Special Issue "Wetlands for the Treatment of Agricultural Drainage Water"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water and Wastewater Treatment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Guangzhi Sun

School of Engineering, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: constructed wetland; environmental nanotechnology; wastewater treatment; wetland ecosystem assessment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Agricultural drainages, such as irrigation waters from paddy fields, often carry nutrients and pesticides that cause eutrophication and bioaccumulation of endocrine disruptors in receiving waterways. Seasonal factors can significantly affect the quantity, and sometimes quality, of these waters. While no water may be discharged from an agricultural land in many months of a year, a large quantity can be released during a short period of time, giving an excessive pollutant load on any pollution control/mitigation system. As a result, the management and treatment of agricultural drainages present a significant technical challenge. Worldwide, answers are being sought about: (a) the optimal apportionment of lands to production and conservation; (b) innovative management to prevent uncontrolled drainage discharge; and (c) cost-efficient and effective treatment technologies.

Considered kidneys of the Earth, wetlands have had their unique water purification function recognised, and used for pollution control, for centuries. In some major agriculture regions, such as Northeastern China, it is now recognized that wetlands are indispensable to water security, biodiversity, and regional environment. Efforts are being made to recover some natural wetlands from illegal crop fields. An increasing number of constructed wetlands are being built to treat various types of wastewaters and, somewhat, compensate for diminished natural wetland functions.

This Special Issue aims to present the latest research in the use of natural and constructed wetlands in agricultural drainage management. Papers may report: (1) the efficiency of constructed wetlands to remove various pollutants from agricultural drainages; (2) innovative management of drainage waters for the restoration of degraded wetlands and/or protection of water environment; (3) models relevant to agricultural water discharge to wetlands; and (4) the fates of agricultural pollutants in the wetlands.

Assoc. Prof. Guangzhi Sun
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • agricultural runoff
  • constructed wetland
  • water pollution control
  • wetland restoration

Published Papers (7 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-7
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle Corn Straw as a Solid Carbon Source for the Treatment of Agricultural Drainage Water in Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands
Water 2018, 10(4), 511; doi:10.3390/w10040511 (registering DOI)
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
PDF Full-text (9456 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Agricultural drainage water with a low C/N ratio restricts the nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies of constructed wetlands. Thus, there is a need to add external carbon sources to drive the nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In this study, the effects of the addition
[...] Read more.
Agricultural drainage water with a low C/N ratio restricts the nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies of constructed wetlands. Thus, there is a need to add external carbon sources to drive the nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In this study, the effects of the addition of corn straw pretreated with different methods (acid treatment, alkali treatment, and comminution) on treating agricultural drainage water with a low C/N ratio were investigated in constructed wetlands. The results showed that soaking the corn straw in an alkaline solution was the most suitable pretreatment method according to the release rule of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the dissolution of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). The average removal efficiency of TN and TP in constructed wetlands increased respectively by 37.2% and 30.5% after adding corn straw, and by 17.1% and 11.7% after adding sodium acetate when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 3 days. As an external carbon source, straw was cheap, renewable, and available. In contrast, the sodium acetate demanded high costs in a long-term operation. Therefore, corn straw had a great advantage in treatment effect and cost, which improved the treatment efficiency of agricultural drainage water using a byproduct of agricultural production as a slow-release carbon source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetlands for the Treatment of Agricultural Drainage Water)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Nitrate Attenuation in Degraded Peat Soil-Based Constructed Wetlands
Water 2018, 10(4), 355; doi:10.3390/w10040355
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
PDF Full-text (4196 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Constructed wetlands (CWs) provide favorable conditions for removing nitrate from polluted agricultural runoff via heterotrophic denitrification. Although the general operability of CWs has been shown in previous studies, the suitability of peat soils as a bed medium for a vertical flow through a
[...] Read more.
Constructed wetlands (CWs) provide favorable conditions for removing nitrate from polluted agricultural runoff via heterotrophic denitrification. Although the general operability of CWs has been shown in previous studies, the suitability of peat soils as a bed medium for a vertical flow through a system for nitrate attenuation has not been proven to date. In this study, a mesocosm experiment was conducted under continuous flow with conditions aiming to quantify nitrate (NO3) removal efficiency in degraded peat soils. Input solution of NO3 was supplied at three different concentrations (65, 100, and 150 mg/L). Pore water samples were collected at different depths and analyzed for NO3, pH, and dissolved N2O concentrations. The redox potential (Eh) was registered at different depths. The results showed that the median NO3-N removal rate was 1.20 g/(m2·day) and the median removal efficiency was calculated as 63.5%. The nitrate removal efficiency was affected by the NO3 supply load, flow rate, and environmental boundary conditions. A higher NO3 removal efficiency was observed at an input NO3 concentration of 100 mg/L, a lower flow rate, and higher temperature. The results of pore water pH and NO3 and N2O levels from the bottom of the mesocosm suggest that N2 is the dominant denitrification product. Thus, degraded peat soils showed the potential to serve as a substrate for the clean-up of nitrate-laden agricultural runoff. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetlands for the Treatment of Agricultural Drainage Water)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Applicability of Constructed Wetlands for Water Quality Improvement in a Tea Estate Catchment: The Pussellawa Case Study
Water 2018, 10(3), 332; doi:10.3390/w10030332
Received: 16 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 16 March 2018
PDF Full-text (7968 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Water in agricultural catchments is prone to pollution from agricultural runoff containing nutrients and pesticides, and contamination from the human population working and residing therein. This study examined the quality of water in a drainage stream which runs through a congested network of
[...] Read more.
Water in agricultural catchments is prone to pollution from agricultural runoff containing nutrients and pesticides, and contamination from the human population working and residing therein. This study examined the quality of water in a drainage stream which runs through a congested network of ‘line houses’ (low-income housing, typically found arranged in straight ‘lines’ on estates) in the tea estate catchment area of Pussellawa in central Sri Lanka. The study evaluated the applicability of vertical subsurface flow (VSSF) and horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) constructed wetlands for water polishing, as the residents use the stream water for various domestic purposes with no treatment other than possibly boiling. Water flow in the stream can vary significantly over time, and so investigations were conducted at various flow conditions to identify the hydraulic loading rate (HLR) bandwidth for wetland polishing applications. Two wetland models of 8 m × 1 m × 0.6 m (length × width × depth) were constructed and arranged as VSSF and HSSF units. Stream water was diverted to these units at HLRs of 3.3, 4, 5, 10, 20, and 40 cm/day. Results showed that both VSSF and HSSF wetland units were capable of substantially reducing five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total suspended solids (TSS), fecal coliform (FC), total coliform (TC), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) up to 20 cm/day HLR, with removal efficiencies of more than 64%, 60%, 90%, 93%, 70%, and 59% for BOD5, TSS, FC, TC, NH4+-N, and NO3-N, respectively, in the VSSF wetland unit; and more than 66%, 62%, 91%, 90%, 53%, and 77% for BOD5, TSS, FC, TC, NH4+-N, and NO3-N, respectively, in the HSSF wetland unit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetlands for the Treatment of Agricultural Drainage Water)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effectiveness of a Natural Headwater Wetland for Reducing Agricultural Nitrogen Loads
Water 2018, 10(3), 287; doi:10.3390/w10030287
Received: 10 February 2018 / Revised: 2 March 2018 / Accepted: 2 March 2018 / Published: 8 March 2018
PDF Full-text (4720 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Natural wetlands can play a key role in controlling non-point source pollution, but quantifying their capacity to reduce contaminant loads is often challenging due to diffuse and variable inflows. The nitrogen removal performance of a small natural headwater wetland in a pastoral agricultural
[...] Read more.
Natural wetlands can play a key role in controlling non-point source pollution, but quantifying their capacity to reduce contaminant loads is often challenging due to diffuse and variable inflows. The nitrogen removal performance of a small natural headwater wetland in a pastoral agricultural catchment in Waikato, New Zealand was assessed over a two-year period (2011–2013). Flow and water quality samples were collected at the wetland upper and lower locations, and piezometers sampled inside and outside the wetland. A simple dynamic model operating on an hourly time step was used to assess wetland removal performance for key N species. Hourly measurements of inflow, outflow, rainfall and Penman-Monteith evapotranspiration estimates were used to calculate dynamic water balance for the wetland. A dynamic N mass balance was calculated for each N component by coupling influent concentrations to the dynamic water balance and applying a first order areal removal coefficient (k20) adjusted to the ambient temperature. Flow and water quality monitoring showed that wetland was mainly groundwater fed. The concentrations of oxidised nitrogen (NOx-N, Total Organic Nitrogen (TON) and Total-N (TN) were lower at the outlet of the wetland regardless of flow conditions or seasonality, even during winter storms. The model estimation showed that the wetland could reduce net NOx-N, NH4-N, TON and TN loads by 76%, 73%, 26% and 57%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetlands for the Treatment of Agricultural Drainage Water)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effects of Aeration, Vegetation, and Iron Input on Total P Removal in a Lacustrine Wetland Receiving Agricultural Drainage
Water 2018, 10(1), 61; doi:10.3390/w10010061
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 2 January 2018 / Accepted: 6 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (725 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Utilizing natural wetlands to remove phosphorus (P) from agricultural drainage is a feasible approach of protecting receiving waterways from eutrophication. However, few studies have been carried out about how these wetlands, which act as buffer zones of pollutant sinks, can be operated to
[...] Read more.
Utilizing natural wetlands to remove phosphorus (P) from agricultural drainage is a feasible approach of protecting receiving waterways from eutrophication. However, few studies have been carried out about how these wetlands, which act as buffer zones of pollutant sinks, can be operated to achieve optimal pollutant removal and cost efficiency. In this study, cores of sediments and water were collected from a lacustrine wetland of Lake Xiaoxingkai region in Northeastern China, to produce a number of lab-scale wetland columns. Ex situ experiments, in a controlled environment, were conducted to study the effects of aeration, vegetation, and iron (Fe) input on the removal of total P (TP) and values of dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH of the water in these columns. The results demonstrated the links between Fe, P and DO levels. The planting of Glyceria spiculosa in the wetland columns was found to increase DO and pH values, whereas the Fe:P ratio was found to inversely correlate to the pH values. The TP removal was the highest in aerobic and planted columns. The pattern of temporal variation of TP removals matched first-order exponential growth model, except for under aerobic condition and with Fe:P ratio of 10:1. It was concluded that Fe introduced into a wetland by either surface runoff or agricultural drainage is beneficial for TP removal from the overlying water, especially during the growth season of wetland vegetation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetlands for the Treatment of Agricultural Drainage Water)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Performance of Iron Plaque of Wetland Plants for Regulating Iron, Manganese, and Phosphorus from Agricultural Drainage Water
Water 2018, 10(1), 42; doi:10.3390/w10010042
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 30 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 January 2018 / Published: 8 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4882 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Agricultural drainage water continues to impact watersheds and their receiving water bodies. One approach to mitigate this problem is to use surrounding natural wetlands. Our objectives were to determine the effect of iron (Fe)-rich groundwater on phosphorus (P) removal and nutrient absorption by
[...] Read more.
Agricultural drainage water continues to impact watersheds and their receiving water bodies. One approach to mitigate this problem is to use surrounding natural wetlands. Our objectives were to determine the effect of iron (Fe)-rich groundwater on phosphorus (P) removal and nutrient absorption by the utilization of the iron plaque on the root surface of Glyceria spiculosa (Fr. Schmidt.) Rosh. The experiment was comprised of two main factors with three regimes: Fe2+ (0, 1, 20, 100, 500 mg·L−1) and P (0.01, 0.1, 0.5 mg·L−1). The deposition and structure of iron plaque was examined through a scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer. Iron could, however, also impose toxic effects on the biota. We therefore provide the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on iron plaques, showing the essential elements were iron (Fe), oxygen (O), aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), P, and sulphur (S). Results showed that (1) Iron plaque increased with increasing Fe2+ supply, and P-deficiency promoted its formation; (2) Depending on the amount of iron plaque on roots, nutrient uptake was enhanced at low levels, but at higher levels, it inhibited element accumulation and translocation; (3) The absorption of manganese was particularly affected by iron plague, which also enhanced phosphorus uptake until the external iron concentration exceeded 100 mg·L−1. Therefore, the presence of iron plaque on the root surface would increase the uptake of P, which depends on the concentration of iron-rich groundwater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetlands for the Treatment of Agricultural Drainage Water)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Experimental Study on the Potential Use of Bundled Crop Straws as Subsurface Drainage Material in the Newly Reclaimed Coastal Land in Eastern China
Water 2018, 10(1), 31; doi:10.3390/w10010031
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 26 December 2017 / Accepted: 29 December 2017 / Published: 2 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1632 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Initial land reclamation of the saline soils often requires higher drainage intensity for quick leaching of salts from the soil profile; however, drainage pipes placed at closer spacing may result in higher cost. Seeking an inexpensive degradable organic subsurface drainage material may satisfy
[...] Read more.
Initial land reclamation of the saline soils often requires higher drainage intensity for quick leaching of salts from the soil profile; however, drainage pipes placed at closer spacing may result in higher cost. Seeking an inexpensive degradable organic subsurface drainage material may satisfy such needs of initial drainage, low investment and a heathy soil environment. Crop straws are porous organic materials that have certain strength and endurance. In this research, we explored the potential of using bundled maize stalks and rice straws as subsurface drainage material in place of plastic pipes. Through an experimental study in large lysimeters that were filled with saline coastal soil and planted with maize, we examined the drainage performance of the two organic materials by comparing with the conventional plastic drainage pipes; soil moisture distribution, soil salinity changed with depth, and the crop information were monitored in the lysimeters during the maize growing period. The results showed that maize stalk drainage and the rice straw drainage were significantly (p < 0.05) more efficient in removing salt and water from the crop root zone than the plastic drainage pipes; they excelled in drainage rate, leaching fraction, and lowering water table; and their efficient drainage processes lowered salt stress in the crop root zone and resulted in a slightly higher level of biomass. The experimental results suggest that crop straws may be used as a good organic substitute for the plastic drainage pipes in the initial stage land reclamation of the saline coastal soils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetlands for the Treatment of Agricultural Drainage Water)
Figures

Figure 1

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Development of an integrated modeling system for evaluating water quality effects of wetlands in an agricultural watershed
Author: Yongbo Liu, Wanhong Yang, Hui Shao, John Lindsay
Abstract: A GIS-based fully-distributed model, IMWEBs-Wetland (Integrated Modeling for Watershed Evaluation of BMPs), is developed to simulate hydrologic processes of site-specific wetland in an agricultural watershed. This model, powered by an open source White-box GIS and advanced database technologies, allows users to simulate and assess water quantity and quality effects of individual or multiple wetlands at different scales. A case study is implemented in the Broughton’s Creek Watershed in Southern Manitoba of Canada. Modeling results show that the model is capable to simulate wetland processes in a complex system, and has a great potential for application in wetland studies and integrated watershed management.
Back to Top