E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Water Consumption and Water End-uses in Buildings"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Enedir Ghisi

Laboratory of Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario, Trindade, Florianópolis - SC, 88040-900, Brazil
Phone: +55 48 3721 2115
Fax: +55 48 37215191
Interests: water consumption in buildings; water efficiency; rainwater use in buildings; sustainability

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water consumption in buildings has been a matter of concern all over the world as the number of cases has been steadily on the increase. Such consumption and water end-uses vary according to the type of building, culture, climatic conditions, and so on. In order to properly apply water efficient measures in buildings, water consumption and water end-uses need to be better analyzed. Thus, a Special Issue on "Water consumption and water end-uses in buildings" aims to publish such papers from all manner of buildings, including houses, multifamily residential buildings, commercial buildings, schools, airports, etc. This would provide a valuable overview of scenarios in different parts of the world.

Prof. Dr. Enedir Ghisi
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • water
  • consumption
  • end-uses
  • efficiency
  • buildings

Published Papers (7 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-7
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle Modeling Residential Water Consumption in Amman: The Role of Intermittency, Storage, and Pricing for Piped and Tanker Water
Water 2015, 7(7), 3643-3670; doi:10.3390/w7073643
Received: 2 March 2015 / Revised: 18 June 2015 / Accepted: 19 June 2015 / Published: 10 July 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2600 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Jordan faces an archetypal combination of high water scarcity, with a per capita water availability of around 150 m3 per year significantly below the absolute scarcity threshold of 500 m3, and strong population growth, especially due to the Syrian [...] Read more.
Jordan faces an archetypal combination of high water scarcity, with a per capita water availability of around 150 m3 per year significantly below the absolute scarcity threshold of 500 m3, and strong population growth, especially due to the Syrian refugee crisis. A transition to more sustainable water consumption patterns will likely require Jordan’s water authorities to rely more strongly on water demand management in the future. We conduct a case study of the effects of pricing policies, using an agent-based model of household water consumption in Jordan’s capital Amman, in order to analyze the distribution of burdens imposed by demand-side policies across society. Amman’s households face highly intermittent piped water supply, leading them to supplement it with water from storage tanks and informal private tanker operators. Using a detailed data set of the distribution of supply durations across Amman, our model can derive the demand for additional tanker water. We find that integrating these different supply sources into our model causes demand-side policies to have strongly heterogeneous effects across districts and income groups. This highlights the importance of a disaggregated perspective on water policy impacts in order to identify and potentially mitigate excessive burdens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Consumption and Water End-uses in Buildings)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Estimating the Determinants of Residential Water Demand in Italy
Water 2014, 6(10), 2929-2945; doi:10.3390/w6102929
Received: 1 August 2014 / Revised: 17 September 2014 / Accepted: 18 September 2014 / Published: 30 September 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (344 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to estimate the determinants of residential water demand for chief towns of every Italian province, in the period 2007–2009, using the linear mixed-effects model estimated with the restricted-maximum-likelihood method. Results confirmed that the applied tariff had [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to estimate the determinants of residential water demand for chief towns of every Italian province, in the period 2007–2009, using the linear mixed-effects model estimated with the restricted-maximum-likelihood method. Results confirmed that the applied tariff had a negative effect on residential water consumption and that it was a relevant driver of domestic water consumption. Moreover, income per capita had a positive effect on water consumption. Among measured climatic and geographical features, precipitation and altitude exerted a strongly significant negative effect on water consumption, while temperature did not influence water demand. Further, data show that small towns in terms of population served were characterized by lower levels of consumption. Water utilities ownership itself did not have a significant effect on water consumption but tariffs were significantly lower and residential water consumption was higher in towns where the water service was managed by publicly owned water utilities. However, further research is needed to gain a better understanding of the connection between ownership of water utilities and water prices and water consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Consumption and Water End-uses in Buildings)
Open AccessArticle Rational Consumption of Water in Administrative Public Buildings: The Experience of the Bahia Administrative Center, Brazil
Water 2014, 6(9), 2552-2574; doi:10.3390/w6092552
Received: 1 May 2014 / Revised: 11 August 2014 / Accepted: 12 August 2014 / Published: 25 August 2014
PDF Full-text (1162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The government has to lead, by example, the effort for more rational water use. Nevertheless, public buildings in countries like Brazil lack the operational and maintenance organization necessary to induce better environmental practices. This paper presents the results of a five-year effort [...] Read more.
The government has to lead, by example, the effort for more rational water use. Nevertheless, public buildings in countries like Brazil lack the operational and maintenance organization necessary to induce better environmental practices. This paper presents the results of a five-year effort to control and reduce water use in governmental facilities in Salvador, Bahia. Seventeen state government headquarters in Bahia took part in this initiative. The basic actions taken include: daily monitoring and analysis of water consumption, inspections and adjustments of hydraulic equipment flow, rapid repair of leaks and layout improvements in toilets. All of these are part of the main initiative, which aims to implement water management in the facilities. Ecoteams were created and trained to conduct these efforts. Water control, consumption analysis and communication have been made using AGUAPURA VIANET, an Internet software designed by the Federal University of Bahia for this specific purpose. From June 2008, to December 2013, an estimated 270,000 m3 of potable water have been saved, which represents US$ 2.7 million in water and waste water costs. This represents a monthly savings of 31% in expenses compared to the practices before the program started. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Consumption and Water End-uses in Buildings)
Figures

Open AccessArticle The Energy Efficiency of Hot Water Production by Gas Water Heaters with a Combustion Chamber Sealed with Respect to the Room
Water 2014, 6(8), 2394-2411; doi:10.3390/w6082394
Received: 30 April 2014 / Revised: 27 June 2014 / Accepted: 23 July 2014 / Published: 11 August 2014
PDF Full-text (809 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents investigative results of the energy efficiency of hot water production for sanitary uses by means of gas-fired water heaters with the combustion chamber sealed with respect to the room in single-family houses and multi-story buildings. Additionally, calculations were made [...] Read more.
This paper presents investigative results of the energy efficiency of hot water production for sanitary uses by means of gas-fired water heaters with the combustion chamber sealed with respect to the room in single-family houses and multi-story buildings. Additionally, calculations were made of the influence of pre-heating the air for combustion in the chimney and air supply system on the energy efficiency of hot water production. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) software was used for calculation of the heat exchange in this kind of system. The studies and calculations have shown that the use of gas water heaters with a combustion chamber sealed with respect to the room significantly increases the efficiency of hot water production when compared to traditional heaters. It has also been proven that the pre-heating of combustion air in concentric chimney and air supply ducts essentially improves the energy efficiency of gas appliances for hot water production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Consumption and Water End-uses in Buildings)
Open AccessArticle Water End-Uses in Low-Income Houses in Southern Brazil
Water 2014, 6(7), 1985-1999; doi:10.3390/w6071985
Received: 4 May 2014 / Revised: 13 June 2014 / Accepted: 18 June 2014 / Published: 8 July 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (613 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Knowing water consumption patterns in buildings is key information for water planning. This article aims to characterize the water consumption pattern and water end-uses in low-income houses in the region of Florianópolis, Southern Brazil. Data were collected by interviewing householders, as well [...] Read more.
Knowing water consumption patterns in buildings is key information for water planning. This article aims to characterize the water consumption pattern and water end-uses in low-income houses in the region of Florianópolis, Southern Brazil. Data were collected by interviewing householders, as well as by measuring the flow rate of existing water fixtures and appliances. The results indicated that the shower was the fixture with the largest water consumption in households, i.e., about 30%–36% of total water consumption on average, followed by the toilet (18%–20%). The surveyed households consumed from 111 to 152 L/capita·day on average, based on different income ranges. No correlation was found between income and water consumption. The results of this study can be used to estimate the consumption of water for new buildings, as well as to develop integrated water management strategies in low-income developments, in Florianópolis, such as water-saving plumbing fixtures, rainwater harvesting, and greywater reuse. Likely, there would be a deferral of capital investments in new water assets for enhancing water and wastewater services by saving water in low-income houses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Consumption and Water End-uses in Buildings)
Open AccessArticle Public Perception of Water Consumption and Its Effects on Water Conservation Behavior
Water 2014, 6(6), 1771-1784; doi:10.3390/w6061771
Received: 15 April 2014 / Revised: 7 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 16 June 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (566 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The usual perception of consumers regarding water consumption is that their bills do not match their actual water consumption. However, this mismatch has been insufficiently studied; particularly for cases related to specific water-use patterns, water conservation practices, and user socio-demographics. In this [...] Read more.
The usual perception of consumers regarding water consumption is that their bills do not match their actual water consumption. However, this mismatch has been insufficiently studied; particularly for cases related to specific water-use patterns, water conservation practices, and user socio-demographics. In this study, a total of 776 households in 16 villages situated in the rural Wei River Basin are investigated to address the gap in the literature. Questionnaires and 3-day water diaries are used for data collection and comparison. Results show that significant relations exist between perceived water consumption and actual water consumption. Participants have different perceptions of specific water-use patterns. Participants tend to underestimate their outdoor and kitchen water consumption and overestimate their indoor water consumption. Females and elder consumers accurately estimate their water consumption, whereas consumers with high education levels and incomes underestimate their actual water consumption. The groups who can accurately estimate water consumption have better water conservation consciousness and water conservation practices than those who underestimate their water consumption. The huge disparities highlighted by the results suggest that community policies and programs to improve public water conservation consciousness or practices must be implemented to enhance consumer understanding of water consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Consumption and Water End-uses in Buildings)
Open AccessArticle Water Label to Improve Water Billing in Spanish Households
Water 2014, 6(5), 1467-1481; doi:10.3390/w6051467
Received: 24 February 2014 / Revised: 13 May 2014 / Accepted: 15 May 2014 / Published: 23 May 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (524 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A significant decrease in water consumption has been achieved in recent years thanks to different campaigns run by different institutions in Spain. However, most citizens do not have a very clear idea about whether or not they are efficiently using water. To [...] Read more.
A significant decrease in water consumption has been achieved in recent years thanks to different campaigns run by different institutions in Spain. However, most citizens do not have a very clear idea about whether or not they are efficiently using water. To solve this situation, this paper aims is to develop two water labels in order to improve the current water billing. These water labels evaluate the total water consumption and the domestic hot water consumption. To make the tags, several research studies were tackled for establishing consumer trends and behavior patterns. Furthermore, a survey and data collection were conducted to obtain updated values to validate information obtained from previous studies. The result are two water labels that establish six different levels to graphically show the efficiency, and they also include a comparison with the average consumption by customers of the same province. To ensure that the benefits of this evaluation are available to citizens, its inclusion on the water bill is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Consumption and Water End-uses in Buildings)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Water Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
water@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Water
Back to Top