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Molecules, Volume 22, Issue 8 (August 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Enzymatically synthesized LacNAc tetrasaccharides were conjugated to BSA protein scaffolds by [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Essential Oil from Gannan Navel Orange Peel
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1391; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081391
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 20 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
China is one of the leading producers of citrus in the world. Gannan in Jiangxi Province is the top navel orange producing area in China. In the present study, an essential oil was prepared by cold pressing of Gannan navel orange peel followed
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China is one of the leading producers of citrus in the world. Gannan in Jiangxi Province is the top navel orange producing area in China. In the present study, an essential oil was prepared by cold pressing of Gannan navel orange peel followed by molecular distillation. Its chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty four constituents were identified, representing 97.9% of the total oil. The predominant constituent was limonene (74.6%). The anticancer activities of this orange essential oil, as well as some of its major constituents, were investigated by MTT assay. This essential oil showed a positive effect on the inhibition of the proliferation of a human lung cancer cell line A549 and prostate cancer cell line 22RV-1. Some of the oil constituents displayed high anticancer potential and deserve further study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils: Chemistry and Bioactivity)
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Open AccessArticle The Potential of α-Spinasterol to Mimic the Membrane Properties of Natural Cholesterol
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1390; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081390
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 19 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
Sterols play a unique role for the structural and dynamical organization of membranes. The current study reports data on the membrane properties of the phytosterol (3β,5α,22E)-stigmasta-7,22-dien-3-β-ol (α-spinasterol), which represents an important component of argan oil and have not been investigated so far in
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Sterols play a unique role for the structural and dynamical organization of membranes. The current study reports data on the membrane properties of the phytosterol (3β,5α,22E)-stigmasta-7,22-dien-3-β-ol (α-spinasterol), which represents an important component of argan oil and have not been investigated so far in molecular detail. In particular, the impact of α-spinasterol on the structure and organization of lipid membranes was investigated and compared with those of cholesterol. Various membrane parameters such as the molecular packing of the phospholipid fatty acyl chains, the membrane permeability toward polar molecules, and the formation of lateral membrane domains were studied. The experiments were performed on lipid vesicles using methods of NMR spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy. The results show that α-spinasterol resembles the membrane behavior of cholesterol to some degree. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Base-Mediated One-Pot Synthesis of Aliphatic Diazirines for Photoaffinity Labeling
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1389; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081389
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Aliphatic diazirines have been widely used as prominent photophores for photoaffinity labeling owing to their relatively small size which can reduce the steric effect on the natural interaction between ligands and proteins. Based on our continuous efforts to develop efficient methods for the
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Aliphatic diazirines have been widely used as prominent photophores for photoaffinity labeling owing to their relatively small size which can reduce the steric effect on the natural interaction between ligands and proteins. Based on our continuous efforts to develop efficient methods for the synthesis of aliphatic diazirines, we present here a comprehensive study about base-mediated one-pot synthesis of aliphatic diazirines. It was found that potassium hydroxide (KOH) can also promote the construction of aliphatic diazirine with good efficiency. Importantly, KOH is cheaper, highly available, and easily handled and stored compared with the previously used base, potassium tert-butoxide (t-BuOK). Gram-scale study showed that it owned great advantages in being used for the large-scale production of aliphatic diazirines. This protocol is highly neat and the desired products can be easily isolated and purified. As the first comprehensive study of the base-mediated one-pot synthesis of aliphatic diazirines, this work provided good insight into the preparation and utilization of diazirine-based photoaffinity labeling probes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Cloning and Characterization of Two Iridoid Synthase Homologs from Swertia Mussotii
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1387; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081387
Received: 11 July 2017 / Revised: 12 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (9573 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Swertia mussotii is an important medicinal plant found on the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau that has great economic and medicinal value. This plant has enjoyed a long history of use as a curative for hepatitis. The biological activity of secoiridoids, including gentiopicroside and swertiamarin,
[...] Read more.
Swertia mussotii is an important medicinal plant found on the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau that has great economic and medicinal value. This plant has enjoyed a long history of use as a curative for hepatitis. The biological activity of secoiridoids, including gentiopicroside and swertiamarin, has been mainly tested for its anti-hepatitis effects. Here, we identify two candidate genes (SmIS1 and SmIS2) that are homologues of iridoid synthase and that are components of the secoiridoid pathway in S. mussotii. Using sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, we confirm that SmIS1 and SmIS2 contain six conserved short-chain dehydrogenases/reductase (SDR) motifs and thus belong to the P5βRs group. The two purified Escherichia coli-expressed proteins reduced 8-oxogeranial to both nepetalactol and iridodials. A comparison of the kinetic parameters of SmIS1 and SmIS2 recombinant proteins revealed that SmIS2 has a lower affinity than SmIS1 for 8-oxogeranial. Transcript levels of the two genes were analysed in three different tissues of S. mussotii using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and RT-qPCR. SmIS1 and SmIS2 expression levels were more abundant in leaves and stems. This investigation adds to our knowledge of P5βRs genes in the secoiridoid synthesis pathway and provides candidate genes for genetically improving S. mussotii by enhancing secondary metabolite production. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Refined Xiaoyaosan on Depressive-Like Behaviors in Rats with Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress through Neurosteroids, Their Synthesis and Metabolic Enzymes
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1386; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081386
Received: 9 July 2017 / Revised: 16 August 2017 / Accepted: 20 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
Abstract: To observe the effects of refined Xiaoyaosan (XYS) on the depressive-like behaviors in rats with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), and to explore the relationship between the changes of neurosteroids and mRNA expressions of their synthesis and metabolic enzymes, and
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Abstract: To observe the effects of refined Xiaoyaosan (XYS) on the depressive-like behaviors in rats with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), and to explore the relationship between the changes of neurosteroids and mRNA expressions of their synthesis and metabolic enzymes, and the mechanism of XYS in the treatment of depression. Methods: Eighty-four healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, XYS group and fluoxetine group. The latter three groups were subjected to 21 days of CUMS to prepare the stress depression model. Rats in the XYS group, and fluoxetine group were given intragastric administration with refined XYS and fluoxetine, respectively. The behavioral changes of the rats were observed after 21 days. The contents of pregnenolone (PREG), progesterone (PROG) and alloprognanolone (ALLO) in the plasma of rats were measured by ELISA. The levels of PREG, PROG and ALLO in the hippocampus and amygdala tissues were measured by LC-MS/MS. The mRNA expressions of 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) and 5α-reductase (5a-R) in the hippocampus and amygdala were detected by RT-qPCR methods. Results: There were changes in the model rats. The contents of PREG, PROG and ALLO changed similarly, which reflected in the decrease of PROG and ALLO, and the increase of PREG. The mRNA expression of P450scc was increased, and the mRNA expressions of 3α-HSD, 3β-HSD and 5a-R were decreased. Refined XYS could improve the behaviors of rats and the biological indicators. Conclusions: There is a neurosteroid dysfunction in the brain region of depression rat model animals, and the mechanism of refined XYS depression treatment may be related to the regulation of the control of mRNA expression of related synthesis and metabolic enzymes in the hippocampus and amygdala, further affecting the contents of neurosteroids. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Genus Alnus, A Comprehensive Outline of Its Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1383; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081383
Received: 19 July 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
The genus Alnus (Betulaceae) is comprised of more than 40 species. Many species of this genus have a long history of use in folk medicines. Phytochemical investigations have revealed the presence of diarylheptanoids, polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids and other compounds. Diarylheptanoids, natural products
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The genus Alnus (Betulaceae) is comprised of more than 40 species. Many species of this genus have a long history of use in folk medicines. Phytochemical investigations have revealed the presence of diarylheptanoids, polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids and other compounds. Diarylheptanoids, natural products with a 1,7-diphenylheptane structural skeleton, are the dominant constituents in the genus, whose anticancer effect has been brought into focus. Pure compounds and crude extracts from the genus exhibit a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities both in vitro and in vivo. This paper compiles 273 naturally occurring compounds from the genus Alnus along with their structures and pharmacological activities, as reported in 138 references. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Composition and Antioxidant, Antienzymatic and Antimicrobial Activities of Volatile Molecules from Spanish Salvia lavandulifolia (Vahl) Essential Oils
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1382; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081382
Received: 21 June 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
The current study describes the composition of Salvia lavandulifolia (Vahl) essential oils (SlEOs) obtained from plants cultivated in Murcia (Spain), as determined by gas chromatography. Relative and absolute concentrations, the enantiomeric ratios of chiral compounds and the in vitro antioxidant, antienzymatic and antimicrobial
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The current study describes the composition of Salvia lavandulifolia (Vahl) essential oils (SlEOs) obtained from plants cultivated in Murcia (Spain), as determined by gas chromatography. Relative and absolute concentrations, the enantiomeric ratios of chiral compounds and the in vitro antioxidant, antienzymatic and antimicrobial activities are described. The main components of the SlEOs were camphor, 1,8-cineole, camphene and α-pinene, and the main enantiomers were (+)-camphor and (−)-camphene. The activities against free radicals and the capacity to reduce and chelate metallic ions were measured. SlEO-3 showed the highest activity in ORAC, DPPH, ABTS and reducing power methods, while SlEO-1 exhibited the highest chelating power. The activity of lipoxygenase and acetylcholinesterase could be inhibited by all the SlEOs, being bornyl acetate and limonene the most active individual compounds against lipoxygenase and 1,8-cineole against acetylcholinesterase. SlEOs and some individual compounds inhibited Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. These results increase our knowledge of SlEOs and, particularly, provide for the first time a complete characterization of SlEOs from Murcia, Spain, while proposing possible biotechnological uses for them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils: Chemistry and Bioactivity)
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Open AccessArticle Cryochemical Synthesis of Polymorphous Nanostructures of a Steroid Neurohormone
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1378; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081378
Received: 17 July 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 12 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
A new cryochemical strategy of producing nanoparticles and polymorphous nanostructures of drugs is used, which is based on the dynamic combination of high and low temperatures, gas and solid phases, and inert carrier gases. This technology is applied to the synthesis of nanoparticles
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A new cryochemical strategy of producing nanoparticles and polymorphous nanostructures of drugs is used, which is based on the dynamic combination of high and low temperatures, gas and solid phases, and inert carrier gases. This technology is applied to the synthesis of nanoparticles of steroid neurohormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). We have optimized the conditions of synthesis of the new polymorphous DHEA structure, FVII. The molecules of DHEA in FVII structure are bound by hydrogen bonds via oxygen atoms. The grain size is 100 nm. It is shown that the yield and ratio of the resulting nanoforms of this hormone are determined by the nature and properties of the inert carrier gas. The highest yield and selectivity of FVII are observed when carbon dioxide is used as the carrier gas. In the case of helium, the FVII content decreases from 85 to 30% and other structures are formed. In experiments without carrier gas, nanoparticles are formed but no FVII is produced. The selectivity and the effect of carrier gas are considered on the basis of homogeneous and heterogeneous formation of nanoparticles and the relationship between particle selectivity and its activity. The synthesis of various polymorphous structures on the nanoscale is assumed to be the manifestation of the size effect in the synthesis of drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of New Hydrazone Derivatives for MAO Enzymes Inhibitory Activity
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1381; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081381
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 2 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 20 August 2017
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Abstract
In the present work, 14 new 1-substituted-2-phenylhydrazone derivatives were synthesized to evaluate their inhibitory activity against hMAO enzymes. The structures of the newly synthesized hydrazones 2a–2n were characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HR-MS spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity of compounds 2a–2n against hMAO-A
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In the present work, 14 new 1-substituted-2-phenylhydrazone derivatives were synthesized to evaluate their inhibitory activity against hMAO enzymes. The structures of the newly synthesized hydrazones 2a–2n were characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HR-MS spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity of compounds 2a–2n against hMAO-A and hMAO-B enzymes was elucidated by using an in-vitro Amplex Red® reagent assay based on fluorometric methods. According to the activity studies, 2a and 2b were found to be the most active compounds against hMAO-A enzyme, with IC50 values of 0.342 µM and 0.028 µM, respectively. The most active compounds 2a–2b were evaluated by means of enzyme kinetics and docking studies. Moreover, these compounds were subjected to cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests to establish their preliminary toxicological profiles and were found to be non-cytotoxic and non-genotoxic. Consequently, the findings of this study display the biological importance of compounds 2a, 2b as selective, irreversible and competitive inhibitors of hMAO-A. Docking studies revealed that there is a strong interaction between hMAO-A and the most active compound 2b. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Molecular Docking)
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Constituents of Murraya tetramera Huang and Their Repellent Activity against Tribolium castaneum
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1379; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081379
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 13 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 20 August 2017
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Abstract
Sixteen compounds were isolated from the leaves and stems of Murraya tetramera Huang. Based on the NMR and MS spectral results, the structures were determined. It was confirmed that the isolated compounds included three new compounds (9, 10 and 13)
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Sixteen compounds were isolated from the leaves and stems of Murraya tetramera Huang. Based on the NMR and MS spectral results, the structures were determined. It was confirmed that the isolated compounds included three new compounds (9, 10 and 13) and one new natural product (8), which were identified asmurratetra A (9), murratetra B (10), murratetra C (13) and [2-(7-methoxy-2-oxochromen-8-yl)-3-methylbut-2-enyl]3-methylbut-2-enoate (8), respectively. Meanwhile, the repellent activity against Tribolium castaneum was investigated for 13 of these isolated compounds. The results showed that the tested compounds had various levels of repellent activity against T. castaneum. Among them, compounds 1 (4(15)-eudesmene-1β,6α-diol), 11 (isoferulic acid) and 16 (2,3-dihydroxypropyl hexadecanoate) showed fair repellent activity against T. castaneum. They might be considered as potential leading compounds for the development of natural repellents. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle Tissue-Specific Accumulation of Sulfur Compounds and Saponins in Different Parts of Garlic Cloves from Purple and White Ecotypes
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1359; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081359
Received: 12 July 2017 / Revised: 12 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 20 August 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1188 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study set out to determine the distribution of sulfur compounds and saponin metabolites in different parts of garlic cloves. Three fractions from purple and white garlic ecotypes were obtained: the tunic (SS), internal (IS) and external (ES) parts of the clove. Liquid
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This study set out to determine the distribution of sulfur compounds and saponin metabolites in different parts of garlic cloves. Three fractions from purple and white garlic ecotypes were obtained: the tunic (SS), internal (IS) and external (ES) parts of the clove. Liquid Chromatography coupled to High Resolution Mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS), together with bioinformatics including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Hierarchical Clustering (HCL) and correlation network analyses were carried out. Results showed that the distribution of these metabolites in the different parts of garlic bulbs was different for the purple and the white ecotypes, with the main difference being a slightly higher number of sulfur compounds in purple garlic. The SS fraction in purple garlic had a higher content of sulfur metabolites, while the ES in white garlic was more enriched by these compounds. The correlation network indicated that diallyl disulfide was the most relevant metabolite with regards to sulfur compound metabolism in garlic. The total number of saponins was almost 40-fold higher in purple garlic than in the white variety, with ES having the highest content. Interestingly, five saponins including desgalactotigonin-rhamnose, proto-desgalactotigonin, proto-desgalactotigonin-rhamnose, voghieroside D1, sativoside B1-rhamnose and sativoside R1 were exclusive to the purple variety. Data obtained from saponin analyses revealed a very different network between white and purple garlic, thus suggesting a very robust and tight coregulation of saponin metabolism in garlic. Findings in this study point to the possibility of using tunics from purple garlic in the food and medical industries, since it contains many functional compounds which can be exploited as ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
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Open AccessArticle Germination under Moderate Salinity Increases Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Rapeseed (Brassica napus var oleifera Del.) Sprouts
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1377; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081377
Received: 12 July 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 19 August 2017
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Abstract
The use of sprouts in the human diet is becoming more and more widespread because they are tasty and high in bioactive compounds and antioxidants, with related health benefits. In this work, we sprouted rapeseed under increasing salinity to investigate the effect on
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The use of sprouts in the human diet is becoming more and more widespread because they are tasty and high in bioactive compounds and antioxidants, with related health benefits. In this work, we sprouted rapeseed under increasing salinity to investigate the effect on free and bound total phenolics (TP), non-flavonoids (NF), tannins (TAN), phenolic acids (PAs), and antioxidant activity. Seeds were incubated at 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 mM NaCl until early or late sprout stage, i.e., before or after cotyledon expansion, respectively. Sprouting and increasing salinity slightly decreased the bound fractions of TP, NF, TAN, PAs, while it increased markedly the free ones and their antioxidant activity. Further increases were observed in late sprouts. Moderate salinity (25–50 mM NaCl) caused the highest relative increase in phenolic concentration while it slightly affected sprout growth. On the contrary, at higher NaCl concentrations, sprouts grew slowly (100 mM NaCl) or even died before reaching the late sprout stage (200 mM). Overall, moderate salinity was the best compromise to increase phenolic content of rapeseed sprouts. The technique may be evaluated for transfer to other species as a cheap and feasible way to increase the nutritional value of sprouts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Xanthylium Derivatives on the Color of White Wine
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1376; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081376
Received: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 19 August 2017
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Abstract
Xanthylium derivatives are yellow to orange pigments with a glyoxylic acid bridge formed by dimerization of flavanols, which are built by oxidative cleavage of tartaric acid. Although their structure and formation under wine-like conditions are well established, knowledge about their color properties and
[...] Read more.
Xanthylium derivatives are yellow to orange pigments with a glyoxylic acid bridge formed by dimerization of flavanols, which are built by oxidative cleavage of tartaric acid. Although their structure and formation under wine-like conditions are well established, knowledge about their color properties and their occurrence and importance in wine is deficient. Xanthylium cations and their corresponding esters were synthesized in a model wine solution and isolated via high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC) and solid phase extraction (SPE). A Three-Alternative-Forced-Choice (3-AFC) test was applied to reveal the color perception threshold of the isolated compounds in white wine. Their presence and color impact was assessed in 70 different wines (58 white and 12 rosé wines) by UHPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn and the storage stability in wine was determined. The thresholds in young Riesling wine were 0.57 mg/L (cations), 1.04 mg/L (esters) and 0.67 mg/L (1:1 (w/w) mixture), respectively. The low thresholds suggest a possible impact on white wine color, but concentrations in wines were below the threshold. The stability study showed the degradation of the compounds during storage under several conditions. Despite the low perception threshold, xanthylium derivatives might have no direct impact on white wine color, but might play a role in color formation as intermediate products in polymerization and browning. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Wine Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Pharmacological and Toxicological Screening of Novel Benzimidazole-Morpholine Derivatives as Dual-Acting Inhibitors
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1374; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081374
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 19 August 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate acetylcholinesterase (AChE), monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme inhibitory, and antimicrobial activities of a new series of 2-(4-substituted phenyl)-1-[2-(morpholin-4-yl)ethyl]-1H-benzimidazole derivatives, for their possible use as
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate acetylcholinesterase (AChE), monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme inhibitory, and antimicrobial activities of a new series of 2-(4-substituted phenyl)-1-[2-(morpholin-4-yl)ethyl]-1H-benzimidazole derivatives, for their possible use as multi-action therapeutic agents. Target compounds (n = 15) were synthesized under microwave irradiation conditions in two steps, and their structures were elucidated by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and high resolution mass spectroscopic analyses. Pharmacological screening studies revealed that two of the compounds (2b and 2j) have inhibitory potential on both COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. In addition, cytotoxic and genotoxic properties of the compounds 2b, 2j and 2m were investigated via the well-known MTT and Ames tests, which revealed that the mentioned compounds are non-cytotoxic and non-genotoxic. As a concise conclusion, two novel compounds were characterized as potential candidates for treatment of frequently encountered inflammatory diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Inhibitory Effect of Bovine Lactoferrin on Catechol-O-Methyltransferase
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1373; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081373
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 19 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2068 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Lactoferrin (LF) is a well-known multifunctional protein. In this study, we report the inhibitory potency of bovine LF (bLF) on catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), which catalyzes methylation of catechol substrates. We found that bLF binds to and inhibits COMT using its N-terminal
[...] Read more.
Lactoferrin (LF) is a well-known multifunctional protein. In this study, we report the inhibitory potency of bovine LF (bLF) on catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), which catalyzes methylation of catechol substrates. We found that bLF binds to and inhibits COMT using its N-terminal region. An N-terminal peptide fragment obtained from bLF by trypsin digestion showed a higher inhibitory activity than intact bLF. A synthetic fragment of the bLF N-terminal residues 6–50, with two pairs of disulfide bonds, also showed higher inhibitory activity than intact bLF. Enzyme kinetic studies proved that bLF did not compete with S-adenosylmethionine (the methyl donor substrate) as well as methyl acceptor substrates such as dihydroxybenzoic acid, (−)-epicatechin, norepinephrine, or l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine. The inhibitory potency of bLF decreased against a COMT preparation pretreated with dithiothreitol, suggesting that the oxidation status of COMT is relevant to interaction with bLF. We further confirmed that COMT activity in the cell extracts form Caco-2 and HepG2 cells was inhibited by bLF and by the synthesized fragment. Enzyme kinetic study indicated that bLF functions as a non-competitive inhibitor by binding to an allosteric surface of COMT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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