Special Issue "Heavy Metals and Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) in Water"
A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2017)
Prof. Dr. Andrew Hursthouse
1. School of Science and Sport, University of the West of Scotland, UK
2. High End Expert Scholar, Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Shale Gas Resource Utilization, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201, China
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Interests: environmental geochemistry; isotopes; risk assessment; soil sediment pollution; aquatic contamination
The term “Heavy Metal” relates to metallic chemical elements of relatively high density and toxicity at low concentrations. The presence of elements, such as mercury, cadmium, arsenic chromium thallium, and lead in water, can lead to direct toxicity or enter the food chain and bioaccumulate. Other trace elements are essential for metabolic function but become toxic at higher concentrations. A broader definition of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) recognises that exposure leads to a range of doses of numerous elements. They can enter the water system through direct waste release from industrial or consumer discharges, deposition from the atmosphere near emission sources, the weathering of rocks and mineral constituents, naturally or enhanced through environmental disturbance such as from mining or acid rain. Their migration within the aqueous environment is controlled by many variables driven by the chemical reactivity of the element and detailed environmental conditions, such as composition of the water, and isolation from surface environments. This Special Issue will provide a forum for publications on topics related advancing our understanding of the release and transport of elements, chemical species and compounds where the aquatic system is the dominant environmental medium. This may relate to both field studies and laboratory experiments, new tools and techniques and examples of studies of leaching and transport, modeling of chemical species reactivity, bioaccumulation and effects on wider ecosystems and human health. The reports should be scientifically rigorous and hypothesis driven, providing demonstrable contributions to new knowledge and fall within the wider scope and aims of the journal.
Prof. Dr. Andrew Hursthouse
Manuscript Submission Information
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.
Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.
pollution discharge and transport;
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Integrated,community‐based assessment of exposure to contaminants in shallow aquifer systems: a pilot study in Holliston, Massachusetts
B. Claus Henn1, Y. Ogneva-Himmelberger2, A. Denehy3, B. Basu2, B. Caccavale2, S. Covino2, R. Hanumantha2, K. Longo2, A. Maiorano2, G. Rigutto2, K. Shields2, T. Downs2
1 Department of Environmental Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA
2 Department of International Development, Community, and Environment, Clark University, Worcester, MA
Abstract: Half of U.S. residential drinking water comes from aquifers, and shallow ones (<100 feet) are important sources. Shallow sand--‐gravel aquifers are especially vulnerable to anthropogenic and natural contaminants. We present the case of Holliston, a Boston, MA suburb in which metals and solvents have been reported in aquifer drinking water. Community concerns focus on water discolored by high levels of manganese (Mn), despite monitoring data indicating compliance. Epidemiological studies suggest the potential for adverse health effects in children exposed to drinking water Mn at levels near the current aesthetic level set by law. We designed an integrated, community--‐based approach to assess exposure: capture zones for wells were mapped, linking waste sites/contaminants with wells; and service areas for each well were estimated, allowing homes to be pegged to wells and to contaminants released within capture zones. Site profiles identified 15 contaminants of interest, with two waste sites situated in one capture zone. A plan for monitoring Mn at faucets and estimating past exposure using deciduous teeth as a biomarker is under development. This study demonstrates the vulnerability of shallow aquifer systems, highlights the need to improve assessments of exposure and health risks (especially for young children), and argues for more robust regulation and monitoring.
Keywords: shallow aquifers, manganese (Mn), integrated exposure science
Cadmium and lead adsorption/desorption on non-amended and byproduct-amended soil samples and pyritic material
Vanesa Santás-Miguel 2, Juan Carlos Nóvoa-Muñoz 2, Manuel Arias-Estévez 2, María J. Fernández-Sanjurjo 1, Esperanza Álvarez-Rodríguez 1 and Avelino Núñez-Delgado 1,*
1Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Engineering Polytechnic School, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo 27002, Spain
2Department of Plant Biology and Soil Science, Faculty of Sciences, Campus Ourense, Universidade de Vigo, 32004 Ourense, Spain
*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: email@example.com; Tel: +34-982-823-140; Fax: +34-982-823-001.
Abstract: In this work, batch-type experiments were used to study cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) adsorption and desorption on forest soil, vineyard soil and pyritic material samples, as well as on the by-products mussel shell, oak ash, pine bark and hemp waste, and on forest soil, vineyard soil and pyritic material samples amended individually with 48 t ha-1 of mussel shell, oak ash, and hemp waste. As main results, the forest soil showed higher Cd and Pb retention (higher adsorption and lower desorption) than the vineyard soil and the pyritic material. Regarding the by-products studied, adsorption was in the order: oak ash > mussel shell > hemp waste > pine bark, with desorption following an inverse sequence. pH was the parameter that most influenced Cd and Pb adsorption. Cd and Pb adsorption curves showed better fitting to the Freundlich than to the Langmuir model, indicating dominance of multilayer adsorption. Oak ash and mussel shell were the amendments causing higher increase in Cd and Pb adsorption on both soils and the pyritic material (close to 100% with the oak ash amendment), as well as more pronounced decrease in desorption. These results could be used to favor an effective management of the by-products studied, which could retain Cd and Pb in soils and degraded areas, thus preventing water pollution.
Keywords: By-products; Cd pollution; Pb pollution; retention; release
Considering a threshold energy for microbially mediated redox reactions in reactive transport modeling of As release and attenuation
Marco Rotiroti 1, Rasmus Jakobsen 2, Letizia Fumagalli 1 and Tullia Bonomi 1
1 Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
2 Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen, Denmark.
The reductive dissolution of Fe-oxide driven by organic matter oxidation is the primary mechanism accepted for As mobilization in several alluvial aquifers. These processes are often mediated by microorganisms that require a minimum Gibbs energy available to conduct the reaction in order to sustain their life functions. Using this threshold energy in reactive transport modeling is currently rarely used. This work presents a reactive transport modeling of As mobilization by reductive dissolution of Fe-oxide and subsequent immobilization by co-precipitation in iron sulfides considering a threshold energy for the following terminal electron accepting processes: (a) Fe-oxide reduction, (b) sulfate reduction and (c) methanogenesis. The model is then extended by implementing a threshold energy on both reaction directions for the redox reaction pair Fe(III) reduction/Fe(II) oxidation. The optimal threshold energy fitted in 3.76, 4.50 and 1.60 kJ/mol e- for Fe-oxide reduction, sulfate reduction and methanogenesis, respectively. That these threshold energy values are quite close and quite small indicates that also the simple partial equilibrium approach to modeling anaerobic redox processes is viable. It appears that the use of models implementing gaps are more relevant in 2D or 3D simulations.