate the CMB method. The chloride-to-bromide molar ratio was an efficient tracer used to select recharge water samples having atmospheric origin of chloride. Yearly net aquifer recharge was 631 mm year−1, i.e., 69% of yearly precipitation. This result is in agreement with potential aquifer recharge estimated through an independent lumped-parameter rainfall-runoff model operated by the Insular Water Council of Tenerife. This paper illustrates basic procedures and routines to use the CMB method for aquifer recharge in active volcanic oceanic islands having sparse-data coverage and groundwater receiving contribution of endogenous halides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study, Development and Management of Water in Volcanic Areas)
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