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Special Issue "Water Supply and Drainage for Sustainable Built Environment"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Ling Tim Wong

Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +852-2766-7783
Interests: indoor environmental quality; thermal comfort; built environment; water systems in buildings
Guest Editor
Dr. Kwok Wai Mui

Department of Building Services Engineering The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Hung Hom, Kowloon Hong Kong
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +852-2766-5835
Interests: indoor environmental quality; bioaerosols; energy and buildings; water demand modeling; demand side management; water efficiency

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Collaborative research efforts to find feasible and practical solutions for improving water efficiency in buildings, while lessening the impacts of environmental quality, resources, and energy consumption can lead to advances in water supply and drainage for sustainable built environments. Related topics consist of, but are not limited to, drainage and sanitation, human behaviour and influences, rainwater and re-use of wastewater, smart appliances and systems, sustainability and standardisation, water and energy efficiency, water conservation, water quality and safety, water economics and pricing, water system life cycle, and water supply and demand management. All research outcomes are intended to contribute to the development of best management practices for water conservation and demand management in buildings.


Dr. Ling Tim Wong
Dr. Kwok Wai Mui
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • drainage and sanitation
  • human behaviour and influences
  • performance evaluation and benchmarks
  • rainwater and re-use of wastewater
  • smart appliances and systems
  • sustainability and standardization
  • water and energy efficiency
  • water conservation
  • water quality and safety
  • water supply and demand management

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Carbon Dioxide Reduction Targets of Hot Water Showers for People in Hong Kong
Water 2017, 9(8), 576; doi:10.3390/w9080576
Received: 19 June 2017 / Revised: 24 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 2 August 2017
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Abstract
Improving water and energy efficiency in buildings is one of the best ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This study examines various energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction measures, including the use of water efficient showerheads and shower drain water heat recovery,
[...] Read more.
Improving water and energy efficiency in buildings is one of the best ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This study examines various energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction measures, including the use of water efficient showerheads and shower drain water heat recovery, in order to distinguish the significance of user influence on the water usage of a shower. The probability of taking a hot shower and the number of showers taken by an occupant per day, which can be evaluated from open literature data, are used as the parameters of user responses to water conservation measures in this study. A Monte Carlo model of water consumption and CO2 reduction for showering is adopted to determine the contributions of user responses. The results demonstrate that the influence of users on CO2 reduction is significant and compatible to the influence of water efficient showerheads. This study can be used as a reference to enhance water and energy incentives and to facilitate continuous improvement in building water systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Supply and Drainage for Sustainable Built Environment)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Pneumatic Pressure Vibration Affected by Connecting WCs and Discharge Load Types
Water 2017, 9(6), 382; doi:10.3390/w9060382
Received: 7 February 2017 / Revised: 24 May 2017 / Accepted: 26 May 2017 / Published: 29 May 2017
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Abstract
In the design of a drainage system, allowable drainage flow quantity (drainage capability) is defined for each pipe diameter in order to prevent seal water from breaking. In Japan, SHASE-S 218 (Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Sanitary Standard) stipulates the evaluation standard for drainage capability.
[...] Read more.
In the design of a drainage system, allowable drainage flow quantity (drainage capability) is defined for each pipe diameter in order to prevent seal water from breaking. In Japan, SHASE-S 218 (Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Sanitary Standard) stipulates the evaluation standard for drainage capability. Regardless of the presence or absence of connection of the traps, there are two types of test criteria. One is that pressure in the pipe should fall within ±400 Pa, and the other is that the seal loss should be less than 25 mm. Nevertheless, recent studies revealed that the connecting of traps attenuates pneumatic pressure in pipes and causes a tendency of the power spectrum distribution to change. This phenomenon may be attributable to the fact that seal water vibration is a response phenomenon to pneumatic pressure vibration, and that they affect each other. In view of this, we conducted discharge experiments based on SHASE-S 218 with and without traps (including water-saving toilet bowl (hereinafter, referred to as “WC”) using a real size drainage experimental system to clarify how the connection of WC might influence pneumatic pressure. We revealed that as the number of toilets connected to the drainage system increases, the pneumatic pressure and seal water loss decrease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Supply and Drainage for Sustainable Built Environment)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Verification of Calculation Method Using Monte Carlo Method for Water Supply Demands of Office Building
Water 2017, 9(6), 376; doi:10.3390/w9060376
Received: 7 February 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 19 May 2017 / Published: 26 May 2017
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Abstract
In Japan, there are four methods of calculating water supply demands for office buildings based on SHASE-S 206 and two methods based on the design standard of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). However, these methods were found to produce overestimated
[...] Read more.
In Japan, there are four methods of calculating water supply demands for office buildings based on SHASE-S 206 and two methods based on the design standard of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). However, these methods were found to produce overestimated values when applied to recent sanitary fixtures with advanced water saving features. To cope with this problem, Murakawa’s Simulation for Water Consumption (MSWC), which utilizes the Monte Carlo method to calculate water usage dynamically has been developed. In this study, we evaluated the validity of MSWC on water consumption of an office building. Actual water consumption data were collected from a six story office building. Water consumption estimates calculated by the six conventional methods and MSWC were compared with the actual measurement values. Though the calculations based on the conventional methods significantly deviated from the actual measurement values, those made by MSWC closely resembled them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Supply and Drainage for Sustainable Built Environment)
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Open AccessArticle A Study of Energy Optimisation of Urban Water Distribution Systems Using Potential Elements
Water 2016, 8(12), 593; doi:10.3390/w8120593
Received: 29 October 2016 / Revised: 25 November 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
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Abstract
Energy use in water supply systems represents a significant portion of the global energy consumption. The electricity consumption due to the water pumping represents the highest proportion of the energy costs in these systems. This paper presents several comparative studies of energy efficiency
[...] Read more.
Energy use in water supply systems represents a significant portion of the global energy consumption. The electricity consumption due to the water pumping represents the highest proportion of the energy costs in these systems. This paper presents several comparative studies of energy efficiency in water distribution systems considering distinct configurations of the networks and also considers implementation of the variable-speed pumps. The main objective of this study is the energy optimisation of urban systems using optimal network configurations that reduce energy consumption and improve energy efficiency. The paper describes in detail four strategies for improving energy efficiency of water pumping: control systems to vary pump speed drive according to water demand, pumped storage tanks, intermediary pumping stations integrated in the network, and elevated storage tanks floating on the system. The improving energy efficiency of water pumping is briefly reviewed providing a representative real case study. In addition, a different approach for the hydraulic analysis of the networks and the determination of the optimal location of a pumped storage tank is provided. Finally, this study compares the results of the application of four water supply strategies to a real case in Romania. The results indicate high potential operating costs savings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Supply and Drainage for Sustainable Built Environment)
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Open AccessArticle Greywater Reuse System Design and Economic Analysis for Residential Buildings in Taiwan
Water 2016, 8(11), 546; doi:10.3390/w8110546
Received: 13 October 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 16 November 2016 / Published: 19 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2413 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The concept of greywater recycling and reuse has gradually become one of the most important strategies in water stressed countries. Due to a high population density and uneven rainfall distribution, the annual average rainfall distribution per capita in Taiwan is one fifth of
[...] Read more.
The concept of greywater recycling and reuse has gradually become one of the most important strategies in water stressed countries. Due to a high population density and uneven rainfall distribution, the annual average rainfall distribution per capita in Taiwan is one fifth of the global average, which makes Taiwan a seriously water-stressed country. This study used the unit of a family of four as the target and reexamined the zoning concepts of water usage areas, followed by integrating pipeline configuration, water storage design and a filtering system to propose an Interior Customized Greywater System (ICGS) which is based on the application for the family unit. This system can be customized and flexibly adjusted according to household space. In order to verify the feasibility and viability of system, this study performed system configuration and design based on real cases and proposed three scenarios to simulate a 20 year life cycle for cost economic analysis. The result reveals that this system has a minimum payback period of 4 years and provides investment incentives. For regions or countries which have higher water cost or are more water stressed, ICGS can significantly improve the processing and utilization of water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Supply and Drainage for Sustainable Built Environment)
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of Water Quality on the Use of Solar Water Heaters in Remote Islands of Taiwan
Water 2016, 8(11), 530; doi:10.3390/w8110530
Received: 12 October 2016 / Revised: 9 November 2016 / Accepted: 10 November 2016 / Published: 15 November 2016
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Abstract
The use of solar water heaters (SWHs) in Taiwan’s remote islands has been subjected to scaling and, in particular, corrosion problems due to sources of water. In this study, four different water quality indices including the Langelier Saturation Index (LSI), the Ryznar Stability
[...] Read more.
The use of solar water heaters (SWHs) in Taiwan’s remote islands has been subjected to scaling and, in particular, corrosion problems due to sources of water. In this study, four different water quality indices including the Langelier Saturation Index (LSI), the Ryznar Stability Index (RSI), the Puckorius Scaling Index (PSI), and the Larson-Skold Corrosive Index (LSCI) were employed to assess the scaling and corrosion tendencies in SWHs caused by tap water and ground water in the Penghu, Kinmen, and Lienchiang counties, each of which is constituted of several remote islands. In general, the LSI, the RSI, and the PSI results show a slight scaling tendency in Penghu, but a corrosion tendency in Kinmen and Lienchiang. Nevertheless, all LSCI results show a serious steel corrosion tendency in these three counties. In addition, the chloride ion (Cl) concentrations are higher than 45 mg/L in either tap water (except for the Lieyu township in Kinmen) or ground water. This fact resulted in serious corrosion problems, as found in the currently installed SWHs, which were mainly made from 304 stainless steel. The metals with higher corrosion resistance to chloride ions are required in the manufacture of SWHs to be installed on these three remote-island counties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Supply and Drainage for Sustainable Built Environment)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Water Efficiency in Green Building in Taiwan
Water 2016, 8(6), 236; doi:10.3390/w8060236
Received: 6 May 2016 / Revised: 25 May 2016 / Accepted: 27 May 2016 / Published: 1 June 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (911 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Low carbon policies, including those aimed at increasing water efficiency, have been adopted as a crucial strategy for combating global warming and climate change. The green building evaluation system used in Taiwan was first applied in 1999 and initially utilized a building’s water
[...] Read more.
Low carbon policies, including those aimed at increasing water efficiency, have been adopted as a crucial strategy for combating global warming and climate change. The green building evaluation system used in Taiwan was first applied in 1999 and initially utilized a building’s water efficiency as the threshold index for determining the building’s environmental impact. Since 1999, more than a thousand buildings have been certified as green buildings using this evaluation system. The quantitative effects of water conservation efforts should be provided to policy makers as a form of positive feedback. To that end, the present study offers a calculation process for estimating the quantitative volume of water saved by practical green buildings. The baseline water usage for all kinds of buildings was determined to serve as the criterion for determining the water-saving efficiency of individual buildings. An investigation of the average water-saving rate from 2000 to 2013 for 1320 buildings certified as green buildings was also conducted to validate the estimation results and found that these green buildings saved an average of approximately 37.6% compared to the baseline water usage rate for all buildings. Water savings will inevitably follow from the use of water-saving appliances or water-saving designs for buildings. The proposed calculation process can be used to clarify the relationships between specific water-saving concepts and the real water usage efficiency of green buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Supply and Drainage for Sustainable Built Environment)

Review

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Open AccessReview Assessment of Sustainability of Urban Water Supply and Demand Management Options: A Comprehensive Approach
Water 2016, 8(12), 595; doi:10.3390/w8120595
Received: 5 September 2016 / Revised: 4 December 2016 / Accepted: 7 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (371 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A comprehensive evaluation framework that can assess a wide range of water supply and demand management policy options in terms of economic, social, environmental, risk-based, and functional performance is crucial to ascertain their level of sustainability. However, such a detailed, generic, and holistic
[...] Read more.
A comprehensive evaluation framework that can assess a wide range of water supply and demand management policy options in terms of economic, social, environmental, risk-based, and functional performance is crucial to ascertain their level of sustainability. However, such a detailed, generic, and holistic policy evaluation framework is not found in the literature. This paper reviews studies to evaluate water supply and/or demand management options conducted during 2000–2016. Primarily, the paper reviews the evaluation criteria used by different studies for decision making given their significant difference and the importance of a comprehensive set of criteria to complete a rigorous evaluation. In addition, a comprehensive set of water supply and demand management options are not considered together for a comparative assessment to prioritise best options for a certain area and time. Further, performance of these options needs to be evaluated for a range of uncertainties arising from changes of spatial and temporal variables of the system. While this paper highlights the important aspects that need to be included in a comprehensive policy evaluation framework, available studies collectively present a rich set of information to support it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Supply and Drainage for Sustainable Built Environment)
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