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Molecules, Volume 19, Issue 6 (June 2014), Pages 6911-8706

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Novel Lipophilic N-Substituted Norcantharimide Derivatives and Evaluation of Their Anticancer Activities
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 6911-6928; doi:10.3390/molecules19066911
Received: 27 March 2014 / Revised: 21 May 2014 / Accepted: 22 May 2014 / Published: 26 May 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3411 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This research attempted to study the effect of lipophilicity on the anticancer activity of N-substituted norcantharimide derivatives. Twenty-three compounds were synthesized and their cytotoxicities against five human cancer cell lines studied. The lipophilicity of each derivative was altered by its substituent, [...] Read more.
This research attempted to study the effect of lipophilicity on the anticancer activity of N-substituted norcantharimide derivatives. Twenty-three compounds were synthesized and their cytotoxicities against five human cancer cell lines studied. The lipophilicity of each derivative was altered by its substituent, an alkyl, alkyloxy, terpenyl or terpenyloxy group at the N-position of norcantharimide. Further, among all synthesized derivatives studied, the compounds N-farnesyloxy-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3-dicarboximide (9), and N-farnesyl-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3-dicarboximide (18), have shown the highest cytotoxicity, anti-proliferative and apoptotic effect against human liver carcinoma HepG2 cell lines, yet displayed no significant cytotoxic effect on normal murine embryonic liver BNL CL.2 cells. Their overall performance led us to believe that these two compounds might be potential candidates for anticancer drugs development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Nimbolide B and Nimbic Acid B, Phytotoxic Substances in Neem Leaves with Allelopathic Activity
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 6929-6940; doi:10.3390/molecules19066929
Received: 24 April 2014 / Revised: 14 May 2014 / Accepted: 14 May 2014 / Published: 26 May 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (563 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Neem (Azadirachta indica) has been widely used as a traditional medicine and several bioactive compounds have been isolated from this species, but to date no potent allelopathic active substance has been reported. Therefore, we investigated possible allelopathic property and phytotoxic [...] Read more.
Neem (Azadirachta indica) has been widely used as a traditional medicine and several bioactive compounds have been isolated from this species, but to date no potent allelopathic active substance has been reported. Therefore, we investigated possible allelopathic property and phytotoxic substances with allelopathic activity in neem. An aqueous methanol extract of neem leaves inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of cress, lettuce, alfalfa, timothy, crabgrass, ryegrass, barnyard grass and jungle rice. The extracts were then purified by several chromatographic runs while monitoring the inhibitory activity and two phytotoxic substances were isolated. The chemical structures of the two substances were determined by spectral data to correspond to novel compounds, nimbolide B (1) and nimbic acid B (2). Nimbolide B inhibited the growth of cress and barnyard grass at concentrations greater than 0.1‒3.0 μM. Nimbic acid B inhibited the growth of cress and barnyard grass at concentrations greater than 0.3–1.0 μM. These results suggest that nimbolide B and nimbic acid B may contribute to the allelopathic effects caused by neem leaves. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory and Antipruritic Effects of Luteolin from Perilla (P. frutescens L.) Leaves
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 6941-6951; doi:10.3390/molecules19066941
Received: 24 April 2014 / Revised: 19 May 2014 / Accepted: 20 May 2014 / Published: 27 May 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (367 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Perilla (Perilla frutescens L.) leaves have shown therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of inflammatory disorders, allergies, bronchial asthma, and systemic damage due to free radicals. In the present study we analyzed the active constituents in perilla leaves using high-performance liquid chromatography [...] Read more.
Perilla (Perilla frutescens L.) leaves have shown therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of inflammatory disorders, allergies, bronchial asthma, and systemic damage due to free radicals. In the present study we analyzed the active constituents in perilla leaves using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and isolated luteolin, a polyphenolic flavonoid. We investigated the anti-inflammatory and antipruritic properties of luteolin. Luteolin inhibited the secretion of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1 β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) from human mast cells (HMC-1) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 in a dose-dependent manner. Luteolin also significantly reduced the histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells stimulated by compound 48/80, a potent histamine liberator. Furthermore, the administration of luteolin markedly inhibited the scratching behavior and vascular permeability induced by pruritogens, such as compound 48/80 or serotonin, in ICR mice. These results suggested that luteolin has potential as a therapeutic agent against inflammation and itch-related skin diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Optimized Solid Phase-Assisted Synthesis of Dendrons Applicable as Scaffolds for Radiolabeled Bioactive Multivalent Compounds Intended for Molecular Imaging
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 6952-6974; doi:10.3390/molecules19066952
Received: 22 April 2014 / Revised: 22 May 2014 / Accepted: 23 May 2014 / Published: 27 May 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (998 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dendritic structures, being highly homogeneous and symmetric, represent ideal scaffolds for the multimerization of bioactive molecules and thus enable the synthesis of compounds of high valency which are e.g., applicable in radiolabeled form as multivalent radiotracers for in vivo imaging. As the [...] Read more.
Dendritic structures, being highly homogeneous and symmetric, represent ideal scaffolds for the multimerization of bioactive molecules and thus enable the synthesis of compounds of high valency which are e.g., applicable in radiolabeled form as multivalent radiotracers for in vivo imaging. As the commonly applied solution phase synthesis of dendritic scaffolds is cumbersome and time-consuming, a synthesis strategy was developed that allows for the efficient assembly of acid amide bond-based highly modular dendrons on solid support via standard Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis protocols. The obtained dendritic structures comprised up to 16 maleimide functionalities and were derivatized on solid support with the chelating agent DOTA. The functionalized dendrons furthermore could be efficiently reacted with structurally variable model thiol-bearing bioactive molecules via click chemistry and finally radiolabeled with 68Ga. Thus, this solid phase-assisted dendron synthesis approach enables the fast and straightforward assembly of bioactive multivalent constructs for example applicable as radiotracers for in vivo imaging with Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dendrimers in Medicine and Biotechnology)
Open AccessArticle Novel Gram-Scale Production of Enantiopure R-Sulforaphane from Tuscan Black Kale Seeds
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 6975-6986; doi:10.3390/molecules19066975
Received: 18 April 2014 / Revised: 22 May 2014 / Accepted: 23 May 2014 / Published: 27 May 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dietary R-sulforaphane is a highly potent inducer of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. Furthermore, sulforaphane is currently being used in clinical trials to assess its effects against different tumour processes. This study reports an efficient preparation of enantiopure R-sulforaphane based on the [...] Read more.
Dietary R-sulforaphane is a highly potent inducer of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. Furthermore, sulforaphane is currently being used in clinical trials to assess its effects against different tumour processes. This study reports an efficient preparation of enantiopure R-sulforaphane based on the enzymatic hydrolysis of its natural precursor glucoraphanin. As an alternative to broccoli seeds, we have exploited Tuscan black kale seeds as a suitable source for gram-scale production of glucoraphanin. The defatted seed meal contained 5.1% (w/w) of glucoraphanin that was first isolated through an anion exchange chromatographic process, and then purified by gel filtration. The availability of glucoraphanin (purity ≈ 95%, weight basis) has allowed us to develop a novel simple hydrolytic process involving myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) in a biphasic system to directly produce R-sulforaphane. In a typical experiment, 1.09 g of enantiopure R-sulforaphane was obtained from 150 g of defatted Tuscan black kale seed meal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Combination of 2D/3D Ligand-Based Similarity Search in Rapid Virtual Screening from Multimillion Compound Repositories. Selection and Biological Evaluation of Potential PDE4 and PDE5 Inhibitors
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7008-7039; doi:10.3390/molecules19067008
Received: 25 March 2014 / Revised: 21 May 2014 / Accepted: 22 May 2014 / Published: 28 May 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1888 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Rapid in silico selection of target focused libraries from commercial repositories is an attractive and cost effective approach. If structures of active compounds are available rapid 2D similarity search can be performed on multimillion compound databases but the generated library requires further [...] Read more.
Rapid in silico selection of target focused libraries from commercial repositories is an attractive and cost effective approach. If structures of active compounds are available rapid 2D similarity search can be performed on multimillion compound databases but the generated library requires further focusing by various 2D/3D chemoinformatics tools. We report here a combination of the 2D approach with a ligand-based 3D method (Screen3D) which applies flexible matching to align reference and target compounds in a dynamic manner and thus to assess their structural and conformational similarity. In the first case study we compared the 2D and 3D similarity scores on an existing dataset derived from the biological evaluation of a PDE5 focused library. Based on the obtained similarity metrices a fusion score was proposed. The fusion score was applied to refine the 2D similarity search in a second case study where we aimed at selecting and evaluating a PDE4B focused library. The application of this fused 2D/3D similarity measure led to an increase of the hit rate from 8.5% (1st round, 47% inhibition at 10 µM) to 28.5% (2nd round at 50% inhibition at 10 µM) and the best two hits had 53 nM inhibitory activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In-Silico Drug Design and In-Silico Screening)
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Open AccessArticle Response Surface Optimized Extraction of 1-Deoxynojirimycin from Mulberry Leaves (Morus alba L.) and Preparative Separation with Resins
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7040-7056; doi:10.3390/molecules19067040
Received: 26 March 2014 / Revised: 21 May 2014 / Accepted: 21 May 2014 / Published: 30 May 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3434 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the present study, the extraction technology and preparative separation of 1-deoxynojirimycin from mulberry leaves were systematically investigated. Four extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, extraction time and ratio of solvent to sample) were explored by response surface methodology (RSM). The results [...] Read more.
In the present study, the extraction technology and preparative separation of 1-deoxynojirimycin from mulberry leaves were systematically investigated. Four extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, extraction time and ratio of solvent to sample) were explored by response surface methodology (RSM). The results indicated that the maximal yield of 1-deoxynojirimycin was achieved with an ethanol concentration of 55%, extraction temperature of 80 °C, extraction time of 1.2 h and ratio of solvent to sample of 12:1. The extraction yield under these optimum conditions was found to be 256 mg/100 g dry mulberry leaves. A column packed with a selected resin was used to perform dynamic adsorption and desorption tests to optimize the separation process. The results show that the preparative separation of 1-deoxynojirimycin from mulberry leaves can be easily and effectively done by adopting 732 resin. In conclusion, 732 resin is the most appropriate for the separation of 1-deoxynojirimycin from other components in mulberry leaves extracts, and its adsorption behavior can be described with Langmuir isotherms and a two-step adsorption kinetics model. The recovery and purity of 1-deoxynojirimycin in the final product were 90.51% and 15.3%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Mesoporous Silicas with Tunable Morphology for the Immobilization of Laccase
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7057-7071; doi:10.3390/molecules19067057
Received: 8 May 2014 / Revised: 20 May 2014 / Accepted: 23 May 2014 / Published: 30 May 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1170 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Siliceous ordered mesoporous materials (OMM) are gaining interest as supports for enzyme immobilization due to their uniform pore size, large surface area, tunable pore network and the introduction of organic components to mesoporous structure. We used SBA-15 type silica materials, which exhibit [...] Read more.
Siliceous ordered mesoporous materials (OMM) are gaining interest as supports for enzyme immobilization due to their uniform pore size, large surface area, tunable pore network and the introduction of organic components to mesoporous structure. We used SBA-15 type silica materials, which exhibit a regular 2D hexagonal packing of cylindrical mesopores of uniform size, for non-covalent immobilization of laccase. Synthesis conditions were adjusted in order to obtain supports with different particle shape, where those with shorter channels had higher loading capacity. Despite the similar isoelectric points of silica and laccase and the close match between the size of laccase and the pore dimensions of these SBA-15 materials, immobilization was achieved with very low leaching. Surface modification of macro-/mesoporous amorphous silica by grafting of amine moieties was proved to significantly increase the isoelectric point of this support and improve the immobilization yield. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Immobilization)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Cytotoxicity of 2,3-Enopyranosyl C-Linked Conjugates of Genistein
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7072-7093; doi:10.3390/molecules19067072
Received: 25 March 2014 / Revised: 23 May 2014 / Accepted: 23 May 2014 / Published: 30 May 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (974 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of glycoconjugates, derivatives of genistein containing a C-glycosylated carbohydrate moiety, were synthesized and their anticancer activity was tested in vitro in the human cell lines HCT 116 and DU 145. The target compounds 1517 were synthesized by treating [...] Read more.
A series of glycoconjugates, derivatives of genistein containing a C-glycosylated carbohydrate moiety, were synthesized and their anticancer activity was tested in vitro in the human cell lines HCT 116 and DU 145. The target compounds 1517 were synthesized by treating ω-bromoalkyl C-glycosides derived from L-rhamnal (1) with a tetrabutylammonium salt of genistein. The new, metabolically stable analogs of previously studied O-glycosidic genistein derivatives inhibited proliferation of cancer cell lines through inhibition of the cell cycle. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Unusual Conversion of Paramagnetic [3-Cl-3,3,8-{Ph2P(CH2)nPPh-µ-(C6H4-ortho)}-1,2-(CH3)2-closo-3,1,2-RuIIIC2B9H8] (n = 3 and 4) to Form the First 18-Electron P-Phenylene ortho-Cycloboronated closo-Ruthenacarboranes with a Dioxygen Ligand
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7094-7103; doi:10.3390/molecules19067094
Received: 21 April 2014 / Revised: 16 May 2014 / Accepted: 22 May 2014 / Published: 30 May 2014
PDF Full-text (565 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Treatment of [3-Cl-3,3,8-[Ph2P(CH2)nPPh-µ-(C6H4-ortho)]-1,2-Me2-closo-3,1,2-RuIIIC2B9H8] (1, n = 3; 2, n = 4) with an excess of [...] Read more.
Treatment of [3-Cl-3,3,8-[Ph2P(CH2)nPPh-µ-(C6H4-ortho)]-1,2-Me2-closo-3,1,2-RuIIIC2B9H8] (1, n = 3; 2, n = 4) with an excess of KOH in a 1:1 benzene/methanol mixture at room temperature in air affords new dioxygen closo-ruthenacarborane complexes [3-(η2-O2)-3,3,8-[Ph2P(CH2)nPPh-µ-(C6H4-ortho)]-1,2-Me2-closo-3,1,2-RuIIIC2B9H8] (3, n = 3) and (4, n = 4) in 42.5% and 45.8% yield respectively. The structures of dioxygen complexes 3 and 4 were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The IR and multinuclear NMR data [1H, 13C{1H}, 31P{1H} and 11B{1H}] along with 2D HSQC correlation spectra for the new dioxygen closo-ruthenacarboranes are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ruthenium Complex)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel 2-Arylalkylthio-5-iodine-6-substituted-benzyl-pyrimidine-4(3H)-ones as Potent HIV-1 Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7104-7121; doi:10.3390/molecules19067104
Received: 30 April 2014 / Revised: 26 May 2014 / Accepted: 28 May 2014 / Published: 30 May 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (517 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel series of 2-arylalkylthio-5-iodine-6-substitutedbenzyl-pyrimidine-4(3H)-ones (S-DABOs) 8ax had been synthesized via an efficient method. Their biological activity against HIV virus and RT assay were evaluated. Some compounds, especially 8h, 8l and 8n, displayed promising activity against [...] Read more.
A novel series of 2-arylalkylthio-5-iodine-6-substitutedbenzyl-pyrimidine-4(3H)-ones (S-DABOs) 8ax had been synthesized via an efficient method. Their biological activity against HIV virus and RT assay were evaluated. Some compounds, especially 8h, 8l and 8n, displayed promising activity against HIV-1 RT with IC50 values in a range of 0.41 μM to 0.71 μM, which were much better than that of nevirapine. Molecular modeling studies revealed that the binding mode would be affected via forming an additional hydrogen bond by incorporating an oxygen atom on the C-2 side chain. The biological activity was in accordance with the docking results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle miR-221/222 Promotes S-Phase Entry and Cellular Migration in Control of Basal-Like Breast Cancer
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7122-7137; doi:10.3390/molecules19067122
Received: 2 April 2014 / Revised: 22 May 2014 / Accepted: 26 May 2014 / Published: 30 May 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (3985 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The miR-221/222 cluster has been demonstrated to function as oncomiR in human cancers. miR-221/222 promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and confers tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer. However, the effects and mechanisms by which miR-221/222 regulates breast cancer aggressiveness remain unclear. Here we detected [...] Read more.
The miR-221/222 cluster has been demonstrated to function as oncomiR in human cancers. miR-221/222 promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and confers tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer. However, the effects and mechanisms by which miR-221/222 regulates breast cancer aggressiveness remain unclear. Here we detected a much higher expression of miR-221/222 in highly invasive basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) cells than that in non-invasive luminal cells. A microRNA dataset from breast cancer patients indicated an elevated expression of miR-221/222 in BLBC subtype. S-phase entry of the cell cycle was associated with the induction of miR-221/222 expression. miRNA inhibitors specially targeting miR-221 or miR-222 both significantly suppressed cellular migration, invasion and G1/S transition of the cell cycle in BLBC cell types. Proteomic analysis demonstrated the down-regulation of two tumor suppressor genes, suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibit 1B (CDKN1B), by miR-221/222. This is the first report to reveal miR-221/222 regulation of G1/S transition of the cell cycle. These findings demonstrate that miR-221/222 contribute to the aggressiveness in control of BLBC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue miRNAs as Probes to Monitor Cancer and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
Open AccessArticle Acute and 4-Week Repeated-Dose Oral Toxicity Studies of Cirsium setidens in Rats
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7138-7151; doi:10.3390/molecules19067138
Received: 10 April 2014 / Revised: 26 May 2014 / Accepted: 28 May 2014 / Published: 30 May 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cirsium setidens is a wild perennial plant species found in Korea that may have anti-oxidative, anti-adipogenic, and hepatoprotective activities. However, details of the toxicology of C. setidens remain unknown. This study was performed to evaluate the toxicological effects of an acute administration [...] Read more.
Cirsium setidens is a wild perennial plant species found in Korea that may have anti-oxidative, anti-adipogenic, and hepatoprotective activities. However, details of the toxicology of C. setidens remain unknown. This study was performed to evaluate the toxicological effects of an acute administration and 4-week repeated dosing of a C. setidens extract in Sprague-Dawley rats to ensure the safe use of this extract. C. setidens (1250, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg body weight/day) did not induce significant toxicological changes in groups matched by gender with respect to mortality, clinical signs, body weight, urinalysis, ophthalmoscopy, necropsy findings, hematology, and histopathology. Therefore, this study demonstrates that acute administration and 4-week repeated dosing of C. setidens extract orally using this administration protocol is safe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Diethyl 2-(Phenylcarbamoyl)phenyl Phosphorothioates: Synthesis, Antimycobacterial Activity and Cholinesterase Inhibition
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7152-7168; doi:10.3390/molecules19067152
Received: 29 April 2014 / Revised: 26 May 2014 / Accepted: 27 May 2014 / Published: 30 May 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (278 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new series of 27 diethyl 2-(phenylcarbamoyl)phenyl phosphorothioates (thiophosphates) was synthesized, characterized by NMR, IR and CHN analyses and evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, Mycobacterium avium and two strains of Mycobacterium kansasii. The best activity against M. tuberculosis was [...] Read more.
A new series of 27 diethyl 2-(phenylcarbamoyl)phenyl phosphorothioates (thiophosphates) was synthesized, characterized by NMR, IR and CHN analyses and evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, Mycobacterium avium and two strains of Mycobacterium kansasii. The best activity against M. tuberculosis was found for O-{4-bromo-2-[(3,4-dichlorophenyl)carbamoyl]phenyl} O,O-diethyl phosphorothioate (minimum inhibitory concentration of 4 µM). The highest activity against nontuberculous mycobacteria was exhibited by O-(5-chloro-2-{[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]carbamoyl}-phenyl) O,O-diethyl phosphorothioate with MIC values from 16 µM. Prepared thiophosphates were also evaluated against acetylcholinesterase from electric eel and butyrylcholinesterase from equine serum. Their inhibitory activity was compared to that of the known cholinesterases inhibitors galanthamine and rivastigmine. All tested compounds showed a higher (for AChE inhibition) and comparable (for BChE inhibition) activity to that of rivastigmine, with IC50s within the 8.04 to 20.2 µM range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Effects of the Total Saponins from Rosa laevigata Michx Fruit against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Damage in Mice via Induction of Autophagy and Suppression of Inflammation and Apoptosis
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7189-7206; doi:10.3390/molecules19067189
Received: 4 May 2014 / Revised: 23 May 2014 / Accepted: 25 May 2014 / Published: 30 May 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (3996 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of the total saponins from Rosa laevigata Michx fruit (RLTS) against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver damage in mice was evaluated in the present paper. The results showed that RLTS markedly improved the levels of liver SOD, CAT, GSH, GSH-Px, MDA, NO [...] Read more.
The effect of the total saponins from Rosa laevigata Michx fruit (RLTS) against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver damage in mice was evaluated in the present paper. The results showed that RLTS markedly improved the levels of liver SOD, CAT, GSH, GSH-Px, MDA, NO and iNOS, and the activities of serum ALT and AST caused by APAP. Further research confirmed that RLTS prevented fragmentation of DNA and mitochondrial ultrastructural alterations based on TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) assays. In addition, RLTS decreased the gene or protein expressions of cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1), pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, TNF-α, iNOS, Bax, HMGB-1 and COX-2), pro-inflammatory transcription factors (NF-κB and AP-1), pro-apoptotic proteins (cytochrome C, p53, caspase-3, caspase-9, p-JNK, p-p38 and p-ERK), and increased the protein expressions of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Moreover, the gene expression of IL-10, and the proteins including LC3, Beclin-1 and Atg5 induced by APAP were even more augmented by the extract. These results demonstrate that RLTS has hepatoprotective effects through antioxidative action, induction of autophagy, and suppression of inflammation and apoptosis, and could be developed as a potential candidate to treat APAP-induced liver damage in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Post-Harvest Induced Production of Salvianolic Acids and Significant Promotion of Antioxidant Properties in Roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen)
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7207-7222; doi:10.3390/molecules19067207
Received: 29 April 2014 / Revised: 23 May 2014 / Accepted: 27 May 2014 / Published: 30 May 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1460 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Danshen, the dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza, is an extremely valued Traditional Chinese Medicine. Previously, we have demonstrated that salvianolic acid B (SaB), the important bioactive ingredient in this herb, was a post-harvest product. Here, we further reported that all salvianolic [...] Read more.
Danshen, the dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza, is an extremely valued Traditional Chinese Medicine. Previously, we have demonstrated that salvianolic acid B (SaB), the important bioactive ingredient in this herb, was a post-harvest product. Here, we further reported that all salvianolic acids (SAs) in the roots were post-harvest products of the drying process. In addition, the results of various radical scavenging activity assays, including lipid peroxidation (1), DPPH (2), hydroxyl (3) and superoxide (4), were significantly increased along with the accumulation of total salvianolic acids in the process. The contents of chemical targets and antioxidant activities both reached the highest value under thermal treatment at 130 °C for 80 min. In this dehydration period, contents of SaB, and sum of nine SAs increased from 0.01% to 5.51%, and 0.20% to 6.61%; and IC50 of antioxidant activity decreased from 4.85 to 2.69 (1); 7.75 to 0.43 (2); 2.57 to 1.13 (3) and 17.25 to 1.10 mg/mL. These results further supported the hypothesis that the newly harvested plant roots were still physiologically active and the secondary metabolites might be produced due to dehydration stress after harvest. Our findings supplied an important and useful theoretical basis for promoting the quality of Danshen and other medicinal plant materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activity of Veronica ciliata Fisch. Extracts Against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury in Mice
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7223-7236; doi:10.3390/molecules19067223
Received: 10 April 2014 / Revised: 20 May 2014 / Accepted: 21 May 2014 / Published: 2 June 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1158 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Veronica ciliata Fisch. has been traditionally used in Traditional Chinese Medicine prescriptions due to its curative effects for hepatitis, cholecystitis, rheumatism, and urticaria. The present study was focused on investigating the role of ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of Veronica ciliata Fisch. [...] Read more.
Veronica ciliata Fisch. has been traditionally used in Traditional Chinese Medicine prescriptions due to its curative effects for hepatitis, cholecystitis, rheumatism, and urticaria. The present study was focused on investigating the role of ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of Veronica ciliata Fisch. Furthermore, in vitro antioxidant activity (scavenging of DPPH, ABTS, superoxide, and nitrite radicals; reducing power; β-carotene bleaching) and the hepatoprotective effect of the ethyl acetate extract by means of CCl4-induced oxidative stress in mice were investigated. The ethyl acetate extract of Veronica ciliata Fisch. displayed more noteworthy in vitro antioxidant activities than the aqueous extract. Moreover, it significantly prevented the increase in serum T-AOC, ALT, AST and ALP level in acute liver damage induced by CCl4, decreased the extent of MDA formation in liver and elevated the activities of SOD and GSH in liver. This activity was found to be comparable to that of bifendate. Histopathological observation of the liver was also performed to further support the evidence from the biochemical analysis. The results indicated that strong antioxidant activities and a significant protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 of Veronica ciliata Fisch. were concentrated in the ethyl acetate extract. The results suggested that this activity may be due to free radical-scavenging and antioxidant properties. Full article
Open AccessArticle Processing of Kansui Roots Stir-Baked with Vinegar Reduces Kansui-Induced Hepatocyte Cytotoxicity by Decreasing the Contents of Toxic Terpenoids and Regulating the Cell Apoptosis Pathway
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7237-7254; doi:10.3390/molecules19067237
Received: 25 November 2013 / Revised: 26 May 2014 / Accepted: 28 May 2014 / Published: 3 June 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1940 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Euphorbia kansui is a Traditional Chinese Medicine widely used for the treatment of oedema, ascites and asthma. However, its serious hepatotoxicity hinders its safe clinical application. The process of stir-baking with vinegar is regularly used to reduce the toxicity of kansui. Up [...] Read more.
Euphorbia kansui is a Traditional Chinese Medicine widely used for the treatment of oedema, ascites and asthma. However, its serious hepatotoxicity hinders its safe clinical application. The process of stir-baking with vinegar is regularly used to reduce the toxicity of kansui. Up till now, the exact mechanism of the reduction in hepatotoxicity of kansui stir-baked with vinegar has been poorly defined. In this study, decreased  contents of five diterpene and one triterpene in kansui (GS-1) after stir-baking with vinegar (GS-2) was investigated by UPLC-QTOF/MS. Flow cytometry and Hoechst staining were used to show that the stir-baking with vinegar process reduces kansui-induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, the result also indicated that kansui stir-baked with vinegar protects LO2 cells from apoptosis by increasing the cell mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), decreasing the release of cytochrome c and inhibiting the activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 as evidenced by means of high content screening (HCS), ELISA and western blotting. These results suggested that the stir-baking vinegar could reduce the hepatotoxicity of kansui by effectively decreasing the contents of toxic terpenoids and inhibiting the intrinsic pathway of hepatocyte cell apoptosis. In conclusion, the study provided significant data for promoting safer and better clinical use of this herb. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Phage-Library-Selected Peptide Inhibits Human TNF-α Binding to Its Receptors
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7255-7268; doi:10.3390/molecules19067255
Received: 10 April 2014 / Revised: 22 May 2014 / Accepted: 27 May 2014 / Published: 3 June 2014
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Abstract
We report the identification of a new human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) specific peptide selected by competitive panning of a phage library. Competitive elution of phages was obtained using the monoclonal antibody adalimumab, which neutralizes pro-inflammatory processes caused by over-production of TNF-α [...] Read more.
We report the identification of a new human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) specific peptide selected by competitive panning of a phage library. Competitive elution of phages was obtained using the monoclonal antibody adalimumab, which neutralizes pro-inflammatory processes caused by over-production of TNF-α in vivo, and is used to treat severe symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. The selected peptide was synthesized in monomeric and branched form and analyzed for binding to TNF-α and competition with adalimumab and TNF-α receptors. Results of competition with TNF-α receptors in surface plasmon resonance and melanoma cells expressing both TNF receptors make the peptide a candidate compound for the development of a novel anti-TNF-α drug. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptide Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Caffeic Acid Amides Bearing 2,3,4,5-Tetra-hydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxocine Moieties and Their Biological Evaluation as Antitumor Agents
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7269-7286; doi:10.3390/molecules19067269
Received: 4 May 2014 / Revised: 26 May 2014 / Accepted: 27 May 2014 / Published: 3 June 2014
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Abstract
A series of caffeic acid amides D1-D17 bearing 2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo-[b][1,4]dioxocine units has been synthesized and their biological activities evaluated for potential antiproliferative and EGFR inhibitory activity. Of all the compounds studied, compound D9 showed the most potent inhibitory activity [...] Read more.
A series of caffeic acid amides D1-D17 bearing 2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo-[b][1,4]dioxocine units has been synthesized and their biological activities evaluated for potential antiproliferative and EGFR inhibitory activity. Of all the compounds studied, compound D9 showed the most potent inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.79 μM for HepG2 and IC50 = 0.36 μM for EGFR). The structures of compounds were confirmed by 1H-NMR, ESI-MS and elemental analysis. Among all, the structure of compound D9 ((E)-N-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-3-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxocin-8-yl)acrylamide) was also determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound D9 was found to be a potential antitumor agent according to biological activity, molecular docking, apoptosis assay and inhibition of HepG2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Evaluation of a Series of Novel Asymmetrical Curcumin Analogs for the Treatment of Inflammation
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7287-7307; doi:10.3390/molecules19067287
Received: 12 April 2014 / Revised: 11 May 2014 / Accepted: 12 May 2014 / Published: 4 June 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (823 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Curcumin has been reported to possess multiple bioactivities, such as antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties, however the clinical application of curcumin has been significantly limited by its instability and poor metabolism. Modification of curcumin has led to discovery and development of lots [...] Read more.
Curcumin has been reported to possess multiple bioactivities, such as antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties, however the clinical application of curcumin has been significantly limited by its instability and poor metabolism. Modification of curcumin has led to discovery and development of lots of novel therapeutic candidates. In recent years acute and chronic inflammation has been the focus of numerous studies in various diseases. Here, we synthesized a series of asymmetrical curcumin analogs with high in vitro chemical stability, and their anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in LPS-stimulated macrophages. According to the bio-screening results and QSAR analysis, these analogs exhibited potent activities against LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 release. Among the analogs of the potent anti-inflammatory activity, compounds 3b8 and 3b9 exhibited significant protection and possess enhanced anti-inflammatory activity thereby attenuated the LPS-induced septic death in mice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Two New Chemical Constituents from the Stem Bark of Garcinia mangostana
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7308-7316; doi:10.3390/molecules19067308
Received: 24 April 2014 / Revised: 2 June 2014 / Accepted: 3 June 2014 / Published: 4 June 2014
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Abstract
A detailed chemical study on the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana resulted in the successful isolation of one new prenylated xanthone, mangaxanthone B (1), one new benzophenone, mangaphenone (2), and two [...] Read more.
A detailed chemical study on the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana resulted in the successful isolation of one new prenylated xanthone, mangaxanthone B (1), one new benzophenone, mangaphenone (2), and two known xanthones, mangostanin (3) and mangostenol (4). The structures of these compounds were elucidated through analysis of their spectroscopic data obtained using 1D and 2D NMR and MS techniques. Full article
Open AccessArticle Montmorillonite Clay-Promoted, Solvent-Free Cross-Aldol Condensations under Focused Microwave Irradiation
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7317-7326; doi:10.3390/molecules19067317
Received: 27 March 2014 / Revised: 14 May 2014 / Accepted: 26 May 2014 / Published: 4 June 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
An environmentally benign, clean and general protocol was developed for the synthesis of aryl and heteroaryl trans-chalcones. This method involved solvent-free reaction conditions under microwave irradiation in the presence of a clay-based catalyst, and afforded the target compounds in good yields [...] Read more.
An environmentally benign, clean and general protocol was developed for the synthesis of aryl and heteroaryl trans-chalcones. This method involved solvent-free reaction conditions under microwave irradiation in the presence of a clay-based catalyst, and afforded the target compounds in good yields and short reaction times. Furthermore, the same conditions allowed the synthesis of symmetrical, diarylmethylene-α,β-unsaturated ketones from aromatic aldehydes and ketones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heterogeneous Acid Catalysts)
Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Implantable, Enzyme-Immobilized Glutamate Sensors for the Monitoring of Glutamate Concentration Changes in Vitro and in Vivo
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7341-7355; doi:10.3390/molecules19067341
Received: 17 March 2014 / Revised: 30 May 2014 / Accepted: 3 June 2014 / Published: 5 June 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (651 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Glutamate sensors based on the immobilization of glutamate oxidase (GlutOx) were prepared by adsorption on electrodeposited chitosan (Method 1) and by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde (Method 2) on micromachined platinum microelectrodes. It was observed that glutamate sensors prepared by [...] Read more.
Glutamate sensors based on the immobilization of glutamate oxidase (GlutOx) were prepared by adsorption on electrodeposited chitosan (Method 1) and by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde (Method 2) on micromachined platinum microelectrodes. It was observed that glutamate sensors prepared by Method 1 have faster response time (<2 s) and lower detection limit (2.5 ± 1.1 μM) compared to that prepared by Method 2 (response time: <5 sec and detection limit: 6.5 ± 1.7 μM); glutamate sensors prepared by Method 2 have a larger linear detection range (20–352 μM) and higher sensitivity (86.8 ± 8.8 nA·μM−1·cm−2, N = 12) compared to those prepared by Method 1 (linear detection range: 20–217 μM and sensitivity: 34.9 ± 4.8 nA·μM−1·cm−2, N = 8). The applicability of the glutamate sensors in vivo was also demonstrated. The glutamate sensors were implanted into the rat brain to monitor the stress-induced extracellular glutamate release in the hypothalamus of the awake, freely moving rat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Immobilization)
Open AccessArticle Oligo-Carrageenan Kappa-Induced Reducing Redox Status and Increase in TRR/TRX Activities Promote Activation and Reprogramming of Terpenoid Metabolism in Eucalyptus Trees
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7356-7367; doi:10.3390/molecules19067356
Received: 10 April 2014 / Revised: 30 May 2014 / Accepted: 30 May 2014 / Published: 5 June 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (288 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to analyze whether the reducing redox status and activation of thioredoxin reductase (TRR)/thioredoxin(TRX) system induced by oligo-carrageenan (OC) kappa in Eucalyptus globulus activate secondary metabolism increasing terpenoid synthesis, trees were sprayed on the leaves with water, with OC kappa, or [...] Read more.
In order to analyze whether the reducing redox status and activation of thioredoxin reductase (TRR)/thioredoxin(TRX) system induced by oligo-carrageenan (OC) kappa in Eucalyptus globulus activate secondary metabolism increasing terpenoid synthesis, trees were sprayed on the leaves with water, with OC kappa, or with inhibitors of NAD(P)H, ascorbate (ASC) and (GSH) synthesis and TRR activity, CHS-828, lycorine, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) and auranofine, respectively, and with OC kappa and cultivated for four months. The main terpenoids in control Eucalyptus trees were eucalyptol (76%), α-pinene (7.4%), aromadendrene (3.6%), silvestrene (2.8%), sabinene (2%) and α-terpineol (0.9%). Treated trees showed a 22% increase in total essential oils as well as a decrease in eucalyptol (65%) and sabinene (0.8%) and an increase in aromadendrene (5%), silvestrene (7.8%) and other ten terpenoids. In addition, treated Eucalyptus showed seven de novo synthesized terpenoids corresponding to carene, α-terpinene, α-fenchene, γ-maaliene, spathulenol and α-camphenolic aldehyde. Most increased and de novo synthesized terpenoids have potential insecticidal and antimicrobial activities. Trees treated with CHS-828, lycorine, BSO and auranofine and with OC kappa showed an inhibition of increased and de novo synthesized terpenoids. Thus, OC kappa-induced reducing redox status and activation of TRR/TRX system enhance secondary metabolism increasing the synthesis of terpenoids and reprogramming of terpenoid metabolism in Eucalyptus trees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle The Fruits of Wampee Inhibit H2O2-Induced Apoptosis in PC12 Cells via the NF-κB Pathway and Regulation of Cellular Redox Status
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7368-7387; doi:10.3390/molecules19067368
Received: 24 March 2014 / Revised: 26 May 2014 / Accepted: 27 May 2014 / Published: 5 June 2014
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Abstract
Wampee (Clausena lansium) fruits (CLS), whose pulp can be used to prepare fruit cups, desserts, jam, or jelly, can be eaten along with the peel. In this study, a PC12 cell model was built to observe the protective effect of [...] Read more.
Wampee (Clausena lansium) fruits (CLS), whose pulp can be used to prepare fruit cups, desserts, jam, or jelly, can be eaten along with the peel. In this study, a PC12 cell model was built to observe the protective effect of CLS against H2O2-induced oxidative stress. We found that pretreatment with CLS increased cell viability and inhibited cytotoxicity, caspase-3 activity and DNA condensation. CLS also attenuated the increase in ROS production and MMP reduction. Moreover, we attempted to determine whether CLS suppressed the expression and phosphorylation of NF-κB. Western blot and immunostaining assay revealed that CLS inhibited H2O2-induced up-regulation of NF-κB p65 and pNF-κB p65. And CLS significantly suppressed the translocation of NF-κB p65 and pNF-κB p65 from cytoplasm to nuclear. Also, seven major compounds including a new flavanoid, luteolin-4'-O-β-d-gluco-pyranoside (3) and six known compounds 1,2, 47 were isolated and identified from CLS. Their antioxidative and H2O2-induced PC12 cell apoptosis-reversing activity were determined. These findings suggest that CLS and its major constituents (flavanoids) may be potential antioxidant agents and should encourage further research into their use as a functional food for neurodegenerative diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Molecular Classification of Pesticides Including Persistent Organic Pollutants, Phenylurea and Sulphonylurea Herbicides
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7388-7414; doi:10.3390/molecules19067388
Received: 8 April 2014 / Revised: 29 May 2014 / Accepted: 30 May 2014 / Published: 5 June 2014
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Abstract
Pesticide residues in wine were analyzed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Retentions are modelled by structure–property relationships. Bioplastic evolution is an evolutionary perspective conjugating effect of acquired characters and evolutionary indeterminacy–morphological determination–natural selection principles; its application to design co-ordination index barely improves [...] Read more.
Pesticide residues in wine were analyzed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Retentions are modelled by structure–property relationships. Bioplastic evolution is an evolutionary perspective conjugating effect of acquired characters and evolutionary indeterminacy–morphological determination–natural selection principles; its application to design co-ordination index barely improves correlations. Fractal dimensions and partition coefficient differentiate pesticides. Classification algorithms are based on information entropy and its production. Pesticides allow a structural classification by nonplanarity, and number of O, S, N and Cl atoms and cycles; different behaviours depend on number of cycles. The novelty of the approach is that the structural parameters are related to retentions. Classification algorithms are based on information entropy. When applying procedures to moderate-sized sets, excessive results appear compatible with data suffering a combinatorial explosion. However, equipartition conjecture selects criterion resulting from classification between hierarchical trees. Information entropy permits classifying compounds agreeing with principal component analyses. Periodic classification shows that pesticides in the same group present similar properties; those also in equal period, maximum resemblance. The advantage of the classification is to predict the retentions for molecules not included in the categorization. Classification extends to phenyl/sulphonylureas and the application will be to predict their retentions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Drug-Induced Conformational Population Shifts in Topoisomerase-DNA Ternary Complexes
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7415-7428; doi:10.3390/molecules19067415
Received: 7 March 2014 / Revised: 26 May 2014 / Accepted: 29 May 2014 / Published: 5 June 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2044 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Type II topoisomerases (TOP2) are enzymes that resolve the topological problems during DNA replication and transcription by transiently cleaving both strands and forming a cleavage complex with the DNA. Several prominent anti-cancer agents inhibit TOP2 by stabilizing the cleavage complex and engendering [...] Read more.
Type II topoisomerases (TOP2) are enzymes that resolve the topological problems during DNA replication and transcription by transiently cleaving both strands and forming a cleavage complex with the DNA. Several prominent anti-cancer agents inhibit TOP2 by stabilizing the cleavage complex and engendering permanent DNA breakage. To discriminate drug binding modes in TOP2-α and TOP2-β, we applied our newly developed scoring function, dubbed AutoDock4RAP, to evaluate the binding modes of VP-16, m-AMSA, and mitoxantrone to the cleavage complexes. Docking reproduced crystallographic binding mode of VP-16 in a ternary complex of TOP2-β with root-mean-square deviation of 0.65 Å. Molecular dynamics simulation of the complex confirmed the crystallographic binding mode of VP-16 and the conformation of the residue R503. Drug-related conformational changes in R503 have been observed in ternary complexes with m-AMSA and mitoxantrone. However, the R503 rotamers in these two simulations deviate from their crystallographic conformations, indicating a relaxation dynamics from the conformations determined with the drug replacement procedure. The binding mode of VP-16 in the cleavage complex of TOP2-α was determined by the conjoint use of docking and molecular dynamics simulations, which fell within a similar binding pocket of TOP2-β cleavage complex. Our findings may facilitate more efficient design efforts targeting TOP2-α specific drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In-Silico Drug Design and In-Silico Screening)
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Open AccessArticle Easy Access to Evans’ Oxazolidinones. Stereoselective Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of a New 2-Oxazolidinone Derivative
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7429-7439; doi:10.3390/molecules19067429
Received: 26 March 2014 / Revised: 28 May 2014 / Accepted: 28 May 2014 / Published: 6 June 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (227 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
An interesting new approach was developed for the synthesis of Evans’ chiral auxiliaries with excellent yields. In turn, another new stereoselective and efficient strategy has also allowed for the preparation of a 2-oxazolidinone derivative in 34% overall yield from the Morita-Baylis-Hillman adduct. [...] Read more.
An interesting new approach was developed for the synthesis of Evans’ chiral auxiliaries with excellent yields. In turn, another new stereoselective and efficient strategy has also allowed for the preparation of a 2-oxazolidinone derivative in 34% overall yield from the Morita-Baylis-Hillman adduct. The antibacterial activity of this oxazolidinone was tested against Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from animals with mastitis infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Synthesis)
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Open AccessArticle Complement Fixing Polysaccharides from Terminalia macroptera Root Bark, Stem Bark and Leaves
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7440-7458; doi:10.3390/molecules19067440
Received: 20 March 2014 / Revised: 3 June 2014 / Accepted: 4 June 2014 / Published: 6 June 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (283 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera were sequentially extracted with ethanol, 50% ethanol-water, and 50 °C and 100 °C water using an accelerated solvent extractor. Ten bioactive purified polysaccharide fractions were obtained from those crude extracts after anion [...] Read more.
The root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera were sequentially extracted with ethanol, 50% ethanol-water, and 50 °C and 100 °C water using an accelerated solvent extractor. Ten bioactive purified polysaccharide fractions were obtained from those crude extracts after anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The polysaccharides and their native extracts were characterized with respect to molecular weight, chemical compositions and effects in the complement assay. The chemical compositions showed that the polysaccharides are of pectic nature. The results indicated that there was no great difference of the complement fixation activities in the crude extracts from the different plant parts when extracting with the accelerated solvent extraction system. The purified polysaccharide fractions 100WTSBH-I-I and 100WTRBH-I-I isolated from the 100 °C water extracts of stem and root bark respectively, showed the highest complement fixation activities. These two fractions have rhamnogalacturonan type I backbone, but only 100WTSBH-I-I contains side chains of both arabinogalactan type I and II. Based on the yield and activities of the fractions studied those from the root bark gave highest results, followed by those from leaves and stem bark. But in total, all plant materials are good sources for fractions containing bioactive polysaccharides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Organic Liquids-Responsive β-Cyclodextrin-Functionalized Graphene-Based Fluorescence Probe: Label-Free Selective Detection of Tetrahydrofuran
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7459-7479; doi:10.3390/molecules19067459
Received: 1 April 2014 / Revised: 3 June 2014 / Accepted: 4 June 2014 / Published: 6 June 2014
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Abstract
In this study, a label-free graphene-based fluorescence probe used for detection of volatile organic liquids was fabricated by a simple, efficient and low-cost method. To fabricate the probe, a bio-based β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was firstly grafted on reduced graphene surfaces effectively and uniformly, [...] Read more.
In this study, a label-free graphene-based fluorescence probe used for detection of volatile organic liquids was fabricated by a simple, efficient and low-cost method. To fabricate the probe, a bio-based β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was firstly grafted on reduced graphene surfaces effectively and uniformly, as evidenced by various characterization techniques such as Ultraviolet/Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The subsequent inclusion of Rhodamine B (RhB) into the inner cavities of the β-CD grafted on the graphene surfaces was achieved easily by a solution mixing method, which yielded the graphene-based fluorescent switch-on probe. In addition, the gradual and controllable quenching of RhB by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer from RhB to graphene during the process of stepwise accommodation of the RhB molecules into the β-CD-functionalized graphene was investigated in depth. A wide range of organic solvents was examined using the as-fabricated fluorescence probe, which revealed the highest sensitivity to tetrahydrofuran with the detection limit of about 1.7 μg/mL. Some insight into the mechanism of the different responsive behaviors of the fluorescence sensor to the examined targets was also described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Probes)
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Open AccessArticle Regulation of Plant Immunity through Modulation of Phytoalexin Synthesis
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7480-7496; doi:10.3390/molecules19067480
Received: 15 April 2014 / Revised: 29 May 2014 / Accepted: 30 May 2014 / Published: 6 June 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (458 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soybean hairy roots transformed with the resveratrol synthase and resveratrol oxymethyl transferase genes driven by constitutive Arabidopsis actin and CsVMV promoters were characterized. Transformed hairy roots accumulated glycoside conjugates of the stilbenic compound resveratrol and the related compound pterostilbene, which are normally [...] Read more.
Soybean hairy roots transformed with the resveratrol synthase and resveratrol oxymethyl transferase genes driven by constitutive Arabidopsis actin and CsVMV promoters were characterized. Transformed hairy roots accumulated glycoside conjugates of the stilbenic compound resveratrol and the related compound pterostilbene, which are normally not synthesized by soybean plants. Expression of the non-native stilbenic phytoalexin synthesis in soybean hairy roots increased their resistance to the soybean pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. The expression of the AhRS3 gene resulted in 20% to 50% decreased root necrosis compared to that of untransformed hairy roots. The expression of two genes, the AhRS3 and ROMT, required for pterostilbene synthesis in soybean, resulted in significantly lower root necrosis (ranging from 0% to 7%) in transgenic roots than in untransformed hairy roots that had about 84% necrosis. Overexpression of the soybean prenyltransferase (dimethylallyltransferase) G4DT gene in soybean hairy roots increased accumulation of the native phytoalexin glyceollin resulting in decreased root necrosis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Structure on the Interactions between Five Natural Antimicrobial Compounds and Phospholipids of Bacterial Cell Membrane on Model Monolayers
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7497-7515; doi:10.3390/molecules19067497
Received: 19 April 2014 / Revised: 29 May 2014 / Accepted: 3 June 2014 / Published: 6 June 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1007 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Monolayers composed of bacterial phospholipids were used as model membranes to study interactions of the naturally occurring phenolic compounds 2,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and 2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde, and the plant essential oil compounds carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and geraniol, previously found to be active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative [...] Read more.
Monolayers composed of bacterial phospholipids were used as model membranes to study interactions of the naturally occurring phenolic compounds 2,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and 2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde, and the plant essential oil compounds carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and geraniol, previously found to be active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic microorganisms. The lipid monolayers consist of 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DPPE), 1,2-dihexa- decanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol) (DPPG), and 1,1',2,2'-tetratetradecanoyl cardiolipin (cardiolipin). Surface pressure–area (π-A) and surface potential–area (Δψ-A) isotherms were measured to monitor changes in the thermodynamic and physical properties of the lipid monolayers. Results of the study indicated that the five compounds modified the three lipid monolayer structures by integrating into the monolayer, forming aggregates of antimicrobial –lipid complexes, reducing the packing effectiveness of the lipids, increasing the membrane fluidity, and altering the total dipole moment in the monolayer membrane model. The interactions of the five antimicrobial compounds with bacterial phospholipids depended on both the structure of the antimicrobials and the composition of the monolayers. The observed experimental results provide insight into the mechanism of the molecular interactions between naturally-occurring antimicrobial compounds and phospholipids of the bacterial cell membrane that govern activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Sesamin Enhances Cholesterol Efflux in RAW264.7 Macrophages
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7516-7527; doi:10.3390/molecules19067516
Received: 14 April 2014 / Revised: 29 May 2014 / Accepted: 30 May 2014 / Published: 6 June 2014
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Abstract
Foam cells formation as a result of the uncontrolled cytophagy of modified cholesterol by macrophages plays a key role in the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis. Sesamin is an active constituent of Sesamum indicum which has been shown to possess multiple pharmacological [...] Read more.
Foam cells formation as a result of the uncontrolled cytophagy of modified cholesterol by macrophages plays a key role in the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis. Sesamin is an active constituent of Sesamum indicum which has been shown to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In this work, we investigated the effects of sesamin on foam cell formation and cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 macrophages. Sesamin dose-dependently inhibited the enhanced cholesterol accumulation elicited by oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (oxLDL) in RAW264.7 cells. Treatment with sesamin (10 μM) significantly enhanced cholesterol efflux mediated by high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Realtime quantitative PCR and luciferase assays showed that sesamin significantly increased the mRNA levels of PPARγ, LXRα, and ABCG1, and increased the transcriptional activity of PPARγ. The stimulating effect of sesamin on cholesterol efflux was substantially inhibited by the co-treatment with GW9662, a potent inhibitor of PPARγ. These results suggest that sesamin is a new inhibitor of foam cell formation that may stimulate cholesterol efflux through upregulation of the PPARγ-LXRα-ABCG1 pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Structural Crystalline Characterization of Sakuranetin — An Antimicrobial Flavanone from Twigs of Baccharis retusa (Asteraceae)
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7528-7542; doi:10.3390/molecules19067528
Received: 2 May 2014 / Revised: 3 June 2014 / Accepted: 3 June 2014 / Published: 6 June 2014
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Abstract
Bioactivity-guided fractionation of an antimicrobial active extract from twigs of Baccharis retusa C. DC. (Asteraceae) yielded the flavanone 5,4'-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-flavanone (sakuranetin) as responsible for the detected activity. The structure of the bioactive compound was established on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis, including [...] Read more.
Bioactivity-guided fractionation of an antimicrobial active extract from twigs of Baccharis retusa C. DC. (Asteraceae) yielded the flavanone 5,4'-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-flavanone (sakuranetin) as responsible for the detected activity. The structure of the bioactive compound was established on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis, including NMR and MS. Additionally, the structure of a new crystal form of sakuranetin was confirmed by X-ray diffratometry. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of isolated compound were determined against pathogenic yeast belonging to the genus Candida (six species), Cryptococcus (two species/four serotypes) and S. cerevisiae BY 4742 (S288c background) and ranged from 0.32 to 0.63 μg/μL. Our results showed that sakuranetin, which structure was fully characterized, could be used as a tool for the design of novel and more efficacious antifungal agents. Full article
Open AccessArticle Ampicillin-Ester Bonded Branched Polymers: Characterization, Cyto-, Genotoxicity and Controlled Drug-Release Behaviour
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7543-7556; doi:10.3390/molecules19067543
Received: 4 April 2014 / Revised: 26 May 2014 / Accepted: 28 May 2014 / Published: 6 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (817 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The development and characterization of novel macromolecular conjugates of ampicillin using branched biodegradable polymers has been described in this study. The conjugates have been prepared coupling the β-lactam antibiotic with branched polymer matrices based on the natural oligopeptide core. The cyto- and [...] Read more.
The development and characterization of novel macromolecular conjugates of ampicillin using branched biodegradable polymers has been described in this study. The conjugates have been prepared coupling the β-lactam antibiotic with branched polymer matrices based on the natural oligopeptide core. The cyto- and genotoxicity of the synthesized polymers were evaluated with a bacterial luminescence test, two protozoan assays and Salmonella typhimurium TA1535. The presence of a newly formed covalent bond between the drug and the polymer matrices was confirmed by 1H-NMR and FTIR studies. A drug content (15.6 and 10.2 mole %) in the macromolecular conjugates has been determined. The obtained macromolecular products have been subjected to further in vitro release studies. The total percentage of ampicillin released after 21 days of incubation was nearly 60% and 14% and this resulted from the different physicochemical properties of the polymeric matrices. This is the first report on the application of branched biodegradable polymeric matrices for the covalent conjugation of ampicillin. The obtained results showed that the synthesized macromolecular drug-conjugates might slowly release the active drug molecule and improve the pharmacokinetics of ampicillin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Fructus Psoraleae Extract on the Intestinal Absorption Kinetics of Geniposide and Geniposidic Acid in Rat
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7557-7567; doi:10.3390/molecules19067557
Received: 31 March 2014 / Revised: 27 May 2014 / Accepted: 29 May 2014 / Published: 6 June 2014
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Abstract
Cortex Eucommia has been used as a kidney-tonifying herbal medicine with a long history of compatibility with Fructus Psoraleae. Geniposide (GP) and geniposidic acid (GPA) are the two main chemical components in Cortex Eucommia. In the present study, the effects [...] Read more.
Cortex Eucommia has been used as a kidney-tonifying herbal medicine with a long history of compatibility with Fructus Psoraleae. Geniposide (GP) and geniposidic acid (GPA) are the two main chemical components in Cortex Eucommia. In the present study, the effects of Fructus Psoraleae extract (FPE) on intestinal absorption kinetics of GP and GPA in rat were investigated. Twenty four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four groups which were treated with GP, GPA, GP mixed with FPE and GPA mixed with FPE, respectively, by in situ intestinal perfusion for 3 h. The samples of intestinal perfusion solutions were collected every 30 min, and analyzed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). The curves of time and residual quantities of GP and GPA (lnx) in the intestinal perfusion solution and the cumulative absorption rate were obtained. The results showed that FPE exhibited different effects on the intestinal absorption of GP and GPA in rat: it increased the intestinal absorption of GP (p < 0.05), while demonstrated no significant effect on the absorption of GPA. Full article
Open AccessArticle Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Triterpene Saponins from Tea Seed Pomace (Camellia oleifera Abel) and Their Activities against Bacteria and Fungi
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7568-7580; doi:10.3390/molecules19067568
Received: 31 March 2014 / Revised: 27 May 2014 / Accepted: 3 June 2014 / Published: 6 June 2014
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Abstract
A method using LC-ESI-IT-TOF/MS and LC/UV-ELSD was established to qualitatively analyze triterpene saponins obtained from the tea seed pomace (Camellia oleifera Abel). In addition, the quantitative analysis of oleiferasaponin A1 using LC/UV was developed. The purified total saponins did not [...] Read more.
A method using LC-ESI-IT-TOF/MS and LC/UV-ELSD was established to qualitatively analyze triterpene saponins obtained from the tea seed pomace (Camellia oleifera Abel). In addition, the quantitative analysis of oleiferasaponin A1 using LC/UV was developed. The purified total saponins did not exhibit any inhibitory effects at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg/mL against the tested bacteria, except for Staphyloccocus aureus and Escherichia coli. By contrast, higher inhibitory activity was seen against the tested fungi, especially against Bipolaris maydis. Following treatment with an MIC value of 250 μg/mL for 24 h, the mycelial morphology was markedly shriveled in appearance or showed flattened and empty hyphae, with fractured cell walls, ruptured plasmalemma and cytoplasmic coagulation or leakage. These structural changes hindered the growth of mycelia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Efficient Synthesis of Pyridoxal Oxime Derivatives under Microwave Irradiation
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7610-7620; doi:10.3390/molecules19067610
Received: 7 May 2014 / Revised: 28 May 2014 / Accepted: 3 June 2014 / Published: 6 June 2014
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Abstract
Quaternary salts of pyridoxal oxime have been synthesized by the quaternization of pyridoxal oxime with substituted phenacyl bromides using microwave heating. Microwave-assisted rapid synthesis was done both in solvent (acetone) and under solvent-free conditions. Good to excellent yields (58%–94%) were obtained in [...] Read more.
Quaternary salts of pyridoxal oxime have been synthesized by the quaternization of pyridoxal oxime with substituted phenacyl bromides using microwave heating. Microwave-assisted rapid synthesis was done both in solvent (acetone) and under solvent-free conditions. Good to excellent yields (58%–94%) were obtained in acetone in very short reaction times (3–5 min) as well as in the solvent-free procedure (42%–78%) in very short reaction times (7–10 min) too. Effective metodologies for the preparation of pyridoxal oxime quaternary salts, having the advantagies of being eco-friendly, easy to handle, and performed in shorter reactions time are presented. The structure of compound 7, in which a 4-fluorophenacyl moiety is bonded to the pyridinium ring nitrogen atom, was unequivocally confirmed by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Synthesis)
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Open AccessArticle Two New Lanostane Triterpenoids from the Branches and Leaves of Polyalthia oblique
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7621-7628; doi:10.3390/molecules19067621
Received: 1 March 2014 / Revised: 26 May 2014 / Accepted: 4 June 2014 / Published: 6 June 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (776 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Two new lanostane triterpenoids, 20-hydroxyeuphorbol-7-one (1) and 15α-hydroxyeuphorbol-7,11-dione (2), together with four known triterpenoids, euphorbol-7-one (3), friedelin (4), stigmast-4-ene-6α-ol-3-one (5), stigmasta-4-en-3,6-dione (6), were isolated from ethanol extract of [...] Read more.
Two new lanostane triterpenoids, 20-hydroxyeuphorbol-7-one (1) and 15α-hydroxyeuphorbol-7,11-dione (2), together with four known triterpenoids, euphorbol-7-one (3), friedelin (4), stigmast-4-ene-6α-ol-3-one (5), stigmasta-4-en-3,6-dione (6), were isolated from ethanol extract of the branches and leaves of Polyalthia obliqua. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparisons with related known compounds. Antibacterial activities of two new compounds and four known compounds were tested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Styrene-Divinylbenzene Beads as a Support to Immobilize Lipases
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7629-7645; doi:10.3390/molecules19067629
Received: 3 April 2014 / Revised: 3 June 2014 / Accepted: 4 June 2014 / Published: 10 June 2014
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Abstract
A commercial and very hydrophobic styrene-divinylbenzene matrix, MCI GEL® CHP20P, has been compared to octyl-Sepharose® beads as support to immobilize three different enzymes: lipases from Thermomyces lanuginosus (TLL) and from Rhizomucor miehie (RML) and Lecitase® Ultra, a commercial artificial [...] Read more.
A commercial and very hydrophobic styrene-divinylbenzene matrix, MCI GEL® CHP20P, has been compared to octyl-Sepharose® beads as support to immobilize three different enzymes: lipases from Thermomyces lanuginosus (TLL) and from Rhizomucor miehie (RML) and Lecitase® Ultra, a commercial artificial phospholipase. The immobilization mechanism on both supports was similar: interfacial activation of the enzymes versus the hydrophobic surface of the supports. Immobilization rate and loading capacity is much higher using MCI GEL® CHP20P compared to octyl-Sepharose® (87.2 mg protein/g of support using TLL, 310 mg/g using RML and 180 mg/g using Lecitase® Ultra). The thermal stability of all new preparations is much lower than that of the standard octyl-Sepharose® immobilized preparations, while the opposite occurs when the inactivations were performed in the presence of organic co-solvents. Regarding the hydrolytic activities, the results were strongly dependent on the substrate and pH of measurement. Octyl-Sepharose® immobilized enzymes were more active versus p-NPB than the enzymes immobilized on MCI GEL® CHP20P, while RML became 700-fold less active versus methyl phenylacetate. Thus, the immobilization of a lipase on this matrix needs to be empirically evaluated, since it may present very positive effects in some cases while in other cases it may have very negative ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Immobilization)
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Open AccessArticle Study on the Synthesis, Biological Activity and Spectroscopy of Naphthalimide-Diamine Conjugates
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7646-7668; doi:10.3390/molecules19067646
Received: 20 February 2014 / Revised: 23 May 2014 / Accepted: 27 May 2014 / Published: 10 June 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (663 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Eleven novel naphthalimide-diamine conjugates were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by elemental analysis, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS. Their in vitro antitumor activities were assessed using MTT assays on two cancerous cell lines K562, HCT116, and one normal hepatoma cell [...] Read more.
Eleven novel naphthalimide-diamine conjugates were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by elemental analysis, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS. Their in vitro antitumor activities were assessed using MTT assays on two cancerous cell lines K562, HCT116, and one normal hepatoma cell line QSG 7701. Compound 7f exhibited potent antitumor activity on HCT116 cells and favorable cell selectivity toward QSG 7701 compared with the positive control, amonafide. Moreover, 7f could block HeG2 cells in the G2/M phase and induce HeG2 cells apoptosis. The interaction of compound 7f with herring sperm DNA was studied by UV/vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy under physiological conditions (pH = 7.4). The observed spectral quenching of compound 7f by DNA and the displacement of EB from DNA-EB complex by compound 7f indicated that compound 7f could intercalate into DNA base pairs, which was also corroborated by the effect of KI on compound-DNA interaction. Further caloric fluorescent tests revealed that the quenching mechanism was a static type. Meanwhile, the binding constants, thermodynamic parameters and the effect of NaCl on compound-DNA interaction showed that the type of interaction force was mainly hydrogen bonds and the binding process was driven by hydrogen and van der Waals bonding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Open AccessCommunication The Edible Brown Seaweed Ecklonia cava Reduces Hypersensitivity in Postoperative and Neuropathic Pain Models in Rats
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7669-7678; doi:10.3390/molecules19067669
Received: 14 April 2014 / Revised: 20 May 2014 / Accepted: 3 June 2014 / Published: 10 June 2014
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Abstract
The current study was designed to investigate whether edible brown seaweed Ecklonia cava extracts exhibits analgesic effects in plantar incision and spared nerve injury (SNI) rats. To evaluate pain-related behavior, we performed the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal hypersensitivity tests measured [...] Read more.
The current study was designed to investigate whether edible brown seaweed Ecklonia cava extracts exhibits analgesic effects in plantar incision and spared nerve injury (SNI) rats. To evaluate pain-related behavior, we performed the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal hypersensitivity tests measured by von Frey filaments and a hot/cold plate analgesia meter. Pain-related behavior was also determined through analysis of ultrasonic vocalization. The results of experiments showed MWT values of the group that was treated with E. cava extracts by 300 mg/kg significantly increased; on the contrary, number of ultrasonic distress vocalization of the treated group was reduced at 6 h and 24 h after plantar incision operation (62.8%, p < 0.05). Moreover, E. cava 300 mg/kg treated group increased the paw withdrawal latency in hot-and cold-plate tests in the plantar incision rats. After 15 days of continuous treatment with E. cava extracts at 300 mg/kg, the treated group showed significantly alleviated SNI-induced hypersensitivity response by MWT compared with the control group. In conclusion, these results suggest that E. cava extracts have potential analgesic effects in the case of postoperative pain and neuropathic pain in rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial Activity of Resveratrol Analogues
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7679-7688; doi:10.3390/molecules19067679
Received: 25 April 2014 / Revised: 3 June 2014 / Accepted: 5 June 2014 / Published: 10 June 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (519 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stilbenes, especially resveratrol and its derivatives, have become famous for their positive effects on a wide range of medical disorders, as indicated by a huge number of published studies. A less investigated area of research is their antimicrobial properties. A series of [...] Read more.
Stilbenes, especially resveratrol and its derivatives, have become famous for their positive effects on a wide range of medical disorders, as indicated by a huge number of published studies. A less investigated area of research is their antimicrobial properties. A series of 13 trans-resveratrol analogues was synthesized via Wittig or Heck reactions, and their antimicrobial activity assessed on two different grapevine pathogens responsible for severe diseases in the vineyard. The entire series, together with resveratrol, was first evaluated on the zoospore mobility and sporulation level of Plasmopara viticola (the oomycete responsible for downy mildew). Stilbenes displayed a spectrum of activity ranging from low to high. Six of them, including the most active ones, were subsequently tested on the development of Botrytis cinerea (fungus responsible for grey mold). The results obtained allowed us to identify the most active stilbenes against both grapevine pathogens, to compare the antimicrobial activity of the evaluated series of stilbenes, and to discuss the relationship between their chemical structure (number and position of methoxy and hydroxy groups) and antimicrobial activity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Methods of Increasing the Performance of Radionuclide Generators Used in Nuclear Medicine: Daughter Nuclide Build-Up Optimisation, Elution-Purification-Concentration Integration, and Effective Control of Radionuclidic Purity
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7714-7756; doi:10.3390/molecules19067714
Received: 16 April 2014 / Revised: 16 May 2014 / Accepted: 5 June 2014 / Published: 10 June 2014
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Abstract
Methods of increasing the performance of radionuclide generators used in nuclear medicine radiotherapy and SPECT/PET imaging were developed and detailed for 99Mo/99mTc and 68Ge/68Ga radionuclide generators as the cases. Optimisation methods of the daughter nuclide build-up [...] Read more.
Methods of increasing the performance of radionuclide generators used in nuclear medicine radiotherapy and SPECT/PET imaging were developed and detailed for 99Mo/99mTc and 68Ge/68Ga radionuclide generators as the cases. Optimisation methods of the daughter nuclide build-up versus stand-by time and/or specific activity using mean progress functions were developed for increasing the performance of radionuclide generators. As a result of this optimisation, the separation of the daughter nuclide from its parent one should be performed at a defined optimal time to avoid the deterioration in specific activity of the daughter nuclide and wasting stand-by time of the generator, while the daughter nuclide yield is maintained to a reasonably high extent. A new characteristic parameter of the formation-decay kinetics of parent/daughter nuclide system was found and effectively used in the practice of the generator production and utilisation. A method of “early elution schedule” was also developed for increasing the daughter nuclide production yield and specific radioactivity, thus saving the cost of the generator and improving the quality of the daughter radionuclide solution. These newly developed optimisation methods in combination with an integrated elution-purification-concentration system of radionuclide generators recently developed is the most suitable way to operate the generator effectively on the basis of economic use and improvement of purposely suitable quality and specific activity of the produced daughter radionuclides. All these features benefit the economic use of the generator, the improved quality of labelling/scan, and the lowered cost of nuclear medicine procedure. Besides, a new method of quality control protocol set-up for post-delivery test of radionuclidic purity has been developed based on the relationship between gamma ray spectrometric detection limit, required limit of impure radionuclide activity and its measurement certainty with respect to optimising decay/measurement time and product sample activity used for QC quality control. The optimisation ensures a certainty of measurement of the specific impure radionuclide and avoids wasting the useful amount of valuable purified/concentrated daughter nuclide product. This process is important for the spectrometric measurement of very low activity of impure radionuclide contamination in the radioisotope products of much higher activity used in medical imaging and targeted radiotherapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Salidroside Protects Caenorhabditis elegans Neurons from Polyglutamine-Mediated Toxicity by Reducing Oxidative Stress
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7757-7769; doi:10.3390/molecules19067757
Received: 4 May 2014 / Revised: 30 May 2014 / Accepted: 5 June 2014 / Published: 10 June 2014
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Abstract
Polyglutamine (polyQ) aggregation plays a pivotal role in the pathological process of Huntington’s disease and other polyQ disorders. Therefore, strategies aiming at restoring dysfunction and reducing stresses mediated by polyQ toxicity are of therapeutic interest for proteotoxicity diseases. Salidroside, a glycoside from [...] Read more.
Polyglutamine (polyQ) aggregation plays a pivotal role in the pathological process of Huntington’s disease and other polyQ disorders. Therefore, strategies aiming at restoring dysfunction and reducing stresses mediated by polyQ toxicity are of therapeutic interest for proteotoxicity diseases. Salidroside, a glycoside from Rhodiola rosea, has been shown to have a variety of bioactivities, including antioxidant activity. Using transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans models, we show here that salidroside is able to reduce neuronal death and behavioral dysfunction mediated by polyQ expressed in ASH neurons, but the neuroprotective effect is not associated with prevention of polyQ aggregation per se. Further experiments reveal that the neuroprotective effect of salidroside in C. elegans models involves its antioxidant capabilities, including decrease of ROS levels and paraquat-induced mortality, increase of antioxidant enzyme activities and reduction of lipid peroxidation. These results demonstrate that salidroside exerts its neuroprotective function against polyQ toxicity via oxidative stress pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Open AccessArticle Selective Substitution of 31/42–OH in Rapamycin Guided by an in Situ IR Technique
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7770-7784; doi:10.3390/molecules19067770
Received: 25 April 2014 / Revised: 26 May 2014 / Accepted: 27 May 2014 / Published: 10 June 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1488 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
An in situ IR technique was applied in the selective synthesis of the key intermediate for rapamycin derivatives, which made the reaction endpoint easily defined. This technology solved a bothersome problem in the preparation of rapamycin derivatives, and based on this technique, [...] Read more.
An in situ IR technique was applied in the selective synthesis of the key intermediate for rapamycin derivatives, which made the reaction endpoint easily defined. This technology solved a bothersome problem in the preparation of rapamycin derivatives, and based on this technique, the 31-OH and 42-OH of rapamycin were chemically modified by a series of quaternary ammonium salts to generate 11 compounds. The solubility of all these compounds was remarkably improved (25,000 times higher than that of rapamycin) and their structures were confirmed by MS, IR, 1D and 2D NMR techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Shikonin Inhibits the Proliferation of Human Lens Epithelial Cells by Inducing Apoptosis through ROS and Caspase-Dependent Pathway
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7785-7797; doi:10.3390/molecules19067785
Received: 4 April 2014 / Revised: 19 May 2014 / Accepted: 3 June 2014 / Published: 11 June 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1499 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Shikonin is a compound from the herbal plant Lithospermum erythrorhizon that has been proved to possess powerful anti-proliferative effect on many kinds of cancers and to be safe in in vivo study. Posterior capsular opacification (PCO), the most frequent complication of cataract [...] Read more.
Shikonin is a compound from the herbal plant Lithospermum erythrorhizon that has been proved to possess powerful anti-proliferative effect on many kinds of cancers and to be safe in in vivo study. Posterior capsular opacification (PCO), the most frequent complication of cataract surgery, is mainly caused by the uncontrolled proliferation of retained human lens epithelial cells (HLEs). In this study, we investigated the effect of shikonin on the proliferation of HLEs and explored its underlying mechanism of action. Shikonin significantly inhibited the proliferation of HLEs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Its anti-proliferative effect was exerted through induction of apoptosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation played an essential role in this apoptotic process. Interestingly, scavenging of ROS completely blocked the apoptosis induced by shikonin. In addition, the treatment of shikonin in HLEs significantly increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, disrupted mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) and activated caspases. The inhibition of caspase largely blocks the apoptosis. The changes of MAPK pathway were also demonstrated. Shikonin effectively inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK, while it activated the phosphorylation of JNK and p38. These results suggested that shikonin inhibited the proliferation of HLEs by inducing apoptosis through ROS generation and the caspase-dependent pathway and the MAPK pathway was also involved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Polyphenol-Rich Strawberry Extract Protects Human Dermal Fibroblasts against Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidative Damage and Improves Mitochondrial Functionality
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7798-7816; doi:10.3390/molecules19067798
Received: 30 April 2014 / Revised: 5 June 2014 / Accepted: 6 June 2014 / Published: 11 June 2014
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (503 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Strawberry bioactive compounds are widely known to be powerful antioxidants. In this study, the antioxidant and anti-aging activities of a polyphenol-rich strawberry extract were evaluated using human dermal fibroblasts exposed to H2O2. Firstly, the phenol and flavonoid contents [...] Read more.
Strawberry bioactive compounds are widely known to be powerful antioxidants. In this study, the antioxidant and anti-aging activities of a polyphenol-rich strawberry extract were evaluated using human dermal fibroblasts exposed to H2O2. Firstly, the phenol and flavonoid contents of strawberry extract were studied, as well as the antioxidant capacity. HPLC-DAD analysis was performed to determine the vitamin C and β-carotene concentration, while HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS analysis was used for anthocyanin identification. Strawberry extract presented a high antioxidant capacity, and a relevant concentration of vitamins and phenolics. Pelargonidin- and cyanidin-glycosides were the most representative anthocyanin components of the fruits. Fibroblasts incubated with strawberry extract and stressed with H2O2 showed an increase in cell viability, a smaller intracellular amount of ROS, and a reduction of membrane lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Strawberry extract was also able to improve mitochondrial functionality, increasing the basal respiration of mitochondria and to promote a regenerative capacity of cells after exposure to pro-oxidant stimuli. These findings confirm that strawberries possess antioxidant properties and provide new insights into the beneficial role of strawberry bioactive compounds on protecting skin from oxidative stress and aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle RBAP, a Rhodamine B-Based Derivative: Synthesis, Crystal Structure Analysis, Molecular Simulation, and Its Application as a Selective Fluorescent Chemical Sensor for Sn2+
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7817-7831; doi:10.3390/molecules19067817
Received: 18 April 2014 / Revised: 28 May 2014 / Accepted: 3 June 2014 / Published: 11 June 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1433 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A new fluorescent chemosensor based on a Rhodamine B and a benzyl 3-aminopropanoate conjugate (RBAP) was designed, synthesized, and structurally characterized. Its single crystal structure was obtained and analyzed by X-ray analysis. In a MeOH/H2O (2:3, v/v, pH [...] Read more.
A new fluorescent chemosensor based on a Rhodamine B and a benzyl 3-aminopropanoate conjugate (RBAP) was designed, synthesized, and structurally characterized. Its single crystal structure was obtained and analyzed by X-ray analysis. In a MeOH/H2O (2:3, v/v, pH 5.95) solution RBAP exhibits a high selectivity and excellent sensitivity for Sn2+ ions in the presence of many other metal cations. The binding analysis using the Job’s plot suggested the RBAP formed a 1:1 complex with Sn2+. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Synthesis)
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Open AccessArticle Design, Synthesis and Bioactivity of Novel Glycosylthiadiazole Derivatives
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7832-7849; doi:10.3390/molecules19067832
Received: 21 April 2014 / Revised: 4 June 2014 / Accepted: 5 June 2014 / Published: 11 June 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (304 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of novel glycosylthiadiazole derivatives, namely 2-phenylamino-5-glycosyl-1,3,4-thiadiazoles, were designed and synthesized by condensation between sugar aldehydes A/B and substituted thiosemicarbazide C followed by oxidative cyclization by treating with manganese dioxide. The original fungicidal activities results showed that some title [...] Read more.
A series of novel glycosylthiadiazole derivatives, namely 2-phenylamino-5-glycosyl-1,3,4-thiadiazoles, were designed and synthesized by condensation between sugar aldehydes A/B and substituted thiosemicarbazide C followed by oxidative cyclization by treating with manganese dioxide. The original fungicidal activities results showed that some title compounds exhibited excellent fungicidal activities against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary and Pyricularia oryzae Cav, especially compounds F-5 and G-8 which displayed better fungicidal activities than the commercial fungicide chlorothalonil. At the same time, the preliminary studies based on the Elson-Morgan method indicated that many compounds exhibited some inhibitory activity toward glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (GlmS). The structure-activity relationships (SAR) are discussed in terms of the effects of the substituents on both the benzene and the sugar ring. Full article
Open AccessArticle Inhibition of Cancer Derived Cell Lines Proliferation by Synthesized Hydroxylated Stilbenes and New Ferrocenyl-Stilbene Analogs. Comparison with Resveratrol
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7850-7868; doi:10.3390/molecules19067850
Received: 29 April 2014 / Revised: 27 May 2014 / Accepted: 28 May 2014 / Published: 11 June 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (552 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Further advances in understanding the mechanism of action of resveratrol and its application require new analogs to identify the structural determinants for the cell proliferation inhibition potency. Therefore, we synthesized new trans-resveratrol derivatives by using the Wittig and Heck methods, thus [...] Read more.
Further advances in understanding the mechanism of action of resveratrol and its application require new analogs to identify the structural determinants for the cell proliferation inhibition potency. Therefore, we synthesized new trans-resveratrol derivatives by using the Wittig and Heck methods, thus modifying the hydroxylation and methoxylation patterns of the parent molecule. Moreover, we also synthesized new ferrocenylstilbene analogs by using an original protective group in the Wittig procedure. By performing cell proliferation assays we observed that the resveratrol derivatives show inhibition on the human colorectal tumor SW480 cell line. On the other hand, cell viability/cytotoxicity assays showed a weaker effects on the human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cell line. Importantly, the lack of effect on non-tumor cells (IEC18 intestinal epithelium cells) demonstrates the selectivity of these molecules for cancer cells. Here, we show that the numbers and positions of hydroxy and methoxy groups are crucial for the inhibition efficacy. In addition, the presence of at least one phenolic group is essential for the antitumoral activity. Moreover, in the series of ferrocenylstilbene analogs, the presence of a hidden phenolic function allows for a better solubilization in the cellular environment and significantly increases the antitumoral activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Secondary Metabolites from Vietnamese Marine Invertebrates with Activity against Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7869-7880; doi:10.3390/molecules19067869
Received: 4 April 2014 / Revised: 5 June 2014 / Accepted: 5 June 2014 / Published: 11 June 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1457 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Marine-derived natural products from invertebrates comprise an extremely diverse and promising source of the compounds from a wide variety of structural classes. This study describes the discovery of five marine natural products with activity against Trypanosoma species by natural product library screening [...] Read more.
Marine-derived natural products from invertebrates comprise an extremely diverse and promising source of the compounds from a wide variety of structural classes. This study describes the discovery of five marine natural products with activity against Trypanosoma species by natural product library screening using whole cell in vitro assays. We investigated the anti-trypanosomal activity of the extracts from the soft corals and echinoderms living in Vietnamese seas. Of the samples screened, the methanolic extracts of several marine organisms exhibited potent activities against cultures of Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi (EC50 < 5.0 μg/mL). Among the compounds isolated from these extracts, laevigatol B (1) from Lobophytum crassum and L. laevigatum, (24S)-ergost-4-ene-3-one (2) from Sinularia dissecta, astropectenol A (3) from Astropecten polyacanthus, and cholest-8-ene-3β,5α,6β,7α-tetraol (4) from Diadema savignyi showed inhibitory activity against T. brucei with EC50 values ranging from 1.57 ± 0.14 to 14.6 ± 1.36 μM, relative to the positive control, pentamidine (EC50 = 0.015 ± 0.003 μM). Laevigatol B (1) and 5α-cholest-8(14)-ene-3β,7α-diol (5) exhibited also significant inhibitory effects on T. cruzi. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds on mammalian cells was also assessed and found to be insignificant in all cases. This is the first report on the inhibitory effects of marine organisms collected in Vietnamese seas against Trypanosoma species responsible for neglected tropical diseases. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity of a New Group of Heterocyclic Analogues of the Combretastatins
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7881-7900; doi:10.3390/molecules19067881
Received: 15 April 2014 / Revised: 3 June 2014 / Accepted: 5 June 2014 / Published: 11 June 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (363 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of new analogs of combretastatin A-4 (CA-4, 1) with the A or B-ring replaced by a 3-oxo-2,3-dihydrofurocoumarin or a furocoumarin residue have been designed and synthesized by employing a cross-coupling approach. All the compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic [...] Read more.
A series of new analogs of combretastatin A-4 (CA-4, 1) with the A or B-ring replaced by a 3-oxo-2,3-dihydrofurocoumarin or a furocoumarin residue have been designed and synthesized by employing a cross-coupling approach. All the compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity with respect to model cancer cell lines (CEM-13, MT-4, U-937) using conventional MTT assays. Structure-activity relationship analysis reveals that compounds 2, 3, 68 in which the (Z)-styryl substituent was connected to the 2-position of the 3-oxo-2,3-dihydrofurocoumarin core, demonstrated increased potency compared to 3-(Z)-styrylfurocoumarins 4, 5, 911. The methoxy-, hydroxyl- and formyl- substitution on the aromatic ring of the (Z)-styryl moiety seems to play an important role in this class of compounds. Compounds 2 and 3 showed the best potency against the CEM-13 cell lines, with CTD50 values ranging from 4.9 to 5.1 μM. In comparison with CA-4, all synthesized compounds presented moderate cytotoxic activity to the T-cellular human leucosis cells MT-4 and lymphoblastoid leukemia cells CEM-13, but most of them were active in the human monocyte cell lines U-937. Full article
Open AccessArticle Enhancement of Phenolics, Resveratrol and Antioxidant Activity by Nitrogen Enrichment in Cell Suspension Culture of Vitis vinifera
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7901-7912; doi:10.3390/molecules19067901
Received: 21 April 2014 / Revised: 3 June 2014 / Accepted: 4 June 2014 / Published: 11 June 2014
PDF Full-text (301 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), an important nitrogen source (34% N), has been used as an elicitor to stimulate plant growth and development as well as induce secondary metabolites under controlled conditions. In the present paper, we investigated the enhancement [...] Read more.
Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), an important nitrogen source (34% N), has been used as an elicitor to stimulate plant growth and development as well as induce secondary metabolites under controlled conditions. In the present paper, we investigated the enhancement of cell biomass, total phenolics, resveratrol levels, and antioxidant activity of Vitis vinifera cv. Pok Dum by nitrogen enrichment (MS medium supplemented with NH4NO3 at 0, 500, 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 mg/L). The highest accumulations of biomass, phenolics and resveratrol contents were observed at 8.8-fold (86.6 g DW/L), 15.9-fold (71.91 mg GAE/g DW) and 5.6-fold (277.89 µg/g DW) by the 14th day, in the medium supplemented with 500 mg/L NH4NO3. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of cultured grape cells estimated by the DPPH· and ABTS·+ assay were positively correlated with phenolics and resveratrol, and the maximum activity was also observed in cultured cells with 500 mg/L NH4NO3 at 176.11 and 267.79 mmol TE/100 g DW, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Volatile Fingerprint of Italian Populations of Orchids Using Solid Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7913-7936; doi:10.3390/molecules19067913
Received: 25 April 2014 / Revised: 2 June 2014 / Accepted: 6 June 2014 / Published: 11 June 2014
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Abstract
The volatile fraction of Ophrys sphegodes Mill. subsp. sphegodes, Ophrys bertolonii subsp. benacensis (Reisigl) O. Danesch, E. Danasch & Ehrend. and Neotinea tridentata (Scop.) R.M. Bateman, Pridgeon & M.W. Case, three orchid species with different pollinator attraction strategies, sampled in vivo [...] Read more.
The volatile fraction of Ophrys sphegodes Mill. subsp. sphegodes, Ophrys bertolonii subsp. benacensis (Reisigl) O. Danesch, E. Danasch & Ehrend. and Neotinea tridentata (Scop.) R.M. Bateman, Pridgeon & M.W. Case, three orchid species with different pollinator attraction strategies, sampled in vivo and in situ, were evaluated by headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry. The results were compared with the volatile compounds emitted by flowering plant samples picked from the same populations of orchid species. Hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alcohols and terpenes were the major constituents of “in vivo” orchid scents and some distinctive differences in volatile metabolite composition were observed between Ophrys and Neotinea species. Moreover, the odour bouquets of the picked flowering plant samples were different from the in vivo ones and in particular different proportions of the various terpenes and an increase of α-pinene were observed. In conclusion HS/SPME GCMS proved to be a suitable technique for analyzing and distinguishing the volatile fingerprint of different orchid species, sampled in vivo and in situ in a non-disruptive way, with potentially great advantages for ecophysiological studies of rare and endangered species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microextraction)
Open AccessArticle Complexity and Uniqueness of the Aromatic Profile of Smoked and Unsmoked Herreño Cheese
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7937-7958; doi:10.3390/molecules19067937
Received: 26 April 2014 / Revised: 2 June 2014 / Accepted: 6 June 2014 / Published: 12 June 2014
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Abstract
In this work, the volatile fraction of unsmoked and smoked Herreño cheese, a type of soft cheese from the Canary Islands, has been characterized for the first time. In order to evaluate if the position in the smokehouse could influence the volatile [...] Read more.
In this work, the volatile fraction of unsmoked and smoked Herreño cheese, a type of soft cheese from the Canary Islands, has been characterized for the first time. In order to evaluate if the position in the smokehouse could influence the volatile profile of the smoked variety, cheeses smoked at two different heights were studied. The volatile components were extracted by Solid Phase Microextraction using a divinylbenzene/carboxen/ polydimethylsiloxane fiber, followed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. In total, 228 components were detected. The most numerous groups of components in the unsmoked Herreño cheese were hydrocarbons, followed by terpenes and sesquiterpenes, whereas acids and ketones were the most abundant. It is worth noticing the high number of aldehydes and ketones, and the low number of alcohols and esters in this cheese in relation to others, as well as the presence of some specific unsaturated hydrocarbons, terpenes, sesquiterpenes and nitrogenated derivatives. The smoking process enriches the volatile profile of Herreño cheese with ketones and diketones, methyl esters, aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, hydrocarbons, terpenes, nitrogenated compounds, and especially with ethers and phenolic derivatives. Among these, methylindanones or certain terpenes like α-terpinolene, have not been detected previously in other types of smoked cheese. Lastly, the results obtained suggest a slightly higher smoking degree in the cheeses smoked at a greater height. Full article
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Open AccessArticle FACE Analysis as a Fast and Reliable Methodology to Monitor the Sulfation and Total Amount of Chondroitin Sulfate in Biological Samples of Clinical Importance
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7959-7980; doi:10.3390/molecules19067959
Received: 15 April 2014 / Revised: 23 May 2014 / Accepted: 27 May 2014 / Published: 12 June 2014
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Abstract
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) due to their hydrophilic character and high anionic charge densities play important roles in various (patho)physiological processes. The identification and quantification of GAGs in biological samples and tissues could be useful prognostic and diagnostic tools in pathological conditions. Despite the [...] Read more.
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) due to their hydrophilic character and high anionic charge densities play important roles in various (patho)physiological processes. The identification and quantification of GAGs in biological samples and tissues could be useful prognostic and diagnostic tools in pathological conditions. Despite the noteworthy progress in the development of sensitive and accurate methodologies for the determination of GAGs, there is a significant lack in methodologies regarding sample preparation and reliable fast analysis methods enabling the simultaneous analysis of several biological samples. In this report, developed protocols for the isolation of GAGs in biological samples were applied to analyze various sulfated chondroitin sulfate- and hyaluronan-derived disaccharides using fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE). Applications to biologic samples of clinical importance include blood serum, lens capsule tissue and urine. The sample preparation protocol followed by FACE analysis allows quantification with an optimal linearity over the concentration range 1.0–220.0 µg/mL, affording a limit of quantitation of 50 ng of disaccharides. Validation of FACE results was performed by capillary electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oligosaccharides and Glyco-Conjugates)
Open AccessCommunication Antidepressant-Like Effects of the Ethyl Acetate Soluble Fraction of the Root Bark of Morus alba on the Immobility Behavior of Rats in the Forced Swim Test
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7981-7989; doi:10.3390/molecules19067981
Received: 23 April 2014 / Revised: 5 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 12 June 2014
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Abstract
In this study, the antidepressant-like effects of Morus alba fractions in rats were investigated in the forced swim test (FST). Male Wistar rats (9-week-old) were administered orally the M. alba ethyl acetate (EtOAc 30 and 100 mg/kg) and M. alba n-butanol [...] Read more.
In this study, the antidepressant-like effects of Morus alba fractions in rats were investigated in the forced swim test (FST). Male Wistar rats (9-week-old) were administered orally the M. alba ethyl acetate (EtOAc 30 and 100 mg/kg) and M. alba n-butanol fractions (n-BuOH 30 and 100 mg/kg) every day for 7 consecutive days. On day 7, 1 h after the final administration of the fractions, the rats were exposed to the FST. M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg induced a decrease in immobility behavior (p < 0.01) with a concomitant increase in both climbing (p < 0.05) and swimming (p < 0.05) behaviors when compared with the control group, and M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg decreased the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to the stress, as indicated by an attenuated corticosterone response and decreased c-fos immunoreactivity in the hippocampal and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) region. These findings demonstrated that M. alba EtOAc fraction have beneficial effects on depressive behaviors and restore both altered c-fos expression and HPA activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Polymerization Degrees, Molecular Weights and Protein-Binding Affinities of Condensed Tannin Fractions from a Leucaena leucocephala Hybrid
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7990-8010; doi:10.3390/molecules19067990
Received: 18 March 2014 / Revised: 11 May 2014 / Accepted: 21 May 2014 / Published: 12 June 2014
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Abstract
Condensed tannins (CTs) form insoluble complexes with proteins and are able to protect them from degradation, which could lead to rumen bypass proteins. Depending on their degrees of polymerization (DP) and molecular weights, CT fractions vary in their capability to bind proteins. [...] Read more.
Condensed tannins (CTs) form insoluble complexes with proteins and are able to protect them from degradation, which could lead to rumen bypass proteins. Depending on their degrees of polymerization (DP) and molecular weights, CT fractions vary in their capability to bind proteins. In this study, purified condensed tannins (CTs) from a Leucaena leucocephala hybrid were fractionated into five different molecular weight fractions. The structures of the CT fractions were investigated using 13C-NMR. The DP of the CT fractions were determined using a modified vanillin assay and their molecular weights were determined using Q-TOF LC-MS. The protein-binding affinities of the respective CT fractions were determined using a protein precipitation assay. The DP of the five CT fractions (fractions F1–F5) measured by the vanillin assay in acetic acid ranged from 4.86 to 1.56. The 13C-NMR results showed that the CT fractions possessed monomer unit structural heterogeneity. The number-average molecular weights (Mn) of the different fractions were 1265.8, 1028.6, 652.2, 562.2, and 469.6 for fractions F1, F2, F3, F4, and F5, respectively. The b values representing the CT quantities needed to bind half of the maximum precipitable bovine serum albumin increased with decreasing molecular weight—from fraction F1 to fraction F5 with values of 0.216, 0.295, 0.359, 0.425, and 0.460, respectively. This indicated that higher molecular weight fractions of CTs from L. leucocephala have higher protein-binding affinities than those with lower molecular weights. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Tetrabutylammonium Bromide (TBABr)-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) and Their Physical Properties
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8011-8026; doi:10.3390/molecules19068011
Received: 12 February 2014 / Revised: 26 May 2014 / Accepted: 5 June 2014 / Published: 13 June 2014
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Abstract
Density, viscosity and ionic conductivity data sets of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) formed by tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBABr) paired with ethlyene glycol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,5-pentanediol and glycerol hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) are reported. The properties of DES were measured at temperatures between 303 K [...] Read more.
Density, viscosity and ionic conductivity data sets of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) formed by tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBABr) paired with ethlyene glycol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,5-pentanediol and glycerol hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) are reported. The properties of DES were measured at temperatures between 303 K and 333 K for HBD percentages of 66.7% to 90%. The effects of HBDs under different temperature and percentages are systematically analyzed. As expected, the measured density and viscosity of the studied DESs decreased with an increase in temperature, while ionic conductivity increases with temperature. In general, DESs made of TBABr and glycerol showed the highest density and viscosity and the lowest ionic conductivity when compared to other DESs. The presence of an extra hydroxyl group on glycerol in a DES affected the properties of the DES. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Immobilization of Trichoderma harzianum α-Amylase on Treated Wool: Optimization and Characterization
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8027-8038; doi:10.3390/molecules19068027
Received: 8 March 2014 / Revised: 4 June 2014 / Accepted: 6 June 2014 / Published: 13 June 2014
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Abstract
α-Amylase from Trichoderma harzianum was covalently immobilized on activated wool by cyanuric chloride. Immobilized α-amylase exhibited 75% of its initial activity after 10 runs. The soluble and immobilized α-amylases exhibited maximum activity at pH values 6.0 and 6.5, respectively. The immobilized enzyme [...] Read more.
α-Amylase from Trichoderma harzianum was covalently immobilized on activated wool by cyanuric chloride. Immobilized α-amylase exhibited 75% of its initial activity after 10 runs. The soluble and immobilized α-amylases exhibited maximum activity at pH values 6.0 and 6.5, respectively. The immobilized enzyme was more thermally stable than the soluble one. Various substrates were hydrolyzed by immobilized α-amylase with high efficiencies compared to those of soluble α-amylase. The inhibition of the immobilized α-amylase by metal ions was low as compared with soluble enzyme. On the basis of the results obtained, immobilized α-amylase could be employed in the saccharification of starch processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Immobilization)
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Open AccessArticle Reduction of the Nitro Group to Amine by Hydroiodic Acid to Synthesize o-Aminophenol Derivatives as Putative Degradative Markers of Neuromelanin
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8039-8050; doi:10.3390/molecules19068039
Received: 4 May 2014 / Revised: 5 June 2014 / Accepted: 6 June 2014 / Published: 16 June 2014
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Abstract
Neuromelanin (NM) is produced in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) and in noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC). The synthesis of NM in those neurons is a component of brain aging and there is the evidence that this pigment [...] Read more.
Neuromelanin (NM) is produced in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) and in noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC). The synthesis of NM in those neurons is a component of brain aging and there is the evidence that this pigment can be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. NM is believed to derive from the oxidative polymerization of dopamine (DA) or norepinephrine (NE) with the participation of cysteine, dolichols and proteins. However, there are still unknown aspects in the chemical structure of NM from SN (SN-NM) and LC (LC-NM). In this study, we designed a new method to synthesize o-aminophenol compounds as putative degradation products of catecholamines and their metabolites which may be incorporated into NM. Those compounds are aminohydroxyphenylethylamine (AHPEA) isomers, aminohydroxyphenylacetic acid (AHPAA) isomers and aminohydroxyethylbenzene (AHEB) isomers, which are expected to arise from DA or NE, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) or 3,4-dihydroxyphenylmandelic acid (DOMA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (DOPE) or 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (DOPEG), respectively. These o-aminophenol compounds were synthesized by the nitration of phenol derivatives followed by reduction with hydroiodic acid (HI), and they could be identified by HPLC in HI hydrolysates of SN-NM and LC-NM. This degradative approach by HI hydrolysis allows the identification of catecholic precursors unique to SN-NM and LC-NM, which are present in catecholaminergic neurons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Synthesis)
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Open AccessArticle A Class of Promising Acaricidal Tetrahydroisoquinoline Derivatives: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Structure-Activity Relationships
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8051-8066; doi:10.3390/molecules19068051
Received: 1 April 2014 / Revised: 3 June 2014 / Accepted: 11 June 2014 / Published: 16 June 2014
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Abstract
As part of our continuing research on isoquinoline acaricidal drugs, this paper reports the preparation of a series of the 2-aryl-1-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines with various substituents on the N-phenyl ring, their in vitro acaricidal activities against Psoroptes cuniculi, a mange mite, and [...] Read more.
As part of our continuing research on isoquinoline acaricidal drugs, this paper reports the preparation of a series of the 2-aryl-1-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines with various substituents on the N-phenyl ring, their in vitro acaricidal activities against Psoroptes cuniculi, a mange mite, and discusses their SAR as well. The structures of all compounds, including 12 new ones, were elucidated by analysis of UV, IR, NMR, ESI-MS, HR-MS spectra and X-ray diffraction experiments. All target compounds showed varying degrees of activity at 0.4 mg/mL. Compound 1 showed the strongest activity, with a 50% lethal concentration value (LC50) of 0.2421 μg/mL and 50% lethal time value (LT50) of 7.79 h, comparable to the standard drug ivermectin (LC50 = 0.2474 μg/mL; LT50 = 20.9 h). The SAR showed that the substitution pattern on the N-aromatic ring exerted a significant effect on the activity. The substituents 2'-F, 3'-F, 2'-Cl, 2'-Br and 2'-CF3 remarkably enhanced the activity. Generally, for the isomers with the same substituents at different positions, the order of the activity was ortho > meta > para. It was concluded that the target compounds represent a class of novel promising candidates or lead compounds for the development of new tetrahydroisoquinoline acaricidal agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Bioresolution Production of (2R,3S)-Ethyl-3-phenylglycidate for Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of the Taxol C-13 Side Chain by Galactomyces geotrichum ZJUTZQ200, a New Epoxide-Hydrolase-Producing Strain
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8067-8079; doi:10.3390/molecules19068067
Received: 3 May 2014 / Revised: 6 June 2014 / Accepted: 11 June 2014 / Published: 16 June 2014
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Abstract
A newly isolated Galactomyces geotrichum ZJUTZQ200 strain containing an epoxide hydrolase was used to resolve racemic ethyl 3-phenylglycidate (rac-EPG) for producing (2R,3S)-ethyl-3-phenylglycidate ((2R,3S)-EPG). G. geotrichum ZJUTZQ200 was verified to be able to [...] Read more.
A newly isolated Galactomyces geotrichum ZJUTZQ200 strain containing an epoxide hydrolase was used to resolve racemic ethyl 3-phenylglycidate (rac-EPG) for producing (2R,3S)-ethyl-3-phenylglycidate ((2R,3S)-EPG). G. geotrichum ZJUTZQ200 was verified to be able to afford high enantioselectivity in whole cell catalyzed synthesis of this chiral phenylglycidate synthon. After the optimization of the enzymatic production and bioresolution conditions, (2R,3S)-EPG was afforded with high enantioselectivity (e.e.S > 99%, E > 49) after a 8 h reaction. The co-solvents, pH buffer solutions and substrate/cell ratio were found to have significant influences on the bioresolution properties of G. geotrichum ZJUTZQ200. Based on the bioresolution product (2R,3S)-EPG, taxol’s side chain ethyl (2R,3S)-3-benzoylamino-2-hydroxy-3-phenylpropionate was successfully synthesized by a chemoenzymatic route with high enantioselectivity (e.e.S > 95%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle RutheniumII(η6-arene) Complexes of Thiourea Derivatives: Synthesis, Characterization and Urease Inhibition
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8080-8092; doi:10.3390/molecules19068080
Received: 20 May 2014 / Revised: 10 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 16 June 2014
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Abstract
RuII(arene) complexes have emerged as a versatile class of compounds to design metallodrugs as potential treatment for a wide range of diseases including cancer and malaria. They feature modes of action that involve classic DNA binding like platinum anticancer drugs, [...] Read more.
RuII(arene) complexes have emerged as a versatile class of compounds to design metallodrugs as potential treatment for a wide range of diseases including cancer and malaria. They feature modes of action that involve classic DNA binding like platinum anticancer drugs, may covalent binding to proteins, or multimodal biological activity. Herein, we report the synthesis and urease inhibition activity of RuII(arene) complexes of the general formula [RuII(η6-p-cymene)(L)Cl2] and [RuII(η6-p-cymene)(PPh3)(L)Cl]PF6 with S-donor systems (L) based on heterocyclic thiourea derivatives. The compounds were characterized by 1H-, 13C{1H}- and 31P{1H}-NMR spectroscopy, as well as elemental analysis. The crystal structure of [chlorido(η6-p-cymene)(imidazolidine-2-thione)(triphenylphosphine)ruthenium(II)] hexafluorophosphate 11 was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. A signal in the range 175–183 ppm in the 13C{1H}-NMR spectrum indicates the presence of a thione rather than a thiolate. This observation was also confirmed in the solid state by X-ray diffraction analysis of 11 which shows a C=S bond length of 1.720 Å. The compounds were tested for urease inhibitory activity and the thiourea-derived ligands exhibited moderate activity, whereas their corresponding Ru(arene) complexes were not active. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Practical Applications of Metal Complexes)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Two Anti-Fungal Treatments (Metrafenone and Boscalid Plus Kresoxim-methyl) Applied to Vines on the Color and Phenol Profile of Different Red Wines
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8093-8111; doi:10.3390/molecules19068093
Received: 23 April 2014 / Revised: 6 June 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 16 June 2014
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Abstract
The effect of two anti-fungal treatments (metrafenone and boscalid + kresoxim-methyl) on the color and phenolic profile of Tempranillo and Graciano red wines has been studied. To evaluate possible modifications in color and phenolic composition of wines, control and wines elaborated with [...] Read more.
The effect of two anti-fungal treatments (metrafenone and boscalid + kresoxim-methyl) on the color and phenolic profile of Tempranillo and Graciano red wines has been studied. To evaluate possible modifications in color and phenolic composition of wines, control and wines elaborated with treated grapes under good agricultural practices were analyzed. Color was assessed by Glories and CIELab parameters. Color changes were observed for treated wines with boscalid + kresoxim-methyl, leading to the production of wines with less color vividness. Phenolic profile was characterized by HPLC analysis. Boscalid + kresoxim-methyl treatment promoted the greatest decrease on the phenolic content in wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins)
Open AccessArticle Article Expression, Purification, and Characterization of Cu/ZnSOD from Panax Ginseng
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8112-8123; doi:10.3390/molecules19068112
Received: 27 January 2014 / Revised: 25 May 2014 / Accepted: 5 June 2014 / Published: 16 June 2014
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Abstract
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) has a strong antioxidant effect, but the traditional SOD extraction method is not the most efficient method of SOD amplification. In this study, we report the cloning of the Cu/ZnSOD gene from Panax ginseng into a temperature-regulated expression plasmid, [...] Read more.
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) has a strong antioxidant effect, but the traditional SOD extraction method is not the most efficient method of SOD amplification. In this study, we report the cloning of the Cu/ZnSOD gene from Panax ginseng into a temperature-regulated expression plasmid, pBV220. Cu/ZnSOD inclusion bodies were expressed in E. coli at a high level. Then, the inclusion bodies were purified by ion-exchange chromatography and molecular sieve chromatography. Finally, we obtained stable SOD in the bacterial broth, with a protein content of 965 mg/L and enzyme specific activity of 9389.96 U/mg. These results provide a foundation for future studies on the antioxidant mechanisms of ginseng and the development and application of ginseng Cu/ZnSOD. Full article
Open AccessArticle Ethyl Ferulate, a Component with Anti-Inflammatory Properties for Emulsion-Based Creams
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8124-8139; doi:10.3390/molecules19068124
Received: 28 April 2014 / Revised: 10 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 17 June 2014
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Abstract
Ethyl ferulate (FAEE) has been widely studied due to its beneficial heath properties and, when incorporated in creams, shows a high sun protection capacity. Here we aimed to compare FAEE and its precursor, ferulic acid (FA), as free radical scavengers, inhibitors of [...] Read more.
Ethyl ferulate (FAEE) has been widely studied due to its beneficial heath properties and, when incorporated in creams, shows a high sun protection capacity. Here we aimed to compare FAEE and its precursor, ferulic acid (FA), as free radical scavengers, inhibitors of oxidants produced by leukocytes and the alterations in rheological properties when incorporated in emulsion based creams. The cell-free antiradical capacity of FAEE was decreased compared to FA. However, FAEE was more effective regarding the scavenging of reactive oxygen species produced by activated leukocytes. Stress and frequency sweep tests showed that the formulations are more elastic than viscous. The viscoelastic features of the formulations were confirmed in the creep and recovery assay and showed that the FAEE formulation was less susceptive to deformation. Liberation experiments showed that the rate of FAEE release from the emulsion was slower compared to FA. In conclusion, FAEE is more effective than FA as a potential inhibitor of oxidative damage produced by oxidants generated by leukocytes. The rheological alterations caused by the addition of FAEE are indicative of lower spreadability, which could be useful for formulations used in restricted areas of the skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Fungicidal Activity of Novel Chloro-Containing 1-Aryl-3-oxypyrazoles with an Oximino Ester or Oximino Amide Moiety
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8140-8150; doi:10.3390/molecules19068140
Received: 25 April 2014 / Revised: 9 June 2014 / Accepted: 12 June 2014 / Published: 17 June 2014
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Abstract
Six novel chloro-containing 1-aryl-3-oxypyrazoles TMaTMf with an oximino ester or an oximino amide moiety were prepared by the reaction of 1-aryl-1H-pyrazol-3-ols with benzyl bromide. Their structures were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR, MS, and elemental analysis. [...] Read more.
Six novel chloro-containing 1-aryl-3-oxypyrazoles TMaTMf with an oximino ester or an oximino amide moiety were prepared by the reaction of 1-aryl-1H-pyrazol-3-ols with benzyl bromide. Their structures were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR, MS, and elemental analysis. A preliminary in vitro bioassay indicated that compounds TMa, TMe and TMf displayed excellent fungicidal activity against Rhizoctonia solani and could be used as potential lead compounds for further development of novel fungicides. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Temperature and Preserving Agents on the Stability of Cornelian Cherries Anthocyanins
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8177-8188; doi:10.3390/molecules19068177
Received: 2 April 2014 / Revised: 29 May 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 17 June 2014
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Abstract
Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) fruits are known for their significant amounts of anthocyanins which can be used as natural food colorants. The storage stability of anthocyanins from these fruit extracts, at different temperatures (2 °C, 25 °C and 75 [...] Read more.
Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) fruits are known for their significant amounts of anthocyanins which can be used as natural food colorants. The storage stability of anthocyanins from these fruit extracts, at different temperatures (2 °C, 25 °C and 75 °C), pH 3.02, in the presence of two of the most widely employed food preserving agents (sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate) was investigated. The highest stability was exhibited by the anthocyanin extract stored at 2 °C without any added preservative, with half-life and constant rate values of 1443.8 h and 0.48 × 10−3 h−1, respectively. The highest value of the degradation rate constant (82.76 × 10−3/h) was obtained in the case of anthocyanin extract stored at 75 °C without any added preservative. Experimental results indicate that the storage degradation of anthocyanins followed first-order reaction kinetics under each of the investigated conditions. In aqueous solution, the food preservatives used were found to have a slight influence on the anthocyanins’ stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins)
Open AccessArticle Standardized Salvia miltiorrhiza Extract Suppresses Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation and Attenuates Steatohepatitis Induced by a Methionine-Choline Deficient Diet in Mice
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8189-8211; doi:10.3390/molecules19068189
Received: 6 May 2014 / Revised: 5 June 2014 / Accepted: 11 June 2014 / Published: 17 June 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1861 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of standardized extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza (SME) on gene and protein expression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-related factors in activated human hepatic stellate cells (HSC), and in mice with steatohepatitis induced by a [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of standardized extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza (SME) on gene and protein expression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-related factors in activated human hepatic stellate cells (HSC), and in mice with steatohepatitis induced by a methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet. Male C57BL/6J mice were placed on an MCD or control diet for 8 weeks and SME (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally every other day for 4 or 6 weeks. HSCs from the LX-2 cell line were treated with transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1) or TGF-β1 plus SME (0.1–10 μg/mL). To investigate the effect of SME on reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced condition, LX-2 cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or H2O2 plus SME (0.1–100 μg/mL). MCD administration for 12 weeks increased mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), TGF-β1, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), C-reactive protein (CRP), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), type I collagen, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9. TGF-β1-induced LX-2 cells exhibited similar gene expression patterns. SME treatment significantly reduced the mRNA and protein expression of NASH-related factors in the mouse model and HSCs. Histopathological liver analysis showed improved non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity and fibrosis score in SME-treated mice. The in vivo studies showed that SME had a significant effect at low doses. These results suggest that SME might be a potential therapeutic candidate for NAFLD treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Inhibitory Activity of the Flower Buds of Lonicera japonica Thunb. against Histamine Production and L-Histidine Decarboxylase in Human Keratinocytes
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8212-8219; doi:10.3390/molecules19068212
Received: 8 May 2014 / Revised: 4 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 17 June 2014
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Abstract
In previous studies we found that anionic surfactants such as sodium laurate (SL) and/or sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) exert actions on epidermal keratinocytes rather than mast cells to give rise of histamine production and skin itching through increasing the expression of the 53-kDa [...] Read more.
In previous studies we found that anionic surfactants such as sodium laurate (SL) and/or sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) exert actions on epidermal keratinocytes rather than mast cells to give rise of histamine production and skin itching through increasing the expression of the 53-kDa active form of l-histidine decarboxylase (HDC). In addition, with treatment of SL in a three-dimensional human keratinocyte culture, increases in both the 53-kDa HDC and histamine production are detected and thus this culture assay is applied to screen anti-itching materials from natural resources. In this study, the inhibitory activity of “Kin-gin-ka” (flower buds of Lonicera japonica Thunb., FLJ) against histamine production and expression of the active form of HDC were examined in this culture assay. FLJ is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, being used to treat fevers, coughs and some infectious diseases. The result showed both FLJ and chlorogenic acid had inhibitory activities against the expression of 53-kDa HDC and histamine production. However, chlorogenic acid showed a weaker effect on histamine production than that of FLJ, suggesting that other chemical constituents besides chlorogenic acid could contribute to the inhibitory activities. Thus, a further chemical study of FLJ is now under investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Biological Activities and Phytochemical Profiles of Extracts from Different Parts of Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens)
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8238-8260; doi:10.3390/molecules19068238
Received: 8 April 2014 / Revised: 16 May 2014 / Accepted: 23 May 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (306 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Besides being a useful building material, bamboo also is a potential source of bioactive substances. Although some studies have been performed to examine its use in terms of the biological activity, only certain parts of bamboo, especially the leaves or shoots, have [...] Read more.
Besides being a useful building material, bamboo also is a potential source of bioactive substances. Although some studies have been performed to examine its use in terms of the biological activity, only certain parts of bamboo, especially the leaves or shoots, have been studied. Comprehensive and comparative studies among different parts of bamboo would contribute to a better understanding and application of this knowledge. In this study, the biological activities of ethanol and water extracts from the leaves, branches, outer culm, inner culm, knots, rhizomes and roots of Phyllostachys pubescens, the major species of bamboo in Japan, were comparatively evaluated. The phytochemical profiles of these extracts were tentatively determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The results showed that extracts from different parts of bamboo had different chemical compositions and different antioxidative, antibacterial and antiallergic activities, as well as on on melanin biosynthesis. Outer culm and inner culm were found to be the most important sources of active compounds. 8-C-Glucosylapigenin, luteolin derivatives and chlorogenic acid were the most probable compounds responsible for the anti-allergy activity of these bamboo extracts. Our study suggests the potential use of bamboo as a functional ingredient in cosmetics or other health-related products. Full article
Open AccessArticle 3-(Methoxycarbonylmethylene)isobenzofuran-1-imines as a New Class of Potential Herbicides
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8261-8275; doi:10.3390/molecules19068261
Received: 23 April 2014 / Revised: 30 May 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
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Abstract
A novel class of potential herbicides, the 3-(methoxycarbonylmethylene) isobenzofuran-1-imines, has been discovered. The herbicidal activity has been tested on two particular molecules, (E)-methyl 2-[3-(butylimino)isobenzofuran-1(3H)-ylidene]acetate (1) and (E)-methyl 2-phenyl-2-[3-(phenylimino)isobenzofuran-1(3H)-ylidene]acetate (2), prepared [...] Read more.
A novel class of potential herbicides, the 3-(methoxycarbonylmethylene) isobenzofuran-1-imines, has been discovered. The herbicidal activity has been tested on two particular molecules, (E)-methyl 2-[3-(butylimino)isobenzofuran-1(3H)-ylidene]acetate (1) and (E)-methyl 2-phenyl-2-[3-(phenylimino)isobenzofuran-1(3H)-ylidene]acetate (2), prepared by palladium-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation of 2-alkynylbenzamides. Both compounds 1 and 2 showed a strong phytotoxic effect on both shoot and root systems of Arabidopsis thaliana. The effects observed on the shoot were similar for both molecules, but while compound 1 showed a stronger effect on root parameters (such as primary root length, root hair and density, showing lower ED50 values), compound 2 caused important malformations in root morphology. Our results indicate that these molecules are very promising synthetic herbicides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbonylation Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Magnetic Pycnoporus sanguineus-Loaded Alginate Composite Beads for Removing Dye from Aqueous Solutions
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8276-8288; doi:10.3390/molecules19068276
Received: 14 May 2014 / Revised: 6 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (891 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dye pollution in wastewater is a severe environmental problem because treating water containing dyes using conventional physical, chemical, and biological treatments is difficult. A conventional process is used to adsorb dyes and filter wastewater. Magnetic filtration is an emerging technology. In this [...] Read more.
Dye pollution in wastewater is a severe environmental problem because treating water containing dyes using conventional physical, chemical, and biological treatments is difficult. A conventional process is used to adsorb dyes and filter wastewater. Magnetic filtration is an emerging technology. In this study, magnetic Pycnoporus sanguineus-loaded alginate composite beads were employed to remove a dye solution. A white rot fungus, P. sanguineus, immobilized in alginate beads were used as a biosorbent to remove the dye solution. An alginate polymer could protect P. sanguineus in acidic environments. Superparamagnetic nanomaterials, iron oxide nanoparticles, were combined with alginate gels to form magnetic alginate composites. The magnetic guidability of alginate composites and biocompatibility of iron oxide nanoparticles facilitated the magnetic filtration and separation processes. The fungus cells were immobilized in loaded alginate composites to study the influence of the initial dye concentration and pH on the biosorption capacity. The composite beads could be removed easily post-adsorption by using a magnetic filtration process. When the amount of composite beads was varied, the results of kinetic studies of malachite green adsorption by immobilized cells of P. sanguineus fitted well with the pseudo-second-order model. The results indicated that the magnetic composite beads effectively adsorbed the dye solution from wastewater and were environmentally friendly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Nanomaterials Based on Fe3O4)
Open AccessArticle A PPARγ, NF-κB and AMPK-Dependent Mechanism May Be Involved in the Beneficial Effects of Curcumin in the Diabetic db/db Mice Liver
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8289-8302; doi:10.3390/molecules19068289
Received: 11 April 2014 / Revised: 6 June 2014 / Accepted: 12 June 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (997 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family which has been used to treat biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, rheumatism, cancer, sinusitis, hepatic disorders, hyperglycemia, obesity, and diabetes in both Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese Medicine. Suggested [...] Read more.
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family which has been used to treat biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, rheumatism, cancer, sinusitis, hepatic disorders, hyperglycemia, obesity, and diabetes in both Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese Medicine. Suggested mechanisms of action include the modulation of signal transduction cascades and effects on gene expression, however they remain to be elucidated. In this study, the expression of some proteins responsible for transcription factors, inflammation, and metabolic control were evaluated by western blot in 15-week-old db/db mice livers treated with curcumin 0.75% mixed in their diet for 8 weeks. In addition, nitrosative stress was evaluated. Curcumin increased the expression of AMPK and PPARγ, and diminished NF-κB protein in db/db mice. However, it did not modify the expression of PGC-1α or SIRT1. Nitrosative stress present in db/db mice livers was determined by a unique nitrotyrosylated protein band (75 kDa) and was not reverted with curcumin. In conclusion, curcumin regulates the expression of AMPK, PPARγ, and NF-κB; suggesting a beneficial effect for treatment of T2DM complications. In order to observe best beneficial effects it is desirable to administer curcumin in the earlier states of T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle Evidence for the Involvement of Spinal Cord-Inhibitory and Cytokines-Modulatory Mechanisms in the Anti-Hyperalgesic Effect of Hecogenin Acetate, a Steroidal Sapogenin-Acetylated, in Mice
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8303-8316; doi:10.3390/molecules19068303
Received: 19 April 2014 / Revised: 9 June 2014 / Accepted: 13 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
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Abstract
Hecogenin is a steroidal sapogenin largely drawn from the plants of the genus Agave, commonly known as ‘sisal’, and is one of the important precursors used by the pharmaceutical industry for the synthesis of steroid hormones. Hecogenin acetate (HA) is a steroidal [...] Read more.
Hecogenin is a steroidal sapogenin largely drawn from the plants of the genus Agave, commonly known as ‘sisal’, and is one of the important precursors used by the pharmaceutical industry for the synthesis of steroid hormones. Hecogenin acetate (HA) is a steroidal sapogenin-acetylated that produces antinociceptive activity. Thus, we evaluate the antihyperalgesic profile of HA in mice in inflammatory models, as well as its possible involvement with c-fos expression on spinal cord area and cytokines to produces analgesic profile. Acute pretreatment with HA (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg; i.p.) inhibited the development of mechanical hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, TNF-α, dopamine and PGE2. Additionally, the immunofluorescence data demonstrated that acute pretreatment with HA, at all doses tested, significantly inhibited Fos-like expression in the spinal cord dorsal horn normally observed after carrageenan-inflammation. Moreover, HA did not affect the motor performance of the mice as tested in the Rota rod test. This antinociceptive profile seems to be related, at least in part, to a reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as IL-1β. The present results suggest that HA attenuates mechanical hyperalgesia by blocking the neural transmission of pain at the spinal cord levels and by cytokines-inhibitory mechanisms. Full article
Open AccessArticle Xanthenedione Derivatives, New Promising Antioxidant and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor Agents
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8317-8333; doi:10.3390/molecules19068317
Received: 12 May 2014 / Revised: 8 June 2014 / Accepted: 11 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (357 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Natural and synthetic xanthone derivatives are well-known for their ability to act as antioxidants and/or enzyme inhibitors. This paper aims to present a successful synthetic methodology towards xanthenedione derivatives and the study of their aromatization to xanthones. Additionally their ability to reduce [...] Read more.
Natural and synthetic xanthone derivatives are well-known for their ability to act as antioxidants and/or enzyme inhibitors. This paper aims to present a successful synthetic methodology towards xanthenedione derivatives and the study of their aromatization to xanthones. Additionally their ability to reduce Fe(III), to scavenge DPPH radicals and to inhibit AChE was evaluated. The results demonstrated that xanthenedione derivative 5e, bearing a catechol unit, showed higher reduction capacity than BHT and similar to quercetin, strong DPPH scavenging activity (EC50 = 3.79 ± 0.06 µM) and it was also showed to be a potent AChEI (IC50 = 31.0 ± 0.09 µM) when compared to galantamine (IC50 = 211.8 ± 9.5 µM). Full article
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Open AccessArticle RNA Interference of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2) Genes Expression Prolongs the Shelf Life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L.) Papaya Fruit
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8350-8362; doi:10.3390/molecules19068350
Received: 8 April 2014 / Revised: 19 May 2014 / Accepted: 30 May 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6). Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants. Full article
Open AccessArticle Properties for Sourcing Nigerian Larvicidal Plants
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8363-8372; doi:10.3390/molecules19068363
Received: 16 April 2014 / Revised: 12 June 2014 / Accepted: 13 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
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Abstract
Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of chikungunya, yellow and dengue fevers. Dengue fever is the major cause of child morbidity and hospitalisation in some Asian and African countries, while yellow fever is prevalent in Nigeria. The development of resistance to the [...] Read more.
Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of chikungunya, yellow and dengue fevers. Dengue fever is the major cause of child morbidity and hospitalisation in some Asian and African countries, while yellow fever is prevalent in Nigeria. The development of resistance to the available insecticides has necessitated the continued search for safer ones from plants. Eighteen plant extracts with ethnomedical claims of or demonstrated febrifuge, antimalarial, insecticidal and insect repellent biological activities were tested for activity against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. About 61% of the eighteen extracts demonstrated high to moderate larvicidal activity. Extracts of Piper nigrum and Abrus precatorius seeds were the most active and the larvicidal constituent(s) of the latter should be determined. Full article
Open AccessArticle α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity of Polyphenols from the Burs of Castanea mollissima Blume
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8373-8386; doi:10.3390/molecules19068373
Received: 15 April 2014 / Revised: 30 May 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
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Abstract
Polyphenol extracts from the burs of Castanea mollissima Blume (CMPE) exhibited potential antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of CMPE were assessed as a means of elucidating the mechanism behind its hypoglycemic activities. In vitro studies showed that CMPE [...] Read more.
Polyphenol extracts from the burs of Castanea mollissima Blume (CMPE) exhibited potential antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of CMPE were assessed as a means of elucidating the mechanism behind its hypoglycemic activities. In vitro studies showed that CMPE significantly inhibited both yeast α-glucosidase, through a noncompetitive mode with an IC50 of 0.33 μg/mL, and rat intestinal α-glucosidase. In vivo studies revealed that oral administration of CMPE at doses of 600 mg/kg significantly reduced postprandial blood glucose levels by 27.2% in normal rats following sucrose challenges. Gel permeation chromatography revealed that CMPE exhibited typical characteristics of high-molecular-mass polymers with mean (Mn) and weight (Mw) average molecular weights of 35.4 and 50.7 kDa, respectively, and a polydispersity (Mw/Mn) of 1.432. Acid hydrolysis analysis indicated the presence of ellagitannins. These data suggest that CMPE, enriched with ellagitannins, would be an efficacious dietary supplement for diabetes management through the inhibition of alpha-glucosidase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Microwave Resonant and Zero-Field Absorption Study of Doped Magnetite Prepared by a Co-Precipitation Method
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8387-8401; doi:10.3390/molecules19068387
Received: 12 May 2014 / Revised: 7 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
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Abstract
Fe3O4 and ZnxFe3−xO4 pure and doped magnetite magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared in aqueous solution (Series A) or in a water-ethyl alcohol mixture (Series B) by the co-precipitation method. Only one ferromagnetic resonance line [...] Read more.
Fe3O4 and ZnxFe3−xO4 pure and doped magnetite magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared in aqueous solution (Series A) or in a water-ethyl alcohol mixture (Series B) by the co-precipitation method. Only one ferromagnetic resonance line was observed in all cases under consideration indicating that the materials are magnetically uniform. The shortfall in the resonance fields from 3.27 kOe (for the frequency of 9.5 GHz) expected for spheres can be understood taking into account the dipolar forces, magnetoelasticity, or magnetocrystalline anisotropy. All samples show non-zero low field absorption. For Series A samples the grain size decreases with an increase of the Zn content. In this case zero field absorption does not correlate with the changes of the grain size. For Series B samples the grain size and zero field absorption behavior correlate with each other. The highest zero-field absorption corresponded to 0.2 zinc concentration in both A and B series. High zero-field absorption of Fe3O4 ferrite magnetic NPs can be interesting for biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Nanomaterials Based on Fe3O4)
Open AccessArticle Palladium Catalyzed Heck Arylation of 2,3-Dihydrofuran—Effect of the Palladium Precursor
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8402-8413; doi:10.3390/molecules19068402
Received: 26 May 2014 / Revised: 10 June 2014 / Accepted: 12 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
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Abstract
Heck arylation of 2,3-dihydrofuran with iodobenzene was carried out in systems consisting of different palladium precursors (Pd2(dba)3, Pd(acac)2, PdCl2(cod), [PdCl(allyl)]2, PdCl2(PhCN)2, PdCl2(PPh3)2) [...] Read more.
Heck arylation of 2,3-dihydrofuran with iodobenzene was carried out in systems consisting of different palladium precursors (Pd2(dba)3, Pd(acac)2, PdCl2(cod), [PdCl(allyl)]2, PdCl2(PhCN)2, PdCl2(PPh3)2) and ionic liquids (CILs) with L-prolinate or L-lactate anions. All the tested CILs caused remarkable increases of the conversion values and in all of the reactions 2-phenyl-2,3-dihydrofuran (3) was obtained as the main product with a yield of up to 59.2%. The highest conversions of iodobenzene were achieved for the [PdCl(allyl)]2 precursor. Formation of Pd(0) nanoparticles, representing the resting state of the catalyst, was evidenced by TEM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Palladium Catalysts)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Crystal Structure, DFT Studies and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of 3,4-Dimethoxybenzenamine Schiff Bases
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8414-8433; doi:10.3390/molecules19068414
Received: 8 May 2014 / Revised: 4 June 2014 / Accepted: 12 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (699 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Schiff bases of 3,4-dimethoxybenzenamine 125 were synthesized and evaluated for their antioxidant activity. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the characterizations of compounds 13, 15 and 16 were supported by crystal X-ray determinations [...] Read more.
Schiff bases of 3,4-dimethoxybenzenamine 125 were synthesized and evaluated for their antioxidant activity. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the characterizations of compounds 13, 15 and 16 were supported by crystal X-ray determinations and their geometrical parameters were compared with theoretical DFT calculations at the B3LYP level of theory. Furthermore, the X-ray crystal data of two non-crystalline compounds 8 and 18 were theoretically calculated and compared with the practical values of compounds 13, 15, 16 and found a good agreement. The compounds showed good DPPH scavenging activity ranging from 10.12 to 84.34 μM where compounds 14 and 6 showed stronger activity than the standard n-propyl gallate. For the superoxide anion radical assay, compounds 13 showed better activity than the standard. Full article
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Open AccessArticle High-Throughput Assay of Levansucrase Variants in Search of Feasible Catalysts for the Synthesis of Fructooligosaccharides and Levan
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8434-8455; doi:10.3390/molecules19068434
Received: 28 March 2014 / Revised: 10 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 20 June 2014
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Abstract
Bacterial levansucrases polymerize fructose residues of sucrose to β-2,6 linked fructans—fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and levan. While β-2,1-linked FOS are widely recognized as prebiotics, the health-related effects of β-2,6 linked FOS are scarcely studied as they are not commercially available. Levansucrase Lsc3 (Lsc-3) of [...] Read more.
Bacterial levansucrases polymerize fructose residues of sucrose to β-2,6 linked fructans—fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and levan. While β-2,1-linked FOS are widely recognized as prebiotics, the health-related effects of β-2,6 linked FOS are scarcely studied as they are not commercially available. Levansucrase Lsc3 (Lsc-3) of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato has very high catalytic activity and stability making it a promising biotechnological catalyst for FOS and levan synthesis. In this study we evaluate feasibility of several high-throughput methods for screening and preliminary characterization of levansucrases using 36 Lsc3 mutants as a test panel. Heterologously expressed and purified His-tagged levansucrase variants were studied for: (1) sucrose-splitting activity; (2) FOS production; (3) ability and kinetics of levan synthesis; (4) thermostability in a Thermofluor assay. Importantly, we show that sucrose-splitting activity as well as the ability to produce FOS can both be evaluated using permeabilized levansucrase-expressing E. coli transformants as catalysts. For the first time we demonstrate the key importance of Trp109, His113, Glu146 and Glu236 for the catalysis of Lsc3. Cost-effective and high-throughput methods presented here are applicable not only in the levansucrase assay, but have a potential to be adapted for high-throughput (automated) study of other enzymes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oligosaccharides and Glyco-Conjugates)
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Open AccessArticle 3-Aminothiophene-2-Acylhydrazones: Non-Toxic, Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Lead-Candidates
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8456-8471; doi:10.3390/molecules19068456
Received: 19 May 2014 / Revised: 5 June 2014 / Accepted: 6 June 2014 / Published: 20 June 2014
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Abstract
Different chemotypes are described as anti-inflammatory. Among them the N-acylhydrazones (NAH) are highlighted by their privileged structure nature, being present in several anti-inflammatory drug-candidates. In this paper a series of functionalized 3-aminothiophene-2-acylhydrazone derivatives 5ai were designed, synthesized and bioassayed. [...] Read more.
Different chemotypes are described as anti-inflammatory. Among them the N-acylhydrazones (NAH) are highlighted by their privileged structure nature, being present in several anti-inflammatory drug-candidates. In this paper a series of functionalized 3-aminothiophene-2-acylhydrazone derivatives 5ai were designed, synthesized and bioassayed. These new derivatives showed great anti-inflammatory and analgesic potency and efficacy. Compounds 5a and 5d stand out in this respect, and were also active in CFA-induced arthritis in rats. After daily treatment for seven days with 5a and 5d (50 µmol/Kg), by oral administration, these compounds were not renal or hepatotoxic nor immunosuppressive. Compounds 5a and 5d also displayed good drug-scores and low risk toxicity calculated in silico using the program OSIRIS Property Explorer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Matrilin-2 Is Proteolytically Cleaved by ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8472-8487; doi:10.3390/molecules19068472
Received: 8 April 2014 / Revised: 7 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
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Abstract
Matrilin-2 is a widely distributed, oligomeric extracellular matrix protein that forms a filamentous network by binding to a variety of different extracellular matrix proteins. We found matrilin-2 proteolytic products in transfected cell lines in vitro and in mouse tissues in vivo. [...] Read more.
Matrilin-2 is a widely distributed, oligomeric extracellular matrix protein that forms a filamentous network by binding to a variety of different extracellular matrix proteins. We found matrilin-2 proteolytic products in transfected cell lines in vitro and in mouse tissues in vivo. Two putative cleavage sites were identified in the unique domain of matrilin-2; the first site was located between D851 and L852 in the middle of the domain and the second, at the boundary with the coiled-coil domain at the C-terminus. Deletion of the entire unique domain eliminated the proteolysis of matrilin-2. While the first cleavage site was present in all matrilin-2 oligomers, the second cleavage site became apparent only in the matrilin-2 hetero-oligomers with matrilin-1 or matrilin-3. Analysis using a variety of extracellular protease inhibitors suggested that this proteolytic activity was derived from a member or several members  of the ADAMTS family. Recombinant human ADAMTS-4 (aggrecanase-1) and ADAMTS-5 (aggrecanase-2), but not ADAMTS-1, cleaved recombinant matrilin-2, thereby yielding matrilin-2 proteolytic peptides at the predicted sizes. These results suggest that ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 may destabilize the filamentous network in the extracellular matrix by cleaving matrilin-2 in both homo-oligomers and hetero-oligomers. Full article
Open AccessArticle In Vivo Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi Activity of Hydro-Ethanolic Extract and Isolated Active Principles from Aristeguietia glutinosa and Mechanism of Action Studies
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8488-8502; doi:10.3390/molecules19068488
Received: 16 March 2014 / Revised: 20 May 2014 / Accepted: 5 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (505 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The currently available treatments for Chagas disease show limited therapeutic potential and are associated with serious side effects. Attempting to find alternative drugs isolated from Nature as agents against Trypanosoma cruzi has been our goal. Recently, we have demonstrated the in [...] Read more.
The currently available treatments for Chagas disease show limited therapeutic potential and are associated with serious side effects. Attempting to find alternative drugs isolated from Nature as agents against Trypanosoma cruzi has been our goal. Recently, we have demonstrated the in vitro anti-T. cruzi activities of two secondary metabolites isolated from the hydro-ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Aristeguietia glutinosa (Lam.), (family Asteraceae). These active principles displayed poor hemolytic activity, low toxicity against murine macrophages, and absence of mutagenicity. Herein, proof of concept in vivo studies of the whole hydro-ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Aristeguietia glutinosa and of the most active component isolated from the hydro-ethanolic extract, i.e., (+)-15-hydroxy-7-labden-17-al, was done in a murine acute model of Chagas disease. Both treatments caused a decrease in the animals’ parasitemia. Metabolomic mechanism of action studies were done by 1H-NMR, both on the extract and on the active compounds, examining the effects of the metabolites both on membrane sterol biosynthesis and mitochondrial dehydrogenases, whereby we found that one of the metabolites inhibited the activity of the parasite mitochondrial dehydrogenases and the other inhibited the biosynthesis of parasite membrane sterols. The results are interesting in the context of popular use of plants for the treatment of Chagas disease. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dehydroabietic Acid Isolated from Commiphora opobalsamum Causes Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation of Pulmonary Artery via PI3K/Akt-eNOS Signaling Pathway
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8503-8517; doi:10.3390/molecules19068503
Received: 12 March 2014 / Revised: 16 June 2014 / Accepted: 17 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Commiphora opobalsamum is a Traditional Chinese Medicine used to treat traumatic injury, mainly by relaxing blood vessels. In this study, two diterpenes, dehydroabietic acid (DA) and sandaracopimaric acid (SA) were obtained from it by a bioassay-guided approach using [...] Read more.
Commiphora opobalsamum is a Traditional Chinese Medicine used to treat traumatic injury, mainly by relaxing blood vessels. In this study, two diterpenes, dehydroabietic acid (DA) and sandaracopimaric acid (SA) were obtained from it by a bioassay-guided approach using isolated rat pulmonary artery rings. The structures of the two compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR, HR-ESI-MS). Both DA and SA reduced the contraction of phenylephrine-induced pulmonary arteries in a concentration-dependent manner, and endothelium contributed greatly to the vasodilatory effect of DA. This effect of DA was attenuated by NG-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, an eNOS inhibitor). Meanwhile, DA increased nitric oxide (NO) production, along with the increase of phosphorylation level of eNOS and Akt in endothelial cells. LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) could reverse this effect, which suggested the endothelial PI3K/Akt pathway involved in the mechanism underlying DA-induced relaxation of pulmonary artery. This work provided evidence of vasorelaxant substances in Commiphora opobalsamum and validated that PI3K/Akt-eNOS pathway was associated with DA-induced pulmonary artery vasodilation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Physico-Chemical Properties, Antioxidant Activity and Mineral Contents of Pineapple Genotypes Grown in China
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8518-8532; doi:10.3390/molecules19068518
Received: 24 April 2014 / Revised: 12 June 2014 / Accepted: 12 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
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Abstract
The fruit physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of 26 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] genotypes grown in China were measured. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of these pineapple genotypes. Sucrose was the dominant sugar in [...] Read more.
The fruit physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of 26 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] genotypes grown in China were measured. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of these pineapple genotypes. Sucrose was the dominant sugar in all 26 genotypes, while citric acid was the principal organic acid. Potassium, calcium and magnesium were the major mineral constituents. The ascorbic acid (AsA) content ranged from 5.08 to 33.57 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW), while the total phenolic (TP) content varied from 31.48 to 77.55 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g FW. The two parameters in the predominant cultivars Comte de Paris and Smooth Cayenne were relative low. However, MD-2 indicated the highest AsA and TP contents (33.57 mg/100 g and 77.55 mg GAE/100 g FM, respectively), and it also showed the strongest antioxidant capacity 22.85 and 17.30 μmol TE/g FW using DPPH and TEAC methods, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of pineapple was correlated with the contents of phenolics, flavonoids and AsA. The present study provided important information for the further application of those pineapple genotypes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Cis-[Cr(C2O4)(pm)(OH2)2]+ Coordination Ion as a Specific Sensing Ion for H2O2 Detection in HT22 Cells
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8533-8543; doi:10.3390/molecules19068533
Received: 8 April 2014 / Revised: 30 May 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the application of the coordinated cis-[Cr(C2O4)(pm)(OH)2]+ cation where pm denotes pyridoxamine, as a specific sensing ion for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the application of the coordinated cis-[Cr(C2O4)(pm)(OH)2]+ cation where pm denotes pyridoxamine, as a specific sensing ion for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The proposed method for H2O2 detection includes two key steps. The first step is based on the nonenzymatic decarboxylation of pyruvate upon reaction with H2O2, while the second step is based on the interaction of cis-[Cr(C2O4)(pm)(OH2)2]+ with the CO2 released in the previous step. Using this method H2O2 generated during glutamate-induced oxidative stress was detected in HT22 hippocampal cells. The coordination ion cis-[Cr(C2O4)(pm)(OH2)2]+ and the spectrophotometric stopped-flow technique were applied to determine the CO2 concentration in cell lysates, supernatants and cell-free culture medium. Prior to CO2 assessment pyruvate was added to all samples studied. Pyruvate reacts with H2O2 with 1:1 stoichiometry, and consequently the amount of CO2 released in this reaction is equivalent to the amount of H2O2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Loddigesiinols G–J: α-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Dendrobium loddigesii
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8544-8555; doi:10.3390/molecules19068544
Received: 10 May 2014 / Revised: 10 June 2014 / Accepted: 13 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (448 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Four new polyphenols, loddigesiinols G–J (compounds 14) and a known compound, crepidatuol B (5), were isolated from the stems of Dendrobium loddigesii that have long been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine and have recently been used to [...] Read more.
Four new polyphenols, loddigesiinols G–J (compounds 14) and a known compound, crepidatuol B (5), were isolated from the stems of Dendrobium loddigesii that have long been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine and have recently been used to treat type 2 diabetes. Compounds 15 structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of compounds 14 were determined using theoretical calculations of electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and the absolute configuration of compound 5 was determined by a comparison of the experimental ECD spectra and the literature data. Compounds 15 are strong inhibitors of α-glucosidase, with IC50 values of 16.7, 10.9, 2.7, 3.2, and 18.9 μM, respectively. Their activities were significantly stronger than trans-resveratrol as a positive control (IC50 values of 27.9 μM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Mycelium-Bound Lipase from a Locally Isolated Strain of Geotrichum candidum
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8556-8570; doi:10.3390/molecules19068556
Received: 10 April 2014 / Revised: 29 May 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mycelium-bound lipase (MBL), from a locally isolated Geotrichum candidum strain, was produced and characterized as a natural immobilized lipase. A time course study of its lipolytic activity in 1 L liquid broth revealed the maximum MBL activity at 4 h for mycelium [...] Read more.
Mycelium-bound lipase (MBL), from a locally isolated Geotrichum candidum strain, was produced and characterized as a natural immobilized lipase. A time course study of its lipolytic activity in 1 L liquid broth revealed the maximum MBL activity at 4 h for mycelium cells harvested after 54 h. The yield and specific activity of MBL were 3.87 g/L dry weight and 508.33 U/g protein, respectively, while less than 0.2 U/mL lipase activity was detected in the culture supernatant. Prolonged incubation caused release of the bound lipase into the growth medium. The growth pattern of G. candidum, and production and properties of MBL were not affected by the scale. The stability of mycelia harboring lipase (MBL), harvested and lyophilized after 54 h, studied at 4 °C depicted a loss of 4.3% and 30% in MBL activity after 1 and 8 months, while the activity of free lipase was totally lost after 14 days of storage. The MBL from G. candidum displayed high substrate selectivity for unsaturated fatty acids containing a cis-9 double bond, even in crude form. This unique specificity of MBL could be a direct, simple and inexpensive way in the fats and oil industry for the selective hydrolysis or transesterification of cis-9 fatty acid residues in natural triacylglycerols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of a Triple-Helical Peptide with Quenched Fluorophores for Optical Imaging of MMP-2 and MMP-9 Proteolytic Activity
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8571-8588; doi:10.3390/molecules19068571
Received: 18 April 2014 / Revised: 5 June 2014 / Accepted: 11 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2155 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9, the gelatinases, have consistently been associated with tumor progression. The development of gelatinase-specific probes will be critical for identifying in vivo gelatinoic activity to understand the molecular role of the gelatinases in tumor development. Recently, a [...] Read more.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9, the gelatinases, have consistently been associated with tumor progression. The development of gelatinase-specific probes will be critical for identifying in vivo gelatinoic activity to understand the molecular role of the gelatinases in tumor development. Recently, a self-assembling homotrimeric triple-helical peptide (THP), incorporating a sequence from type V collagen, with high substrate specificity to the gelatinases has been developed. To determine whether this THP would be suitable for imaging protease activity, 5-carboxyfluorescein (5FAM) was conjugated, resulting in 5FAM3-THP and 5FAM6-THP, which were quenched up to 50%. 5FAM6-THP hydrolysis by MMP-2 and MMP-9 displayed kcat/KM values of 1.5 × 104 and 5.4 × 103 M−1 s−1, respectively. Additionally 5FAM6-THP visualized gelatinase activity in gelatinase positive HT-1080 cells, but not in gelatinase negative MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, the fluorescence in the HT-1080 cells was greatly attenuated by the addition of a MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibitor, SB-3CT, indicating that the observed fluorescence release was mediated by gelatinase proteolysis and not non-specific proteolysis of the THPs. These results demonstrate that THPs fully substituted with fluorophores maintain their substrate specificity to the gelatinases in human cancer cells and may be useful in in vivo molecular imaging of gelatinase activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Probes)
Open AccessArticle Catalytic Behavior of Lipase Immobilized onto Congo Red and PEG-Decorated Particles
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8610-8628; doi:10.3390/molecules19068610
Received: 4 May 2014 / Revised: 20 June 2014 / Accepted: 20 June 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (565 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-decorated polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles with mean hydrodynamic diameter (D) and zeta–potential (ζ) of (286 ± 15) nm and (−50 ± 5) mV, respectively, were modified by the adsorption of Congo red (CR). The PS/PEG/CR particles presented [...] Read more.
Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-decorated polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles with mean hydrodynamic diameter (D) and zeta–potential (ζ) of (286 ± 15) nm and (−50 ± 5) mV, respectively, were modified by the adsorption of Congo red (CR). The PS/PEG/CR particles presented D and ζ values of (290 ± 19) nm and (−36 ± 5) mV, respectively. The adsorption of lipase onto PS/PEG or PS/PEG/CR particles at (24 ± 1) °C and pH 7 changed the mean D value to (380 ± 20) and (405 ± 11) nm, respectively, and ζ value to (−32 ± 4) mV and (−25 ± 2) mV, respectively. The kinetic parameters of the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl butyrate were determined for free lipase, lipase immobilized onto PS/PEG and PS/PEG/CR particles. Lipase on PS/PEG/CR presented the largest Michaelis-Menten constant (KM), but also the highest Vmax and kcat values. Moreover, it could be recycled seven times, losing a maximum 10% or 30% of the original enzymatic activity at 40 °C or 25 °C, respectively. Although lipases immobilized onto PS/PEG particles presented the smallest KM values, the reactions were comparatively the slowest and recycling was not possible. Hydrolysis reactions performed in the temperature range of 25 °C to 60 °C with free lipases and lipases immobilized onto PS/PEG/CR particles presented an optimal temperature at 40 °C. At 60 °C free lipases and lipases immobilized onto PS/PEG/CR presented ~80% and ~50% of the activity measured at 40 °C, indicating good thermal stability. Bioconjugation effects between CR and lipase were evidenced by circular dichroism spectroscopy and spectrophotometry. CR molecules mediate the open state conformation of the lipase lid and favor the substrate approaching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Immobilization)
Open AccessArticle Potential Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Hydrophilic Fraction of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Seed Oil on Breast Cancer Cell Lines
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8644-8660; doi:10.3390/molecules19068644
Received: 23 April 2014 / Revised: 9 June 2014 / Accepted: 18 June 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (614 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, we characterized conjugated linolenic acids (e.g., punicic acid) as the major components of the hydrophilic fraction (80% aqueous methanol extract) from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed oil (PSO) and evaluated their anti-inflammatory potential on some human colon (HT29 [...] Read more.
In this work, we characterized conjugated linolenic acids (e.g., punicic acid) as the major components of the hydrophilic fraction (80% aqueous methanol extract) from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed oil (PSO) and evaluated their anti-inflammatory potential on some human colon (HT29 and HCT116), liver (HepG2 and Huh7), breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and prostate (DU145) cancer lines. Our results demonstrated that punicic acid and its congeners induce a significant decrease of cell viability for two breast cell lines with a related increase of the cell cycle G0/G1 phase respect to untreated cells. Moreover, the evaluation of a great panel of cytokines expressed by MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells showed that the levels of VEGF and nine pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17, IP-10, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MCP-1 and TNF-α) decreased in a dose dependent way with increasing amounts of the hydrophilic extracts of PSO, supporting the evidence of an anti-inflammatory effect. Taken together, the data herein suggest a potential synergistic cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant role of the polar compounds from PSO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Three-Dimensional Heterocycles: New Uracil-Based Structures Obtained by Nucleophilic Substitution at the sp2 Carbon of Bromoisoxazoline
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8661-8678; doi:10.3390/molecules19068661
Received: 7 May 2014 / Revised: 4 June 2014 / Accepted: 13 June 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
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Abstract
The regioisomeric cycloadducts of bromonitrile oxide and N-benzoyl-2,3-oxaza-norborn-5-ene were easily prepared and elaborated into a novel class of uracil-based scaffolds. The key-synthetic step is the nucleophilic substitution at the sp2 carbon atom of the bromoisoxazoline three-dimensional heterocycles. The protocol to [...] Read more.
The regioisomeric cycloadducts of bromonitrile oxide and N-benzoyl-2,3-oxaza-norborn-5-ene were easily prepared and elaborated into a novel class of uracil-based scaffolds. The key-synthetic step is the nucleophilic substitution at the sp2 carbon atom of the bromoisoxazoline three-dimensional heterocycles. The protocol to perform the nucleophilic substitution of uracil anions was optimized and adapted to the steric requirements of the substrates. A library of pyrimidine derivatives was prepared in very good yields and the products were fully characterized. They are proposed as nucleoside analogues and as synthons for β-turn motifs within PNA structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cycloaddition Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Production of the Anti-Inflammatory Compound 6-O-Palmitoyl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcampesterol by Callus Cultures of Lopezia racemosa Cav. (Onagraceae)
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8679-8690; doi:10.3390/molecules19068679
Received: 7 May 2014 / Revised: 13 June 2014 / Accepted: 16 June 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
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Abstract
Lopezia racemosa Cav. is a plant used in Mexican traditional medicine to heal inflammatory diseases. From this plant we isolated the novel compound 6-O-palmitoyl- 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcampesterol (1) and 6-O-palmitoyl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-sitosterol (2), previously [...] Read more.
Lopezia racemosa Cav. is a plant used in Mexican traditional medicine to heal inflammatory diseases. From this plant we isolated the novel compound 6-O-palmitoyl- 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcampesterol (1) and 6-O-palmitoyl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-sitosterol (2), previously reported to have cytotoxic activity on several cancer cell lines. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of 1 in vivo by mouse ear edema induced with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and 57.14% inhibition was observed. The aim of our study was to obtain callus cultures derived from this plant species with the ability to produce the compounds of interest. Callus cultures were initiated on MS basal medium amended with variable amounts of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), combined or not with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Ten treatments with these growth regulators were carried out, using in vitro germinated seedlings as source of three different explants: hypocotyl, stem node, and leaf. Highest yield of 1 was observed on callus derived from leaf explants growing in medium containing 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.5 mg/L BAP. Selected callus lines produced less 1 than wild plants but the in vitro cultured seedlings showed higher production. So we conclude that it could be attractive to further investigate their metabolic potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Propylene Glycol Alginate and Sucrose Esters on the Physicochemical Properties of Modified Starch-Stabilized Beverage Emulsions
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8691-8706; doi:10.3390/molecules19068691
Received: 17 March 2014 / Revised: 31 May 2014 / Accepted: 12 June 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
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Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of main emulsion components namely, modified starch, propylene glycol alginate (PGA), sucrose laurate and sucrose stearate on creaming index, cloudiness, average droplet size and conductivity of soursop beverage emulsions. Generally, the use of different [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of main emulsion components namely, modified starch, propylene glycol alginate (PGA), sucrose laurate and sucrose stearate on creaming index, cloudiness, average droplet size and conductivity of soursop beverage emulsions. Generally, the use of different emulsifiers or a mixture of emulsifiers has a significant (p < 0.05) effect on the response variables studied. The addition of PGA had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on the creaming index at 55 °C, while PGA-stabilized (PGA1) emulsions showed low creaming stability at both 25 °C and 55 °C. Conversely, the utilization of PGA either as a mixture or sole emulsifier, showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher cloudiness, as larger average droplet size will affect the refractive index of the oil and aqueous phases. Additionally, the cloudiness was directly proportional to the mean droplet size of the dispersed phase. The inclusion of PGA into the formulation could have disrupted the properties of the interfacial film, thus resulting in larger droplet size. While unadsorbed ionized PGA could have contributed to higher conductivity of emulsions prepared at low pH. Generally, emulsions prepared using sucrose monoesters or as a mixture with modified starch emulsions have significantly (p < 0.05) lower creaming index and conductivity values, but higher cloudiness and average droplet size. Full article

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Experimental and Theoretical Perspectives of the Noyori-Ikariya Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation of Imines
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 6987-7007; doi:10.3390/molecules19066987
Received: 28 February 2014 / Revised: 13 May 2014 / Accepted: 21 May 2014 / Published: 28 May 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (596 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The asymmetric transfer hydrogenation (ATH) of imines catalyzed by the Noyori-Ikariya [RuCl(η6-arene)(N-arylsulfonyl-DPEN)] (DPEN = 1,2-diphenylethylene-1,2-diamine) half-sandwich complexes is a research topic that is still being intensively developed. This article focuses on selected aspects of this catalytic system. [...] Read more.
The asymmetric transfer hydrogenation (ATH) of imines catalyzed by the Noyori-Ikariya [RuCl(η6-arene)(N-arylsulfonyl-DPEN)] (DPEN = 1,2-diphenylethylene-1,2-diamine) half-sandwich complexes is a research topic that is still being intensively developed. This article focuses on selected aspects of this catalytic system. First, a great deal of attention is devoted to the N-arylsulfonyl moiety of the catalysts in terms of its interaction with protonated imines (substrates) and amines (components of the hydrogen-donor mixture). The second part is oriented toward the role of the η6-coordinated arene. The final part concerns the imine substrate structural modifications and their importance in connection with ATH. Throughout the text, the summary of known findings is complemented with newly-presented ones, which have been approached both experimentally and computationally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ruthenium Complex)
Open AccessReview Bis-naphtho-γ-pyrones from Fungi and Their Bioactivities
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7169-7188; doi:10.3390/molecules19067169
Received: 6 May 2014 / Revised: 23 May 2014 / Accepted: 27 May 2014 / Published: 30 May 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (286 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bis-naphtho-γ-pyrones are an important group of aromatic polyketides derived from fungi. They have a variety of biological activities including cytotoxic, antitumor, antimicrobial, tyrosine kinase and HIV-1 integrase inhibition properties, demonstrating their potential applications in medicine and agriculture. At least 59 bis-naphtho-γ-pyrones from [...] Read more.
Bis-naphtho-γ-pyrones are an important group of aromatic polyketides derived from fungi. They have a variety of biological activities including cytotoxic, antitumor, antimicrobial, tyrosine kinase and HIV-1 integrase inhibition properties, demonstrating their potential applications in medicine and agriculture. At least 59 bis-naphtho-γ-pyrones from fungi have been reported in the past few decades. This mini-review aims to briefly summarize their occurrence, biosynthesis, and structure, as well as their biological activities. Some considerations regarding to synthesis, production, and medicinal and agricultural applications of bis-naphtho-γ-pyrones are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessReview Resveratrol and Calcium Signaling: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Relevance
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7327-7340; doi:10.3390/molecules19067327
Received: 16 April 2014 / Revised: 23 May 2014 / Accepted: 23 May 2014 / Published: 5 June 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (250 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Resveratrol is a naturally occurring compound contributing to cellular defense mechanisms in plants. Its use as a nutritional component and/or supplement in a number of diseases, disorders, and syndromes such as chronic diseases of the central nervous system, cancer, inflammatory diseases, diabetes, [...] Read more.
Resveratrol is a naturally occurring compound contributing to cellular defense mechanisms in plants. Its use as a nutritional component and/or supplement in a number of diseases, disorders, and syndromes such as chronic diseases of the central nervous system, cancer, inflammatory diseases, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases has prompted great interest in the underlying molecular mechanisms of action. The present review focuses on resveratrol, specifically its isomer trans-resveratrol, and its effects on intracellular calcium signaling mechanisms. As resveratrol’s mechanisms of action are likely pleiotropic, its effects and interactions with key signaling proteins controlling cellular calcium homeostasis are reviewed and discussed. The clinical relevance of resveratrol’s actions on excitable cells, transformed or cancer cells, immune cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells are contrasted with a review of the molecular mechanisms affecting calcium signaling proteins on the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria. The present review emphasizes the correlation between molecular mechanisms of action that have recently been identified for resveratrol and their clinical implications. Full article
Open AccessReview Microextraction Techniques Used in the Procedures for Determining Organomercury and Organotin Compounds in Environmental Samples
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7581-7609; doi:10.3390/molecules19067581
Received: 17 April 2014 / Revised: 20 May 2014 / Accepted: 30 May 2014 / Published: 6 June 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (581 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to human activities, the concentrations of organometallic compounds in all parts of the environment have increased in recent decades. The toxicity and some biochemical properties of mercury and tin present in the environment depend on the concentration and chemical form of [...] Read more.
Due to human activities, the concentrations of organometallic compounds in all parts of the environment have increased in recent decades. The toxicity and some biochemical properties of mercury and tin present in the environment depend on the concentration and chemical form of these two elements. The ever-increasing demand for determining compounds at very low concentration levels in samples with complex matrices requires the elimination of interfering substances, the reduction of the final extract volume, and analyte enrichment in order to employ a detection technique, which is characterised by high sensitivity at low limits of quantification. On the other hand, in accordance with current trends, the analytical procedures should aim at the miniaturisation and simplification of the sample preparation step. In the near future, more importance will be given to the fulfilment of the requirements of Green Chemistry and Green Analytical Chemistry in order to reduce the intensity of anthropogenic activities related to analytical laboratories. In this case, one can consider the use of solvent-free/solvent-less techniques for sample preparation and microextraction techniques, because the use of the latter leads to lowering the quantity of reagents used (including solvents) due to the reduction of the scale of analysis. This paper presents an overview of microextraction techniques (SPME and LPME) used in the procedures for determining different chemical forms of mercury and tin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microextraction)
Open AccessReview Formylation of Amines
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7689-7713; doi:10.3390/molecules19067689
Received: 12 May 2014 / Revised: 29 May 2014 / Accepted: 5 June 2014 / Published: 10 June 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (687 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Methods to convert amines to formamides are of interest due to the many uses of formamides as synthetic intermediates. These methods include stoichiometric reactions of formylating reagents and catalytic reactions with CO as the carbonyl source. This review discusses the reported stoichiometric [...] Read more.
Methods to convert amines to formamides are of interest due to the many uses of formamides as synthetic intermediates. These methods include stoichiometric reactions of formylating reagents and catalytic reactions with CO as the carbonyl source. This review discusses the reported stoichiometric and catalytic approaches for preparation of formamides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbonylation Chemistry)
Open AccessReview Natural Products as Source of Potential Dengue Antivirals
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8151-8176; doi:10.3390/molecules19068151
Received: 14 March 2014 / Revised: 4 June 2014 / Accepted: 5 June 2014 / Published: 17 June 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (450 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dengue is a neglected disease responsible for 22,000 deaths each year in areas where it is endemic. To date, there is no clinically approved dengue vaccine or antiviral for human beings, even though there have been great efforts to accomplish these goals. [...] Read more.
Dengue is a neglected disease responsible for 22,000 deaths each year in areas where it is endemic. To date, there is no clinically approved dengue vaccine or antiviral for human beings, even though there have been great efforts to accomplish these goals. Several approaches have been used in the search for dengue antivirals such as screening of compounds against dengue virus enzymes and structure-based computational discovery. During the last decades, researchers have turned their attention to nature, trying to identify compounds that can be used as dengue antivirals. Nature represents a vast reservoir of substances that can be explored with the aim of discovering new leads that can be either used directly as pharmaceuticals or can serve as lead structures that can be optimized towards the development of new antiviral agents against dengue. In this review we describe an assortment of natural products that have been reported as possessing dengue antiviral activity. The natural products are organized into classes of substances. When appropriate, structure-activity relationships are outlined. The biological assays used to assess antiviral activity are briefly described. Full article
Open AccessReview miRNAs as Non-Invasive Biomarkers for Lung Cancer Diagnosis
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8220-8237; doi:10.3390/molecules19068220
Received: 15 March 2014 / Revised: 10 June 2014 / Accepted: 11 June 2014 / Published: 17 June 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (214 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death and late diagnosis is one of the most important reasons for the high mortality rate. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) represent stable and reproducible markers for numerous solid tumors, including lung cancer, and have been [...] Read more.
Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death and late diagnosis is one of the most important reasons for the high mortality rate. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) represent stable and reproducible markers for numerous solid tumors, including lung cancer, and have been hypothesized as non-invasive diagnostic markers. Serum, plasma or whole peripheral blood can be used as starting material, and several methodological approaches have been proposed to evaluate miRNA expression. The present review provides an in depth summary of current knowledge on circulating miRNAs in different types of biological samples used as diagnostic markers of lung cancer. We also evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of each miRNA or group of miRNAs in relation to the different housekeeping miRNAs used. Finally, the limitations and potential of miRNA analysis are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue miRNAs as Probes to Monitor Cancer and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
Open AccessReview Sulfur Amino Acids in Diet-induced Fatty Liver: A New Perspective Based on Recent Findings
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8334-8349; doi:10.3390/molecules19068334
Received: 12 May 2014 / Revised: 6 June 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (627 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The relationship of sulfur amino acids to diet-induced fatty liver was established 80 years ago, with cystine promoting the condition and methionine preventing it. This relationship has renewed importance today because diet-induced fatty liver is relevant to the current epidemics of obesity, [...] Read more.
The relationship of sulfur amino acids to diet-induced fatty liver was established 80 years ago, with cystine promoting the condition and methionine preventing it. This relationship has renewed importance today because diet-induced fatty liver is relevant to the current epidemics of obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Two recent papers provide the first evidence linking sulfane sulfur to diet-induced fatty liver opening a new perspective on the problem. This review summarizes the early data on sulfur amino acids in fatty liver and correlates that data with current knowledge of sulfur metabolism. Evidence is reviewed showing that the lipotropic effect of methionine may be mediated by sulfane sulfur and that the hepatosteatogenic effect of cystine may be related to the removal of sulfane sulfur by cysteine catabolites. Possible preventive and therapeutic strategies are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sulfur Atom: Element for Adaptation to an Oxidative Environment)
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Open AccessReview Self-Assembly: From Amphiphiles to Chromophores and Beyond
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8589-8609; doi:10.3390/molecules19068589
Received: 30 April 2014 / Revised: 17 June 2014 / Accepted: 17 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (1713 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Self-assembly has been recognised as a ubiquitous aspect of modern chemistry. Our understanding and applications of self-assembly are substantially based on what has been learned from biochemical systems. In this review, we describe various aspects of self-assembly commencing with an account of [...] Read more.
Self-assembly has been recognised as a ubiquitous aspect of modern chemistry. Our understanding and applications of self-assembly are substantially based on what has been learned from biochemical systems. In this review, we describe various aspects of self-assembly commencing with an account of the soft structures that are available by assembly of surfactant amphiphiles, which are important scientific and industrial materials. Variation of molecular design using rules defined by surfactant self-assembly permits synthesis of functional nanostructures in solution and at surfaces while increasing the strength of intermolecular interactions through π-π stacking, metal cation coordination and/or hydrogen bonding leads to formation of highly complex bespoke nanostructured materials exemplified by DNA assemblies. We describe the origins of self-assembly involving aggregation of lipid amphiphiles and how this subject has been expanded to include other highly advanced chemical systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Template Directed Synthesis and Self-Assembly in Organic Systems)
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Open AccessReview Polyhydroyxalkanoate Synthase Fusions as a Strategy for Oriented Enzyme Immobilisation
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8629-8643; doi:10.3390/molecules19068629
Received: 16 May 2014 / Revised: 19 June 2014 / Accepted: 19 June 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (279 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a carbon storage polymer produced by certain bacteria in unbalanced nutrient conditions. The PHA forms spherical inclusions surrounded by granule associate proteins including the PHA synthase (PhaC). Recently, the intracellular formation of PHA granules with covalently attached synthase from [...] Read more.
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a carbon storage polymer produced by certain bacteria in unbalanced nutrient conditions. The PHA forms spherical inclusions surrounded by granule associate proteins including the PHA synthase (PhaC). Recently, the intracellular formation of PHA granules with covalently attached synthase from Ralstonia eutropha has been exploited as a novel strategy for oriented enzyme immobilisation. Fusing the enzyme of interest to PHA synthase results in a bifunctional protein able to produce PHA granules and immobilise the active enzyme of choice to the granule surface. Functionalised PHA granules can be isolated from the bacterial hosts, such as Escherichia coli, and maintain enzymatic activity in a wide variety of assay conditions. This approach to oriented enzyme immobilisation has produced higher enzyme activities and product levels than non-oriented immobilisation techniques such as protein inclusion based particles. Here, enzyme immobilisation via PHA synthase fusion is reviewed in terms of the genetic designs, the choices of enzymes, the control of enzyme orientations, as well as their current and potential applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Immobilization)
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