Special Issue "Wetlands for the Treatment of Agricultural Drainage Water"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Guangzhi Sun

School of Engineering, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: constructed wetland; environmental nanotechnology; wastewater treatment; wetland ecosystem assessment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Agricultural drainages, such as irrigation waters from paddy fields, often carry nutrients and pesticides that cause eutrophication and bioaccumulation of endocrine disruptors in receiving waterways. Seasonal factors can significantly affect the quantity, and sometimes quality, of these waters. While no water may be discharged from an agricultural land in many months of a year, a large quantity can be released during a short period of time, giving an excessive pollutant load on any pollution control/mitigation system. As a result, the management and treatment of agricultural drainages present a significant technical challenge. Worldwide, answers are being sought about: (a) the optimal apportionment of lands to production and conservation; (b) innovative management to prevent uncontrolled drainage discharge; and (c) cost-efficient and effective treatment technologies.

Considered kidneys of the Earth, wetlands have had their unique water purification function recognised, and used for pollution control, for centuries. In some major agriculture regions, such as Northeastern China, it is now recognized that wetlands are indispensable to water security, biodiversity, and regional environment. Efforts are being made to recover some natural wetlands from illegal crop fields. An increasing number of constructed wetlands are being built to treat various types of wastewaters and, somewhat, compensate for diminished natural wetland functions.

This Special Issue aims to present the latest research in the use of natural and constructed wetlands in agricultural drainage management. Papers may report: (1) the efficiency of constructed wetlands to remove various pollutants from agricultural drainages; (2) innovative management of drainage waters for the restoration of degraded wetlands and/or protection of water environment; (3) models relevant to agricultural water discharge to wetlands; and (4) the fates of agricultural pollutants in the wetlands.

Assoc. Prof. Guangzhi Sun
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • agricultural runoff
  • constructed wetland
  • water pollution control
  • wetland restoration

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Effects of Aeration, Vegetation, and Iron Input on Total P Removal in a Lacustrine Wetland Receiving Agricultural Drainage
Water 2018, 10(1), 61; doi:10.3390/w10010061
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 2 January 2018 / Accepted: 6 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
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Abstract
Utilizing natural wetlands to remove phosphorus (P) from agricultural drainage is a feasible approach of protecting receiving waterways from eutrophication. However, few studies have been carried out about how these wetlands, which act as buffer zones of pollutant sinks, can be operated to
[...] Read more.
Utilizing natural wetlands to remove phosphorus (P) from agricultural drainage is a feasible approach of protecting receiving waterways from eutrophication. However, few studies have been carried out about how these wetlands, which act as buffer zones of pollutant sinks, can be operated to achieve optimal pollutant removal and cost efficiency. In this study, cores of sediments and water were collected from a lacustrine wetland of Lake Xiaoxingkai region in Northeastern China, to produce a number of lab-scale wetland columns. Ex situ experiments, in a controlled environment, were conducted to study the effects of aeration, vegetation, and iron (Fe) input on the removal of total P (TP) and values of dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH of the water in these columns. The results demonstrated the links between Fe, P and DO levels. The planting of Glyceria spiculosa in the wetland columns was found to increase DO and pH values, whereas the Fe:P ratio was found to inversely correlate to the pH values. The TP removal was the highest in aerobic and planted columns. The pattern of temporal variation of TP removals matched first-order exponential growth model, except for under aerobic condition and with Fe:P ratio of 10:1. It was concluded that Fe introduced into a wetland by either surface runoff or agricultural drainage is beneficial for TP removal from the overlying water, especially during the growth season of wetland vegetation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetlands for the Treatment of Agricultural Drainage Water)
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Open AccessArticle Performance of Iron Plaque of Wetland Plants for Regulating Iron, Manganese, and Phosphorus from Agricultural Drainage Water
Water 2018, 10(1), 42; doi:10.3390/w10010042
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 30 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 January 2018 / Published: 8 January 2018
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Abstract
Agricultural drainage water continues to impact watersheds and their receiving water bodies. One approach to mitigate this problem is to use surrounding natural wetlands. Our objectives were to determine the effect of iron (Fe)-rich groundwater on phosphorus (P) removal and nutrient absorption by
[...] Read more.
Agricultural drainage water continues to impact watersheds and their receiving water bodies. One approach to mitigate this problem is to use surrounding natural wetlands. Our objectives were to determine the effect of iron (Fe)-rich groundwater on phosphorus (P) removal and nutrient absorption by the utilization of the iron plaque on the root surface of Glyceria spiculosa (Fr. Schmidt.) Rosh. The experiment was comprised of two main factors with three regimes: Fe2+ (0, 1, 20, 100, 500 mg·L−1) and P (0.01, 0.1, 0.5 mg·L−1). The deposition and structure of iron plaque was examined through a scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer. Iron could, however, also impose toxic effects on the biota. We therefore provide the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on iron plaques, showing the essential elements were iron (Fe), oxygen (O), aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), P, and sulphur (S). Results showed that (1) Iron plaque increased with increasing Fe2+ supply, and P-deficiency promoted its formation; (2) Depending on the amount of iron plaque on roots, nutrient uptake was enhanced at low levels, but at higher levels, it inhibited element accumulation and translocation; (3) The absorption of manganese was particularly affected by iron plague, which also enhanced phosphorus uptake until the external iron concentration exceeded 100 mg·L−1. Therefore, the presence of iron plaque on the root surface would increase the uptake of P, which depends on the concentration of iron-rich groundwater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetlands for the Treatment of Agricultural Drainage Water)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Study on the Potential Use of Bundled Crop Straws as Subsurface Drainage Material in the Newly Reclaimed Coastal Land in Eastern China
Water 2018, 10(1), 31; doi:10.3390/w10010031
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 26 December 2017 / Accepted: 29 December 2017 / Published: 2 January 2018
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Abstract
Initial land reclamation of the saline soils often requires higher drainage intensity for quick leaching of salts from the soil profile; however, drainage pipes placed at closer spacing may result in higher cost. Seeking an inexpensive degradable organic subsurface drainage material may satisfy
[...] Read more.
Initial land reclamation of the saline soils often requires higher drainage intensity for quick leaching of salts from the soil profile; however, drainage pipes placed at closer spacing may result in higher cost. Seeking an inexpensive degradable organic subsurface drainage material may satisfy such needs of initial drainage, low investment and a heathy soil environment. Crop straws are porous organic materials that have certain strength and endurance. In this research, we explored the potential of using bundled maize stalks and rice straws as subsurface drainage material in place of plastic pipes. Through an experimental study in large lysimeters that were filled with saline coastal soil and planted with maize, we examined the drainage performance of the two organic materials by comparing with the conventional plastic drainage pipes; soil moisture distribution, soil salinity changed with depth, and the crop information were monitored in the lysimeters during the maize growing period. The results showed that maize stalk drainage and the rice straw drainage were significantly (p < 0.05) more efficient in removing salt and water from the crop root zone than the plastic drainage pipes; they excelled in drainage rate, leaching fraction, and lowering water table; and their efficient drainage processes lowered salt stress in the crop root zone and resulted in a slightly higher level of biomass. The experimental results suggest that crop straws may be used as a good organic substitute for the plastic drainage pipes in the initial stage land reclamation of the saline coastal soils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetlands for the Treatment of Agricultural Drainage Water)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Development of an integrated modeling system for evaluating water quality effects of wetlands in an agricultural watershed
Author: Yongbo Liu, Wanhong Yang, Hui Shao, John Lindsay
Abstract: A GIS-based fully-distributed model, IMWEBs-Wetland (Integrated Modeling for Watershed Evaluation of BMPs), is developed to simulate hydrologic processes of site-specific wetland in an agricultural watershed. This model, powered by an open source White-box GIS and advanced database technologies, allows users to simulate and assess water quantity and quality effects of individual or multiple wetlands at different scales. A case study is implemented in the Broughton’s Creek Watershed in Southern Manitoba of Canada. Modeling results show that the model is capable to simulate wetland processes in a complex system, and has a great potential for application in wetland studies and integrated watershed management.
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