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Special Issue "Electrohydrodynamic Liquid Bridges and Electrified Water"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Elmar Christof Fuchs

Program Manager, Wetsus European Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology , Oostergoweg 9, 8911 MA Leeuwarden , The Netherlands
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Phone: +31 58 284 3162
Interests: water; electrohydrodynamic liquid bridging; liquid spectroscopy; protons conduction
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jakob Woisetschläger

Institut for Thermal Turbomachinery and Machine Dynamics, Graz University of Tehcnology, Inffeldgasse 25/A, Austria
Website | E-Mail
Interests: interferometry; vibrations; flow visualization; optical flow measurements; thermography; liquid bridges
Guest Editor
Dr. Adam D. Wexler

Wetsus European Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Oostergoweg 9, 8911 MA Leeuwarden , The Netherlands
Website | E-Mail
Interests: liquid mesoscale dynamics; nonequilibrium thermodynamics; microgravity; laser physics; electrified liquids
Guest Editor
Dr. Astrid H. Paulitsch-Fuchs

Wetsus European Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Oostergoweg 9, 8911 MA Leeuwarden, The Netherlands
Website | E-Mail
Interests: funghi; aquatic microbiome; biofilms; electrohydrodynamic microbiology; microscopy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The interaction of polar liquids with moderately strong fields (kV/cm) has been studied extensively within the field of electrohydrodynamics (EHD). EHD liquid bridges like the floating water bridge have provided unique insights into the non-equilibrium molecular physics of polar liquids, such as water. Whereas, on the molecular scale, water can be described by quantum mechanics, there is a conceptual gap at mesoscopic scale which is bridged by a number of theories, including quantum mechanical entanglement and coherent structures in water. Much of the phenomenon is already understood, but even more can still be learned from it, since such “floating” liquid bridges resemble a small high voltage laboratory of their own: The physics of liquids in electric fields of some kV/cm can be studied, even long time experiments are feasible since the bridge is in a steady-state equilibrium and can be kept stable for hours. It is also an electro-chemical reactor where compounds are transported through by the EHD flow, enabling the study of electrochemical reactions under potentials which are otherwise not easily accessible. Last but not least, the bridge provides the experimental biologist with the opportunity to expose living organisms, such as bacteria, to electric fields and proton currents without killing them to study the influence of this special environment on their behavior and their genome.

This Special Issue will provide a broad platform for regular and review papers, the numerous up-to-date and multidisciplinary advances that are currently being achieved in the continuously growing area of liquid bridging and electrified liquids. Topics of interests include, but are not limited to:

  • Physico-chemical studies of electrohydrodynamic phenomena in general
  • Molecular studies, spectroscopy and simulation of liquids in strong electric fields
  • Chemical reactions in strong electric fields and gradients
  • Liquid mesoscale dynamics studies
  • Microbiological and biochemical studies in electrohydrodynamic environments
  • Neutron, X-ray, Raman and Brillouin scattering studies of electrified liquids
  • Microgravity studies of electrified liquids
  • Infrared studies of electrified liquids
  • NMR, MRI and ESR studies of electrified liquids
  • (Laser-)optical investigations and visualisations of electrohydrodynamic bridging and related phenomena

It is our hope that a multidisciplinary collection of contributions will significantly accelerate the progress in this field due to collaborative fostering of synergistic insights.

Dr. Elmar Christof Fuchs
Prof. Dr. Jakob Woisetschläger
Dr. Adam D. Wexler
Dr. Astrid H. Paulitsch-Fuchs
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • electrohydrodynamic liquid bridge
  • floating water bridge
  • electrified water
  • proton conduction
  • water structure
  • electrified microorganisms

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle The Effect of a Spiral Gradient Magnetic Field on the Ionic Conductivity of Water
Water 2017, 9(9), 664; doi:10.3390/w9090664
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 21 August 2017 / Accepted: 31 August 2017 / Published: 2 September 2017
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Abstract
We discuss the experimental verification of changes in the structure of a liquid water sample inserted in a special spiral “gradient” magnetic field. The magnetic flux components are characterized by a high degree of inhomogeneity; thus, a gradient is found in the monitored
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We discuss the experimental verification of changes in the structure of a liquid water sample inserted in a special spiral “gradient” magnetic field. The magnetic flux components are characterized by a high degree of inhomogeneity; thus, a gradient is found in the monitored section of space. The relevant measurement of the modified, rearranged water sample pointed to a specific ion conductivity lower than that of the untreated water. The results of the experiment, where a sample of demineralized water was exposed to a spiral “gradient“ magnetic field for the period of 5 min, show decreased ion conductivity in the examined samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrohydrodynamic Liquid Bridges and Electrified Water)
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Open AccessArticle Water Molecules in a Carbon Nanotube under an Applied Electric Field at Various Temperatures and Pressures
Water 2017, 9(7), 473; doi:10.3390/w9070473
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 23 June 2017 / Published: 28 June 2017
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Abstract
Water confined in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) under the influence of an electric field exhibits behavior different to that of bulk water. Such behavior is fascinating from a nanoscience point of view and has potential application in nanotechnology. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate
[...] Read more.
Water confined in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) under the influence of an electric field exhibits behavior different to that of bulk water. Such behavior is fascinating from a nanoscience point of view and has potential application in nanotechnology. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the structure of water molecules in an ( 8 , 8 ) CNT, under an electric field at various temperatures and pressures. In the absence of an electric field, water in the CNT has an ordered (solid-like) structure at temperatures of 200 K and 250 K. The solid-like structure of water at these low temperatures exhibits ferroelectric properties. At 300 K, the structure of water is solid-like or disordered (liquid-like), i.e., an unstable structure. This indicates that a melting point occurs at around these conditions. Increasing the pressure to 10 MPa does not change the structure at 300 K. At 350 K, water is completely melted and has only a disordered structure. Under an applied electric field of 1 V/nm, water forms a solid-like structure at all simulation temperatures up to 350 K. This suggests that the electric field induces a phase transition from liquid to ice-nanotube, at temperatures as high as 350 K. The structure of the ice-nanotube under an applied electric field differs from that formed in the absence of an electric field at low temperature. The electrostatic interaction within the ice-nanotube under an electric field is stronger than that in the absence of an electric field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrohydrodynamic Liquid Bridges and Electrified Water)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Water Bridging Dynamics of Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Gauge Theory Paradigm of Quantum Fields
Water 2017, 9(5), 339; doi:10.3390/w9050339
Received: 16 February 2017 / Revised: 29 April 2017 / Accepted: 2 May 2017 / Published: 11 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1641 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We discuss the role of water bridging the DNA-enzyme interaction by resorting to recent results showing that London dispersion forces between delocalized electrons of base pairs of DNA are responsible for the formation of dipole modes that can be recognized by Taq polymerase.
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We discuss the role of water bridging the DNA-enzyme interaction by resorting to recent results showing that London dispersion forces between delocalized electrons of base pairs of DNA are responsible for the formation of dipole modes that can be recognized by Taq polymerase. We describe the dynamic origin of the high efficiency and precise targeting of Taq activity in PCR. The spatiotemporal distribution of interaction couplings, frequencies, amplitudes, and phase modulations comprise a pattern of fields which constitutes the electromagnetic image of DNA in the surrounding water, which is what the polymerase enzyme actually recognizes in the DNA water environment. The experimental realization of PCR amplification, achieved through replacement of the DNA template by the treatment of pure water with electromagnetic signals recorded from viral and bacterial DNA solutions, is found consistent with the gauge theory paradigm of quantum fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrohydrodynamic Liquid Bridges and Electrified Water)
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Other

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Open AccessFeature PaperAddendum Addendum: Montagnier, L.; Aïssa, J.; Capolupo, A.; Craddock, T.J.A.; Kurian, P.; Lavallee, C.; Polcari, A.; Romano, P.; Tedeschi, A.; Vitiello, G. Water Bridging Dynamics of Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Gauge Theory Paradigm of Quantum Fields. Water 2017, 9, 339
Water 2017, 9(6), 436; doi:10.3390/w9060436
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
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(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrohydrodynamic Liquid Bridges and Electrified Water)
Open AccessFeature PaperLetter Reversed Currents in Charged Liquid Bridges
Water 2017, 9(5), 353; doi:10.3390/w9050353
Received: 24 March 2017 / Revised: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 17 May 2017
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Abstract
The velocity profile in a water bridge is reanalyzed. Assuming hypothetically that the bulk charge has a radial distribution, a surface potential is formed that is analogous to the Zeta potential. The Navier–Stokes equation is solved, neglecting the convective term; then, analytically and
[...] Read more.
The velocity profile in a water bridge is reanalyzed. Assuming hypothetically that the bulk charge has a radial distribution, a surface potential is formed that is analogous to the Zeta potential. The Navier–Stokes equation is solved, neglecting the convective term; then, analytically and for special field and potential ranges, a sign change of the total mass flow is reported caused by the radial charge distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrohydrodynamic Liquid Bridges and Electrified Water)
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