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Special Issue "Ecological Monitoring, Assessment, and Management in Freshwater Systems"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 February 2016)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Young-Seuk Park

Department of Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Korea
E-Mail
Interests: ecohydrology; biological monitoring; aquatic ecosystem health assessment; conservation biology; ecological modelling; ecological informatics
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Soon-Jin Hwang

Department of Environmental Health Science, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Korea
E-Mail
Interests: biological monitoring; aquatic ecosystem health assessment; conservation biology; ecohydrology; restoration of streams and lakes; nuisant cyanobacterial ecology and control

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Today, sustainability of a healthy freshwater ecosystem and its associated ecosystem services are hot issues with ever-growing attention placed upon them. We are increasingly recognizing that they are crucial for the survival of the aquatic biota and human beings on our planet.

The efficient monitoring of water resources is fundamental for effective management of water quality and aquatic ecosystems. The first stage in sustainable ecosystem management is the evaluation of the current status of target ecosystems. Traditionally, and even today, physico-chemical parameters have mainly been used to evaluate the quality of water resources. However, they have a large limit to grab the wholeness of water system, particularly in the sense of ecosystem health and integrity, for which ecological monitoring should be based on biological factors. Various approaches are applicable to ecosystem health assessment at different levels of the biological hierarchy, from genes to ecosystems.

This Special Issue is designed to improve scientific understanding and strategies for sound aquatic ecosystem management and services for researchers, decision makers, and stakeholders. This Special Issue calls for contributions in this area, covering the ideas, concepts, methods, policies and general studies under the scope of conservation and restoration. Additionally, novel case studies of eco-hydrology are welcome.

Prof. Young-Seuk Park
Prof. Soon-Jin Hwang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Aquatic ecosystem monitoring
  • Aquatic ecosystem assessment
  • Aquatic ecosystem management
  • Aquatic ecosystem services
  • Aquatic ecosystem policy
  • Restoration
  • Conservation
  • Biological indicators
  • Streams/ Rivers/ Lakes/ Wetlands
  • Aquatic ecology
  • Ecohydrology
  • Limnology

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Ecological Monitoring, Assessment, and Management in Freshwater Systems
Water 2016, 8(8), 324; doi:10.3390/w8080324
Received: 7 July 2016 / Revised: 25 July 2016 / Accepted: 28 July 2016 / Published: 1 August 2016
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Abstract
Ecological monitoring and assessment is fundamental for effective management of ecosystems. As an introduction to this Special Issue, this editorial provides an overview of “Ecological Monitoring, Assessment, and Management in Freshwater Systems”. This issue contains a review article on monitoring surface waters, and
[...] Read more.
Ecological monitoring and assessment is fundamental for effective management of ecosystems. As an introduction to this Special Issue, this editorial provides an overview of “Ecological Monitoring, Assessment, and Management in Freshwater Systems”. This issue contains a review article on monitoring surface waters, and research papers on data management, biological assessment of aquatic ecosystems, water quality assessment, effects of land use on aquatic ecosystems, etc. The papers in this issue contribute to the existing scientific knowledge of freshwater ecology. They also contribute to the development of more reliable biological monitoring and assessment methods for sustainable freshwater ecosystems and ecologically acceptable decision-making policies, and establishment of practices for effective ecosystem management and conservation. Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Open, Sharable, and Extensible Data Management for the Korea National Aquatic Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Program: A RESTful API-Based Approach
Water 2016, 8(5), 201; doi:10.3390/w8050201
Received: 29 January 2016 / Revised: 2 May 2016 / Accepted: 6 May 2016 / Published: 13 May 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6537 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Implemented by a national law, the National Aquatic Ecological Monitoring Program (NAEMP) has been assessing the ecological health status of surface waters, focusing on streams and rivers, in Korea since 2007. The program involves ecological monitoring of multiple aquatic biota such as benthic
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Implemented by a national law, the National Aquatic Ecological Monitoring Program (NAEMP) has been assessing the ecological health status of surface waters, focusing on streams and rivers, in Korea since 2007. The program involves ecological monitoring of multiple aquatic biota such as benthic diatoms, macroinvertebrates, fish, and plants as well as water quality and habitat parameters. Taking advantage of the national scale of long-term aquatic ecological monitoring and the standardization of protocols and methods, the datasets in NAEMP provide many opportunities for various advanced comparative and synthetic studies, policy-making, and ecological management. In order to realize these potentials and opportunities, we have developed a RESTful API-based data management system called OSAEM (the Open, Sharable and Extensible Data Management System for Aquatic Ecological Monitoring), which is designed to be open, sharable, and extensible. In this paper, we introduce the RESTful API-based data management approach, present the RESTful API for the OSAEM system, and discuss its applicability. An OSAEM prototype system is currently available on a commercial cloud service (Amazon EC2) but the system remains under active development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Outlier Loci Responding to Anthropogenic and Natural Selection Pressure in Stream Insects Based on a Self-Organizing Map
Water 2016, 8(5), 188; doi:10.3390/w8050188
Received: 17 February 2016 / Revised: 26 April 2016 / Accepted: 27 April 2016 / Published: 6 May 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3594 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water quality maintenance should be considered from an ecological perspective since water is a substrate ingredient in the biogeochemical cycle and is closely linked with ecosystem functioning and services. Addressing the status of live organisms in aquatic ecosystems is a critical issue for
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Water quality maintenance should be considered from an ecological perspective since water is a substrate ingredient in the biogeochemical cycle and is closely linked with ecosystem functioning and services. Addressing the status of live organisms in aquatic ecosystems is a critical issue for appropriate prediction and water quality management. Recently, genetic changes in biological organisms have garnered more attention due to their in-depth expression of environmental stress on aquatic ecosystems in an integrative manner. We demonstrate that genetic diversity would adaptively respond to environmental constraints in this study. We applied a self-organizing map (SOM) to characterize complex Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP) of aquatic insects in six streams in Japan with natural and anthropogenic variability. After SOM training, the loci compositions of aquatic insects effectively responded to environmental selection pressure. To measure how important the role of loci compositions was in the population division, we altered the AFLP data by flipping the existence of given loci individual by individual. Subsequently we recognized the cluster change of the individuals with altered data using the trained SOM. Based on SOM recognition of these altered data, we determined the outlier loci (over 90th percentile) that showed drastic changes in their belonging clusters (D). Subsequently environmental responsiveness (Ek) was also calculated to address relationships with outliers in different species. Outlier loci were sensitive to slightly polluted conditions including Chl-a, NH4-N, NOX-N, PO4-P, and SS, and the food material, epilithon. Natural environmental factors such as altitude and sediment additionally showed relationships with outliers in somewhat lower levels. Poly-loci like responsiveness was detected in adapting to environmental constraints. SOM training followed by recognition shed light on developing algorithms de novo to characterize loci information without a priori knowledge of population genetics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Land Use Types on Community Structure Patterns of Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Streams of Urban Areas in the South of the Korea Peninsula
Water 2016, 8(5), 187; doi:10.3390/w8050187
Received: 30 January 2016 / Revised: 28 April 2016 / Accepted: 29 April 2016 / Published: 6 May 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected from streams located in an urban area from regions featuring different environmental conditions. Physicochemical variables and land use types pertaining to sampling sites were analyzed concurrently. Multivariate analyses (cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling) and rank-abundance diagrams were used
[...] Read more.
Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected from streams located in an urban area from regions featuring different environmental conditions. Physicochemical variables and land use types pertaining to sampling sites were analyzed concurrently. Multivariate analyses (cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling) and rank-abundance diagrams were used to characterize community patterns to assess ecological integrity in response to environmental conditions. Species composition patterns were mainly influenced by both the gradient of physicochemical variables (e.g., altitude, slope, conductivity) and the proportion of forest area. Community structure patterns were further correlated to the proportion of urbanization and to biological indices (e.g., diversity, number of species). Land use preferences of benthic species were identified based on the indicator values and weighted averaging regression models. Plecoptera species were representative of undisturbed streams in forest areas, whereas Tubificidae species and filtering collector caddis flies were indicator taxa in severely polluted and agricultural areas, respectively. The analyses of community structures and indicator species effectively characterized community properties and ecological integrity following natural and anthropogenic variability in urban stream ecosystems. Full article
Open AccessArticle Examining the Relationships between Watershed Urban Land Use and Stream Water Quality Using Linear and Generalized Additive Models
Water 2016, 8(4), 155; doi:10.3390/w8040155
Received: 15 December 2015 / Revised: 7 April 2016 / Accepted: 11 April 2016 / Published: 16 April 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1207 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although close relationships between the water quality of streams and the types of land use within their watersheds have been well-documented in previous studies, many aspects of these relationships remain unclear. We examined the relationships between urban land use and water quality using
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Although close relationships between the water quality of streams and the types of land use within their watersheds have been well-documented in previous studies, many aspects of these relationships remain unclear. We examined the relationships between urban land use and water quality using data collected from 527 sample points in five major rivers in Korea—the Han, Geum, Nakdong, Younsan, and Seomjin Rivers. Water quality data were derived from samples collected and analyzed under the guidelines of the Korean National Aquatic Ecological Monitoring Program, and land use was quantified using products provided by the Korean Ministry of the Environment, which were used to create a Geographic Information System. Linear models (LMs) and generalized additive models were developed to describe the relationships between urban land use and stream water quality, including biological oxygen demand (BOD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP). A comparison between LMs and non-linear models (in terms of R2 and Akaike’s information criterion values) indicated that the general additive models had a better fit and suggested a non-linear relationship between urban land use and water quality. Non-linear models for BOD, TN, and TP showed that each parameter had a similar relationship with urban land use, which had two breakpoints. The non-linear models suggested that the relationships between urban land use and water quality could be categorized into three regions, based on the proportion of urban land use. In moderate urban land use conditions, negative impacts of urban land use on water quality were observed, which confirmed the findings of previous studies. However, the relationships were different in very low urbanization or very high urbanization conditions. Our results could be used to develop strategies for more efficient stream restoration and management, which would enhance water quality based on the degree of urbanization in watersheds. In particular, land use management for enhancing stream water quality might be more effective when urban land use is in the range of 1.1%–31.5% of a watershed. If urban land use exceeds 31.5% in a watershed, a more comprehensive approach would be required because water quality would not respond as rapidly as expected. Full article
Open AccessArticle Environmental Factors Structuring Fish Communities in Floodplain Lakes of the Undisturbed System of the Biebrza River
Water 2016, 8(4), 146; doi:10.3390/w8040146
Received: 27 January 2016 / Revised: 29 March 2016 / Accepted: 31 March 2016 / Published: 12 April 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2951 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We evaluated the influence of habitat connectivity and local environmental factors on the distribution and abundance of functional fish groups in 10 floodplain lakes in the Biebrza River, northeastern Poland. Fish were sampled by electrofishing, and 15 physico-chemical parameters were recorded at three
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We evaluated the influence of habitat connectivity and local environmental factors on the distribution and abundance of functional fish groups in 10 floodplain lakes in the Biebrza River, northeastern Poland. Fish were sampled by electrofishing, and 15 physico-chemical parameters were recorded at three sampling sites at each lake in the period of 2011–2013. A total of 18,399 specimens, belonging to 23 species and six families, were captured. The relationships between environmental factors and fish communities were explored with the use of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Sampling sites were grouped based on fish communities using a hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Along a lateral connectivity gradient from lotic to lentic habitats (parapotamic–plesiopotamic–paleopotamic), the proportions of rheophilic species were determined as 10:5:1, whereas the proportion of limnophilic species was determined as 1:2:5. The predominant species were the roach (Rutilus rutilus), and pike (Esox lucius) in parapotamic lakes, rudd (Scardinius erythropthalmus) and pike in plesiopotamic lakes, and sunbleak (Leucaspius delineates) and Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) in paleopotamic lakes. The findings indicated that the composition and abundance of fish communities are determined by lake isolation gradient, physico-chemical parameters and water stage. Although intact riverine ecosystems may promote fish biodiversity, our findings suggest that lateral connectivity between the main channel and floodplain lakes is of utmost importance. Thus, the conservation of fish biodiversity requires the preservation of this connectivity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Exploring the Non-Stationary Effects of Forests and Developed Land within Watersheds on Biological Indicators of Streams Using Geographically-Weighted Regression
Water 2016, 8(4), 120; doi:10.3390/w8040120
Received: 15 December 2015 / Revised: 16 February 2016 / Accepted: 23 March 2016 / Published: 28 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (7975 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examined the non-stationary relationship between the ecological condition of streams and the proportions of forest and developed land in watersheds using geographically-weighted regression (GWR). Most previous studies have adopted the ordinary least squares (OLS) method, which assumes stationarity of the relationship
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This study examined the non-stationary relationship between the ecological condition of streams and the proportions of forest and developed land in watersheds using geographically-weighted regression (GWR). Most previous studies have adopted the ordinary least squares (OLS) method, which assumes stationarity of the relationship between land use and biological indicators. However, these conventional OLS models cannot provide any insight into local variations in the land use effects within watersheds. Here, we compared the performance of the OLS and GWR statistical models applied to benthic diatom, macroinvertebrate, and fish communities in sub-watershed management areas. We extracted land use datasets from the Ministry of Environment LULC map and data on biological indicators in Nakdong river systems from the National Aquatic Ecological Monitoring Program in Korea. We found that the GWR model had superior performance compared with the OLS model, as assessed based on R2, Akaike’s Information Criterion, and Moran’s I values. Furthermore, GWR models revealed specific localized effects of land use on biological indicators, which we investigated further. The results of this study can be used to inform more effective policies on watershed management and to enhance ecological integrity by prioritizing sub-watershed management areas Full article
Open AccessArticle Spatio-Temporal Variability in Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities in Headwater Streams in South Korea
Water 2016, 8(3), 99; doi:10.3390/w8030099
Received: 1 November 2015 / Revised: 2 March 2016 / Accepted: 8 March 2016 / Published: 12 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1121 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Comprehensive research on the structural and functional variability of benthic macroinvertebrate communities within headwater streams is limited, despite the fact that the majority of streams within a watershed are headwater streams that form the primary link between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, we
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Comprehensive research on the structural and functional variability of benthic macroinvertebrate communities within headwater streams is limited, despite the fact that the majority of streams within a watershed are headwater streams that form the primary link between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, we investigated the structure and function of benthic macroinvertebrate communities in four headwater streams at two different spatial scales (i.e., sampling sites (i.e., reaches) >samples (i.e., riffles)) over three seasons (i.e., spring, summer and autumn) of the year. Community indices, functional feeding guilds and habit trait guilds varied significantly depending on the seasons rather than on sites in two-way ANOVA based on spatial (i.e., sampling sites) and seasonal effects in each headwater stream. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analyses showed the differences between communities according to the considered spatial and temporal scales. At the individual stream scale, the differences between samples followed seasonal variation more than spatial differences. Site differences became more important when performing an ordination within a single season (i.e., spring, summer, and autumn). Continued research and monitoring employing both multidisciplinary and multidimensional approaches are required to maintain macroinvertebrate diversity within headwater streams. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of the “Run-of-River” Hydro Scheme on Macroinvertebrate Communities and Habitat Conditions in a Mountain River of Northeastern China
Water 2016, 8(1), 31; doi:10.3390/w8010031
Received: 30 October 2015 / Revised: 11 January 2016 / Accepted: 12 January 2016 / Published: 21 January 2016
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Abstract
The main objective of this study was to quantify the impacts of the run of river (ROR) scheme on the instream habitat and macroinvertebrate community. We sampled the macroinvertebrate assemblages and collected the habitat variables above and below an ROR hydropower plant: Aotou
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The main objective of this study was to quantify the impacts of the run of river (ROR) scheme on the instream habitat and macroinvertebrate community. We sampled the macroinvertebrate assemblages and collected the habitat variables above and below an ROR hydropower plant: Aotou plant in the Hailang River, China. The effects of the ROR scheme on habitat conditions were examined using regulation-related variables, most of which, particularly the hydrological variables and substrate composition, presented spatial variations along the downstream direction, contributing to heterogeneous conditions between reaches. The macroinvertebrate richness, the density and the diversity metrics showed significant decreases in the “depleted” reach compared with the upper and lower reaches. Approximately 75% of reach-averaged densities and 50% of taxa richness suffered decreases in the “depleted” reach compared with the upper reach. Furthermore, functional feeding groups also showed distinct site differences along the channel. The relative abundance of both collector-gatherers and the scrapers reduced considerably at the “depleted” sites, particularly at the site immediately downstream of the weir. The total variance in the the functional feeding group (FFG) data explained by Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was more than 81.4% and the high-loadings factors were depth, flow velocity, DO and substrate composition. We demonstrated that flow diversion at the 75% level and an in-channel barrier, due to the ROR scheme, are likely to lead to poor habitat conditions and decrease both the abundance and the diversity of macroinvertebrates in reaches influenced by water diversion. Full article
Open AccessArticle Spatial Distribution of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Assemblages in Relation to Environmental Variables in Korean Nationwide Streams
Water 2016, 8(1), 27; doi:10.3390/w8010027
Received: 23 October 2015 / Revised: 13 January 2016 / Accepted: 15 January 2016 / Published: 20 January 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1840 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Conserving and enhancing freshwater biodiversity are global issues to ensure ecosystem integrity and sustainability. To meet this, it is critical to understand how the biological assemblages are determined by environmental gradients in different spatial scales. Nevertheless, information on their large-scale environmental relationships remains
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Conserving and enhancing freshwater biodiversity are global issues to ensure ecosystem integrity and sustainability. To meet this, it is critical to understand how the biological assemblages are determined by environmental gradients in different spatial scales. Nevertheless, information on their large-scale environmental relationships remains scarce in Korea. We aimed to understand nationwide spatial distribution patterns of benthic macroinvertebrates and important environmental factors affecting their distribution in 388 streams and rivers across Korea. A total of 340 taxa, belonging to 113 families in 23 orders of five phyla, were identified. Assemblage composition in most Korean streams included a few predominant colonizers and a majority of rare taxa. Cluster analysis based on benthic macroinvertebrates classified a total of 720 sampling sites into five clusters according to the pollution levels from fast-flowing less polluted streams with low electrical conductivity to moderately or severely polluted streams with high electrical conductivity and slow water velocity. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that altitude, water velocity and streambed composition were the most important determinants, rather than watershed and water chemistry variables, for explaining the variation in macroinvertebrate assemblage patterns. The results provide basic information for establishing the conservation and restoration strategies of macroinvertebrate biodiversity against anthropogenic disturbances and developing more confident bio-assessment tools for diagnosing stream ecosystem integrity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Roles of N:P Ratios on Trophic Structures and Ecological Stream Health in Lotic Ecosystems
Water 2016, 8(1), 22; doi:10.3390/w8010022
Received: 2 November 2015 / Revised: 23 December 2015 / Accepted: 7 January 2016 / Published: 16 January 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4012 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Little is known about the functions of N:P ratios in determining trophic structures and ecological health in lotic ecosystems, even though N:P ratios have been frequently used as a stoichiometric determinant in ambient water for trophic allocation of low-level organisms such as phytoplankton
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Little is known about the functions of N:P ratios in determining trophic structures and ecological health in lotic ecosystems, even though N:P ratios have been frequently used as a stoichiometric determinant in ambient water for trophic allocation of low-level organisms such as phytoplankton or zooplankton. In this study, nutrients (N, P) and sestonic chlorophyll (CHL) from 40 different streams in the Geum-River watershed were measured from 2008 to 2011. Fish compositions and stream health were also assessed, based on the multi-metric modeling of an index of biological integrity. Land use patterns in these watersheds were a key factor regulating nutrient contents and N:P ratios in ambient water, and also influenced empirical relationships between N:P ratios (or nutrients) and sestonic CHL. Land use patterns in forested, urban and wastewater treatment plant regions were associated with significant differences in stream N:P ratios, and the ratios were mainly determined by phosphorus. Sestonic CHL was significantly correlated with nutrient level (N, P); the ratios had a positive linear relationship with the proportion of omnivores, and a negative relationship with the proportion of insectivores. A similar trend in the N:P ratios was observed in indicator fishes such as N. koreanus and Z. platypus. Overall, the N:P ratio may be a good surrogate variable of ambient concentrations of N or P in assessing trophic linkage and diagnosing the ecological stream health in aquatic ecosystems. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Efficiency Analysis of a Nature-Like Fishway for Freshwater Fish Ascending a Large Korean River
Water 2016, 8(1), 3; doi:10.3390/w8010003
Received: 5 November 2015 / Revised: 10 December 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 24 December 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2623 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Using traps and passive integrated transponder (PIT) telemetry, we investigated the effectiveness of the nature-like fishway installed at Sangju Weir on the Nakdong River, Korea. In 11 regular checks over the study period, 1474 individuals classified into 19 species belonging to 5 families
[...] Read more.
Using traps and passive integrated transponder (PIT) telemetry, we investigated the effectiveness of the nature-like fishway installed at Sangju Weir on the Nakdong River, Korea. In 11 regular checks over the study period, 1474 individuals classified into 19 species belonging to 5 families were collected by the traps, representing 66% of the species inhabiting the main channel of the Nakdong River. PIT tags were applied to 1615 individuals belonging to 22 species, revealing fishway attraction and passing rates of 20.7% and 14.5%, respectively. Interspecific differences were also shown. For 63.2% of fishes, it took more than a day to pass through the fishway. Some individuals spent a longer time (>28 days) inside the fishway, suggesting the fishway was also being used for purposes other than passage. In this study, we verified species diversity of fish using a nature-like fishway installed in a large river in Korea. The results of this study provide a useful contribution to the development of fishways suitable for fish species endemic to Korea and for non-salmonid fish species worldwide. Full article
Open AccessArticle Integrated Ecological River Health Assessments, Based on Water Chemistry, Physical Habitat Quality and Biological Integrity
Water 2015, 7(11), 6378-6403; doi:10.3390/w7116378
Received: 22 July 2015 / Accepted: 6 October 2015 / Published: 11 November 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3333 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study evaluated integrative river ecosystem health using stressor-based models of physical habitat health, chemical water health, and biological health of fish and identified multiple-stressor indicators influencing the ecosystem health. Integrated health responses (IHRs), based on star-plot approach, were calculated from qualitative habitat
[...] Read more.
This study evaluated integrative river ecosystem health using stressor-based models of physical habitat health, chemical water health, and biological health of fish and identified multiple-stressor indicators influencing the ecosystem health. Integrated health responses (IHRs), based on star-plot approach, were calculated from qualitative habitat evaluation index (QHEI), nutrient pollution index (NPI), and index of biological integrity (IBI) in four different longitudinal regions (Groups I–IV). For the calculations of IHRs values, multi-metric QHEI, NPI, and IBI models were developed and their criteria for the diagnosis of the health were determined. The longitudinal patterns of the river were analyzed by a self-organizing map (SOM) model and the key major stressors in the river were identified by principal component analysis (PCA). Our model scores of integrated health responses (IHRs) suggested that mid-stream and downstream regions were impaired, and the key stressors were closely associated with nutrient enrichment (N and P) and organic matter pollutions from domestic wastewater disposal plants and urban sewage. This modeling approach of IHRs may be used as an effective tool for evaluations of integrative ecological river health.. Full article
Open AccessArticle Multiple Time-Scale Monitoring to Address Dynamic Seasonality and Storm Pulses of Stream Water Quality in Mountainous Watersheds
Water 2015, 7(11), 6117-6138; doi:10.3390/w7116117
Received: 23 September 2015 / Revised: 23 October 2015 / Accepted: 27 October 2015 / Published: 4 November 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1133 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rainfall variability and extreme events can amplify the seasonality and storm pulses of stream water chemistry in mountainous watersheds under monsoon climates. To establish a monitoring program optimized for identifying potential risks to stream water quality arising from rainfall variability and extremes, we
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Rainfall variability and extreme events can amplify the seasonality and storm pulses of stream water chemistry in mountainous watersheds under monsoon climates. To establish a monitoring program optimized for identifying potential risks to stream water quality arising from rainfall variability and extremes, we examined water chemistry data collected on different timescales. At a small forested watershed, bi-weekly sampling lasted over two years, in comparison to three other biweekly sampling sites. In addition, high-frequency continuous measurements of pH, electrical conductivity, and turbidity were conducted in tandem with automatic water sampling at 2 h intervals during eight rainfall events. Biweekly monitoring showed that during the summer monsoon period, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), and dissolved ion concentrations generally decreased, but total suspended solids (TSS) slightly increased. A noticeable variation from the usual seasonal pattern was that DO levels substantially decreased during an extended drought. Bi-hourly storm event samplings exhibited large changes in the concentrations of TSS and particulate and dissolved organic carbon (POC; DOC) during intense rainfall events. However, extreme fluctuations in sediment export during discharge peaks could be detected only by turbidity measurements at 5 min intervals. Concomitant measurements during rainfall events established empirical relationships between turbidity and TSS or POC. These results suggest that routine monitoring based on weekly to monthly sampling is valid only in addressing general seasonal patterns or long-lasting phenomena such as drought effects. We propose an “adaptive” monitoring scheme that combines routine monitoring for general seasonal patterns and high-frequency instrumental measurements of water quality components exhibiting rapid responses pulsing during intense rainfall events. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Transferability of Monitoring Data from Neighboring Streams in a Physical Habitat Simulation
Water 2015, 7(8), 4537-4551; doi:10.3390/w7084537
Received: 28 May 2015 / Revised: 13 August 2015 / Accepted: 18 August 2015 / Published: 20 August 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2763 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Habitat simulation models heavily rely on monitoring data, which can have serious effects on the success of a physical habitat simulation. However, if data monitored in a study reach are not available or insufficient, then data from neighboring streams are commonly used. The
[...] Read more.
Habitat simulation models heavily rely on monitoring data, which can have serious effects on the success of a physical habitat simulation. However, if data monitored in a study reach are not available or insufficient, then data from neighboring streams are commonly used. The problem is that the impact of using data from neighboring streams has rarely been studied before. Motivated by this, we report herein on an investigation of the transferability of data from neighboring streams in a physical habitat simulation. The study area is a 2.5 km long reach located downstream from a dam in the Dal River, Korea. Zacco platypus was selected as the target fish for the physical habitat simulation. Monitoring data for the Dal River and three neighboring streams were obtained. First, similarities in the data related to channel geometry and in the observed distribution of the target species were examined. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was also carried out to see the characteristics of the habitat use of the target species. Habitat Suitability Curves (HSCs) were constructed using the Gene Expression Programming (GEP) model, and improved Generalized Habitat Suitability Curves (GHSCs) were proposed. The physical habitat simulations were then performed. The Composite Suitability Index (CSI) distributions were predicted, and the impact of using data from the neighboring streams was investigated. The results indicated that the use of data from a neighboring stream even in the same watershed can result in large errors in the prediction of CSI. The physical habitat simulation with the improved GHSCs was found to best predict the CSI. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Field Evaluation of a Stormwater Treatment Train with Pit Baskets and Filter Media Cartridges in Southeast Queensland
Water 2015, 7(8), 4496-4510; doi:10.3390/w7084496
Received: 12 June 2015 / Revised: 3 August 2015 / Accepted: 6 August 2015 / Published: 17 August 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1855 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Field monitoring of a stormwater treatment train has been underway between November 2013 and May 2015 at a townhouse development located at Ormiston, southeast Queensland. The research was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of a 200 micron mesh pit basket in a 900
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Field monitoring of a stormwater treatment train has been underway between November 2013 and May 2015 at a townhouse development located at Ormiston, southeast Queensland. The research was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of a 200 micron mesh pit basket in a 900 square format and an 850 mm high media filtration cartridge system for removing total suspended solids and nutrients from stormwater runoff. The monitoring protocol was developed with Queensland University of Technology (QUT), reflecting the Auckland Regional Council Proprietary Device Evaluation Protocol (PDEP) and United States Urban Stormwater BMP Performance Monitoring Manual with some minor improvements reflecting local conditions. During the 18 month period, more than 30 rain events have occurred, of which nine comply with the protocol. The Efficiency Ratio (ER) observed for the treatment devices are 32% total suspended solids (TSS), 37% for total phosphorus (TP) and 38% total nitrogen (TN) for the pit basket, and an Efficiency Ratio of 87% TSS, 55% TP and 42% TN for the cartridge filter. The performance results on nine events have been observed to be significantly different statistically (p < 0.05) for the filters but not the pit baskets. The research has also identified the significant influence of analytical variability on performance results, specifically when influent concentrations are near the limits of detection. Full article
Open AccessCommunication Agricultural Rivers at Risk: Dredging Results in a Loss of Macroinvertebrates. Preliminary Observations from the Narew Catchment, Poland
Water 2015, 7(8), 4511-4522; doi:10.3390/w7084511
Received: 25 June 2015 / Accepted: 5 August 2015 / Published: 17 August 2015
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Abstract
Ecosystem deterioration in small lowland agricultural rivers that results from river dredging entails a significant threat to the appropriate ecohydrological conditions of these water bodies, expressed as homogenization of habitats and loss of biodiversity. Our study was aimed at a comparison of abundance
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Ecosystem deterioration in small lowland agricultural rivers that results from river dredging entails a significant threat to the appropriate ecohydrological conditions of these water bodies, expressed as homogenization of habitats and loss of biodiversity. Our study was aimed at a comparison of abundance and taxonomic structure of bottom-dwelling macroinvertebrates in dredged and non-dredged stretches of small lowland rivers and tributaries of the middle Narew River, namely: Czaplinianka, Turośnianka, Dąb, and Ślina. The experimental setup was (1) to collect samples of the bottom material from the river stretches that either persisted in a non-modified state (dredging was not done there in the last few years) or had been subjected to river dredging in the year of sampling; and (2) to analyze the abundance and taxonomic structure of macroinvertebrates in the collected samples. The study revealed that at the high level of statistical significance (from p = 0.025 to p = 0.001), the total abundance of riverbed macroinvertebrates in the dredged stretches of the rivers analyzed was approximately 70% lower than in non-dredged areas. We state that the dredging of small rivers in agricultural landscapes seriously affects their ecological status by negatively influencing the concentrations and species richness of benthic macroinvertebrates. Full article
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Open AccessReview Monitoring of Surface Waters in Germany under the Water Framework Directive—A Review of Approaches, Methods and Results
Water 2016, 8(6), 217; doi:10.3390/w8060217
Received: 29 January 2016 / Revised: 18 May 2016 / Accepted: 19 May 2016 / Published: 24 May 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1686 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The European Commission Water Framework Directive (WFD) was established 16 years ago and forms the current basis for monitoring surface waters and groundwater in Europe. This legislation resulted in a necessary adaptation of the monitoring networks and programs for rivers, lakes, and transitional
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The European Commission Water Framework Directive (WFD) was established 16 years ago and forms the current basis for monitoring surface waters and groundwater in Europe. This legislation resulted in a necessary adaptation of the monitoring networks and programs for rivers, lakes, and transitional and coastal waters to the requirements of the WFD at German and European levels. The present study reviews the most important objectives of both the monitoring of surface waters and the principles of the WFD monitoring plan. Furthermore, we look at the changes water monitoring in Germany has undergone over the past sixteen years and we summarize monitoring results from German surfaces waters under the WFD. Comparisons of European approaches for biological assessments, of standards set for physical and chemical factors and of environmental quality standards for pollutants reveal the necessity for further European-wide harmonization. The objective of this harmonization is to improve comparability of the assessment of the ecological status of waters in Europe, and thus also to more coherently activate action programs of measures. Full article

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