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Molecules, Volume 23, Issue 6 (June 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The original color of hydrangea sepal is blue, but the color is readily changed according to the [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Structure, Chemical Stability, and In Vitro Cytotoxic Properties of Novel Quinoline-3-Carbaldehyde Hydrazones Bearing a 1,2,4-Triazole or Benzotriazole Moiety
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1497; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061497
Received: 2 June 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 16 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
A small library of novel quinoline-3-carbaldehyde hydrazones (Series 1), acylhydrazones (Series 2), and arylsulfonylhydrazones (Series 3) bearing either a 1,2,4-triazole or benzotriazole ring at position 2 was prepared, characterized by elemental analyses and IR, NMR, and MS spectra, and then subjected to in
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A small library of novel quinoline-3-carbaldehyde hydrazones (Series 1), acylhydrazones (Series 2), and arylsulfonylhydrazones (Series 3) bearing either a 1,2,4-triazole or benzotriazole ring at position 2 was prepared, characterized by elemental analyses and IR, NMR, and MS spectra, and then subjected to in vitro cytotoxicity studies on three human tumor cell lines: DAN-G, LCLC-103H, and SISO. In general, compounds 4, 6, and 8 substituted with a 1,2,4-triazole ring proved to be inactive, whereas the benzotriazole-containing quinolines 5, 7, and 9 elicited pronounced cancer cell growth inhibitory effects with IC50 values in the range of 1.23–7.39 µM. The most potent 2-(1H-benzotriazol-1-yl)-3-[2-(pyridin-2-yl)hydrazonomethyl]quinoline (5e) showed a cytostatic effect on the cancer cell lines, whereas N′-[(2-(1H-benzotriazol-1-yl)quinolin-3-yl)methylene]-benzohydrazide (7a) and N′-[(2-1H-benzotriazol-1-yl)quinolin-3-yl)methylene]-naphthalene-2-sulfonohydrazide (9h) exhibited selective activity against the pancreas cancer DAN-G and cervical cancer SISO cell lines. Based on the determined IC50 values, the compound 5e seems to be leading compound for further development as anticancer agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Constituents of Essential Oil and Lipid Fraction from the Aerial Part of Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Willd. (Apiaceae) from Different Habitats
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1496; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061496
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 16 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
The essential oils and lipid fraction extracted from the aerial parts of Bupleurum scorzonerifolium were determined by a GC-MS method. In total, up to 67 components were identified. cis-β-Ocimene, trans-β-ocimene, limonene, α-pinene, α-copaene, β-elemene,
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The essential oils and lipid fraction extracted from the aerial parts of Bupleurum scorzonerifolium were determined by a GC-MS method. In total, up to 67 components were identified. cis-β-Ocimene, trans-β-ocimene, limonene, α-pinene, α-copaene, β-elemene, and caryophyllene oxide were recognized as consistent components of the essential oil extracted from the aerial parts of B. scorzonerifolium, regardless of the habitat. The content of these components varied from traces to a significant amount. The volume of the lipid fraction varied from 2.73 to 9.38%. In total, 23 components were identified, including 20 fatty acids, two sterols, and one ketone. The major fatty acid components identified were 16:0, 18:2n9, and 18:1n9. The total content of these fatty acids reached up to 76.19%. The lipid fraction of the aerial parts of B. scorzonerifolium predominantly contained MUFA and PUFA, which confirmed the pharmacological value of the species. The main factors affecting the composition of essential oils and lipid fractions of B. scorzonerifolium are environmental ones that determine the moisture supply to the plants in semiarid and arid areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Effects of Isolated Lignin on Cellulose Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover Pretreatment by NaOH Combined with Ozone
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1495; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061495
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 16 June 2018 / Accepted: 17 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
In this experiment, corn stover was treated with optimal combined pretreatment conditions: 2% NaOH at 80 °C treated 2 h combined with initial pH 9 at the ozone concentration of 78 mg/mL treated 25 min. The effect of lignin removal rate on the
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In this experiment, corn stover was treated with optimal combined pretreatment conditions: 2% NaOH at 80 °C treated 2 h combined with initial pH 9 at the ozone concentration of 78 mg/mL treated 25 min. The effect of lignin removal rate on the enzymatic hydrolysis degree of cellulose during the treatment process was studied. At the same time, the lignin in the optimal pretreated corn stover was separated and extracted by enzymatic acidolysis, and its structure and connection were characterized. The results showed that the alkali combined with ozone pretreatment improved the enzymatic hydrolysis degree of the cellulose while exfoliating and degrading the macromolecular lignin into small molecules. The stable crosslink structure of the lignin-cellulose-hemicellulose was destroyed, and the lignocellulosic structure changed in favor of the enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Cytotoxic Triterpenes from Salacia crassifolia and Metabolite Profiling of Celastraceae Species
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1494; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061494
Received: 2 June 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 18 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
The new pentacyclic triterpene 11β-hydroxypristimerin (1), along with the known metabolites pristimerin (2), 6-oxopristimerol (3) and vitideasin (4), were isolated from a Salacia crassifolia root wood extract, following a bioassay-guided fractionation approach. Both
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The new pentacyclic triterpene 11β-hydroxypristimerin (1), along with the known metabolites pristimerin (2), 6-oxopristimerol (3) and vitideasin (4), were isolated from a Salacia crassifolia root wood extract, following a bioassay-guided fractionation approach. Both the extract and the purified triterpenes displayed pronounced cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines. The NCI-60 cell line screen revealed that compound 2 was the most active, with a mean GI50 of 0.17 μM, while compound 1 had a mean GI50 of 8.7 μM. A COMPARE analysis of the screening results showed that pristimerin is likely to be the main compound responsible for the cytotoxic activity of the extract (mean GI50 of 0.3 μg·mL−1). A targeted search for pristimerin and related derivatives using LC-MS/MS revealed the presence of pristimerin (2) and 6-oxopristimerol (3) in all Celastraceae species examined and in all plant parts tested, while vitideasin (4) was only detected in the genus Salacia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antitumoral Properties of Natural Products)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Synthesis and Reactions of α-Hydroxyphosphonates
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061493
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 16 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
This review summarizes the main synthetic routes towards α-hydroxyphosphonates that are known as enzyme inhibitors, herbicides and antioxidants, moreover, a number of representatives express antibacterial or antifungal effect. Special attention is devoted to green chemical aspects. α-Hydroxyphosphonates are also versatile intermediates for other
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This review summarizes the main synthetic routes towards α-hydroxyphosphonates that are known as enzyme inhibitors, herbicides and antioxidants, moreover, a number of representatives express antibacterial or antifungal effect. Special attention is devoted to green chemical aspects. α-Hydroxyphosphonates are also versatile intermediates for other valuable derivatives. O-Alkylation and O-acylation are typical reactions to afford α-alkoxy-, or α-acyloxyphosphonates, respectively. The oxidation of hydroxyphosphonates leads to ketophosphonates. The hydroxy function at the α carbon atom of hydroxyphosphonates may be replaced by a halogen atom. α-Aminophosphonates formed in the nucleophilic substitution reaction of α-hydroxyphosphonates with primary or secondary amines are also potentially bioactive compounds. Another typical reaction is the base-catalyzed rearrangement of α-hydroxy-phosphonates to phosphates. Hydrolysis of the ester function of hydroxyphosphonates leads to the corresponding phosphonic acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organophosphorus Chemistry 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of 2′,4′-Dihydroxychalcone as an Antivirulence Agent Targeting HlyU, a Master Virulence Regulator in Vibrio vulnificus
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1492; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061492
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
The emergence of antimicrobial resistance and rapid acclimation allows Vibrio vulnificus to rapidly propagate in the host. This problematic pathological scenario can be circumvented by employing an antivirulence strategy, treating Vibrio infections without hindering the bacterial growth. We developed a genome-integrated orthogonal inhibitor
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The emergence of antimicrobial resistance and rapid acclimation allows Vibrio vulnificus to rapidly propagate in the host. This problematic pathological scenario can be circumvented by employing an antivirulence strategy, treating Vibrio infections without hindering the bacterial growth. We developed a genome-integrated orthogonal inhibitor screening platform in E. coli to identify antivirulence agents targeting a master virulence regulator of V. vulnificus. We identified 2′,4′-dihydroxychalcone (DHC) from the natural compound library and verified that it decreases the expression of the major toxin network which is equivalent to the ∆hlyU deletion mutant. 2′,4′-DHC also reduced the hemolytic activity of V. vulnificus which was tested as an example of virulence phenotype. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed that 2′,4′-DHC specifically targeted HlyU and inhibited its binding to PrtxA1 promoter. Under in vivo conditions, a single dose of 2′,4′-DHC protected ~50% wax-worm larvae from V. vulnificus infection at a non-toxic concentration to both V. vulnificus and wax-worm larvae. In the current study, we demonstrated that an orthogonal reporter system is suitable for the identification of antivirulence compounds with accuracy, and identified 2′,4′-DHC as a potent antivirulence agent that specifically targets the HlyU virulence transcriptional regulator and significantly reduces the virulence and infection potential of V. vulnificus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Expression, Purification, and Characterization of a Novel Hybrid Peptide with Potent Antibacterial Activity
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1491; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061491
Received: 16 April 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
The hybrid peptide cecropin A (1–8)–LL37 (17–30) (C–L), derived from the sequence of cecropin A (C) and LL-37 (L), showed significantly increased antibacterial activity and minimized hemolytic activity than C and L alone. To obtain high-level production of C–L, the deoxyribonucleic acid sequence
[...] Read more.
The hybrid peptide cecropin A (1–8)–LL37 (17–30) (C–L), derived from the sequence of cecropin A (C) and LL-37 (L), showed significantly increased antibacterial activity and minimized hemolytic activity than C and L alone. To obtain high-level production of C–L, the deoxyribonucleic acid sequence encoding C–L with preferred codons was cloned into pET-SUMO to construct a fusion expression vector, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21 (DE3). The maximum fusion protein (92% purity) was obtained with the yield of 89.14 mg/L fermentation culture after purification with Ni-NTA Sepharose column. The hybrid C–L was cleaved from the fusion protein by SUMO-protease, and 17.54 mg/L pure active C–L was obtained. Furthermore, the purified C–L showed identical antibacterial and hemolytic activity to synthesized C–L. Stability analysis results exhibited that the activity of C–L changed little below 80 °C for 20 min, but when the temperature exceeded 80 °C, a significant decrease was observed. Varying the pH from 5.0 to 10.0 did not appear to influence the activity of C–L, however, pH below 4.0 decreased the antibacterial activity of C–L rapidly. Under the challenge of several proteases (pepsin, trypsin, and proteinase K), the functional activity of C–L was maintained over 50%. In summary, this study not only supplied an effective approach for high-level production of hybrid peptide C–L, but paved the way for its further exploration in controlling infectious diseases of farm animals or even humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Metabolomic Analysis of Biochemical Changes in the Serum and Urine of Freund’s Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Rats after Treatment with Silkworm Excrement
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1490; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061490
Received: 5 May 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Silkworm excrement (SE), is used as a traditional antirheumatic medicine in China. The present study was designed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of water fraction of SE (ST) and ethanol fraction of SE (CT) at two different doses on adjuvant induced arthritis (AA)
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Silkworm excrement (SE), is used as a traditional antirheumatic medicine in China. The present study was designed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of water fraction of SE (ST) and ethanol fraction of SE (CT) at two different doses on adjuvant induced arthritis (AA) rats. Arthritis severity was evaluated by body weight, paw thickness, histological changes and index of paws oedema and spleen. Serum samples were collected for estimation of biochemical indicators and cytokines. In addition, a metabonomic method based on the ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) had been established to investigate the holistic efficacy of SE by serum and urine. Multivariate statistical approaches, such as partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were built to evaluate the therapeutic effects of SE and find potential biomarkers and metabolic pathways. Administration with SE significantly ameliorated the AA severity, including body weight loss, paw swelling, histological changes and the levels of biochemical index. 33 endogenous metabolites had been identified (10 in serum and 23 in urine) in the AA rats. Urinary and serum metabolic profiling revealed that the metabolites underpin the metabolic pathway including nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism; pentose and glucuronate interconversions; TCA cycle; beta-Alanine metabolism; purine metabolism and glycolysis or gluconeogenesis. The altered metabolites could be regulated closer to normal level after SE intervention. The results suggested SE possesses substantial anti-arthritic activity and demonstrated that metabonomics is a powerful tool to gain insight in the mechanism of SE formula in therapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mouse β-Defensin 3, A Defensin Inhibitor of Both Its Endogenous and Exogenous Potassium Channels
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1489; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061489
Received: 6 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
The human defensins are recently discovered to inhibit potassium channels, which are classical targets of the animal toxins. Whether other vertebrate defensins are potassium channel inhibitors remains unknown. In this work, we reported that the mouse β-defensin 3 (mBD3) was a novel inhibitor
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The human defensins are recently discovered to inhibit potassium channels, which are classical targets of the animal toxins. Whether other vertebrate defensins are potassium channel inhibitors remains unknown. In this work, we reported that the mouse β-defensin 3 (mBD3) was a novel inhibitor of both endogenous and exogenous potassium channels. The structural analysis showed that mBD3 is the most identical to human Kv1.3 channel-sensitive human β-defensin 2 (hBD2). However, the pharmacological profiles indicated that the recombinant mBD3 (rmBD3) weakly inhibited the mouse and human Kv1.3 channels. Different from the pharmacological features of human β-defensins, mBD3 more selectively inhibited the mouse Kv1.6 and human KCNQ1/KCNE1 channels with IC50 values of 0.6 ± 0.4 μM and 1.2 ± 0.8 μM, respectively. The site directed mutagenesis experiments indicated that the extracellular pore region of mouse Kv1.6 channel was the interaction site of rmBD3. In addition, the minor effect on the channel conductance-voltage relationship curves implied that mBD3 might bind the extracellular transmembrane helices S1-S2 linker and/or S3-S4 linker of mouse Kv1.6 channel. Together, these findings not only revealed mBD3 as a novel inhibitor of both endogenous and exogenous potassium channels, but also provided a clue to investigate the role of mBD3-Kv1.6 channel interaction in the physiological and pathological field in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Insights into Resistance Mechanisms of Inhibitors to Mps1 C604Y Mutation via a Comprehensive Molecular Modeling Study
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1488; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061488
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Mono-polar spindle 1 (Mps1/TTK) represents a protein kinase reported to be vital for cell division processes and is generally regarded as an attractive target for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, breast carcinoma, and colon cancer. However, the C604Y mutation has been linked to
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Mono-polar spindle 1 (Mps1/TTK) represents a protein kinase reported to be vital for cell division processes and is generally regarded as an attractive target for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, breast carcinoma, and colon cancer. However, the C604Y mutation has been linked to acquired resistance. Recently, three potential small-molecule inhibitors of Mps1 (i.e., reversine, NMS-P715, and its derivative Cpd-5) were reported for the C604Y mutation that exhibit significant resistance to NMS-P715 and Cpd-5, but retain affinity for reversine. In this study, classical molecular dynamic (MD) simulations, accelerated MD (aMD) simulations, and umbrella sampling (US) simulations were performed to illustrate the resistance mechanisms of inhibitors to Mps1. The classical MD simulations combined with free energy calculations revealed that reversine features similar binding affinity characteristics to both Mps1WT and Mps1C604Y, but both NMS-P715 and Cpd-5 feature much higher binding affinities to Mps1WT than to Mps1C604Y. The major variations were shown to be controlled by electrostatic energy and the conformational change of A-loop-induced entropy increased. The large conformational changes of Mps1C604Y bound to NMS-P715 and Cpd-5 were also observed in aMD simulations. The US simulation results further suggest that reversine and Cpd-5 both exhibit similar dissociation processes from both Mps1WT and Mps1C604Y, but Cpd-5 and NMS-P715 were found to dissociate more easily from Mps1C604Y than from Mps1WT, thus a reduced residence time was responsible for the inhibitors resistance to the C604Y mutation. The physical principles provided by the present study may provide important clues for the discovery and rational design of novel inhibitors to combat the C604Y mutation of Mps1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Theoretical Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Upregulation of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases 1a1 and 1a7 Are Involved in Altered Puerarin Pharmacokinetics in Type II Diabetic Rats
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1487; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061487
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 17 June 2018 / Accepted: 17 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Puerarin is an isoflavonoid extracted from Pueraria lobata roots, and displays a broad range of pharmacological activities, including antidiabetic activity. However, information about the pharmacokinetics of puerarin in diabetics is scarce. This study was conducted to investigate the difference in pharmacokinetic effects of
[...] Read more.
Puerarin is an isoflavonoid extracted from Pueraria lobata roots, and displays a broad range of pharmacological activities, including antidiabetic activity. However, information about the pharmacokinetics of puerarin in diabetics is scarce. This study was conducted to investigate the difference in pharmacokinetic effects of puerarin in normal rats and rats with diabetes mellitus (DM), and the mechanism involved. DM was induced by a combined high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ) injection. Plasma concentrations of puerarin in DM, HFD, and control rats were determined after intravenous (20 mg/kg) and oral administration (500 mg/kg) of puerarin, and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression levels of Ugt1a1 and Ugt1a7 in rat livers and intestines were measured using qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively. The area under the concentration–time curve and the clearance of puerarin in the DM rats statistically differed from those in the control rats (p <0.05) with both administration routes. The hepatic and intestinal gene and protein expressions of Ugt1a1 and Ugt1a7 were significantly increased in the DM rats (p <0.05). Therefore, the metabolic changes in diabetes could alter the pharmacokinetics of puerarin. This change could be caused by upregulated uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase activity, which may enhance puerarin clearance, and alter its therapeutic effects. Full article
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Open AccessReview Mitochondria-Targeting Small Molecules Effectively Prevent Cardiotoxicity Induced by Doxorubicin
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1486; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061486
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Doxorubicin (Dox) is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used for the treatment of numerous cancers. However, the clinical use of Dox is limited by its unwanted cardiotoxicity. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. To mitigate Dox-related cardiotoxicity, considerable successful examples of a
[...] Read more.
Doxorubicin (Dox) is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used for the treatment of numerous cancers. However, the clinical use of Dox is limited by its unwanted cardiotoxicity. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. To mitigate Dox-related cardiotoxicity, considerable successful examples of a variety of small molecules that target mitochondria to modulate Dox-induced cardiotoxicity have appeared in recent years. Here, we review the related literatures and discuss the evidence showing that mitochondria-targeting small molecules are promising cardioprotective agents against Dox-induced cardiac events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Anticancer Drugs)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Cyclodextrin-Functionalized Hybrid Silicon Wastewater Nano-Adsorbent Material and Its Adsorption Properties
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1485; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061485
Received: 20 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
A novel cyclodextrin-functionalized hybrid silicon nano-adsorbent material (6-EA-β-CD-Si) was synthesized via the nucleophilic substitution method. The structure was detected by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray, thermogravimetric analysis, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. Results reveal that the BET surface area of 6-EA-β-CD-Si is 240 m
[...] Read more.
A novel cyclodextrin-functionalized hybrid silicon nano-adsorbent material (6-EA-β-CD-Si) was synthesized via the nucleophilic substitution method. The structure was detected by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray, thermogravimetric analysis, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. Results reveal that the BET surface area of 6-EA-β-CD-Si is 240 m2/g and the average pore size is 4.16 nm. The adsorption properties of 6-EA-β-CD-Si onto methylene blue (MB) were studied and fitted with adsorption kinetic models. Both the Freundlich adsorption isotherm model and pseudo-second-order model were fitted with well shows that the multi-layer adsorption with chemisorption and physisorption co-existing in the system. The maximum adsorption capacities are 39.37, 39.21, 36.90, and 36.36 mg/g at temperatures 303, 313, 323, and 333 K, respectively. The maximum removal rate of MB could reach 99.5%, indicating the potential application value of 6-EA-β-CD-Si in wastewater treatment. The adsorption mechanisms of 6-EA-β-CD-Si showed that the hydrophobic cave of β-CD plays an important role on the adsorption of MB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyclodextrin Chemistry 2018)
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Open AccessReview A Review of the Extraction and Determination Methods of Thirteen Essential Vitamins to the Human Body: An Update from 2010
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1484; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061484
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 17 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Vitamins are a class of essential nutrients in the body; thus, they play important roles in human health. The chemicals are involved in many physiological functions and both their lack and excess can put health at risk. Therefore, the establishment of methods for
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Vitamins are a class of essential nutrients in the body; thus, they play important roles in human health. The chemicals are involved in many physiological functions and both their lack and excess can put health at risk. Therefore, the establishment of methods for monitoring vitamin concentrations in different matrices is necessary. In this review, an updated overview of the main pretreatments and determination methods that have been used since 2010 is given. Ultrasonic assisted extraction, liquid–liquid extraction, solid phase extraction and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction are the most common pretreatment methods, while the determination methods involve chromatography methods, electrophoretic methods, microbiological assays, immunoassays, biosensors and several other methods. Different pretreatments and determination methods are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Sample Preparation Approaches for Separation Science)
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Open AccessReview Fatty Acid-Stimulated Insulin Secretion vs. Lipotoxicity
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1483; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061483
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Fatty acid (FA)-stimulated insulin secretion (FASIS) is reviewed here in contrast to type 2 diabetes etiology, resulting from FA overload, oxidative stress, intermediate hyperinsulinemia, and inflammation, all converging into insulin resistance. Focusing on pancreatic islet β-cells, we compare the physiological FA roles with
[...] Read more.
Fatty acid (FA)-stimulated insulin secretion (FASIS) is reviewed here in contrast to type 2 diabetes etiology, resulting from FA overload, oxidative stress, intermediate hyperinsulinemia, and inflammation, all converging into insulin resistance. Focusing on pancreatic islet β-cells, we compare the physiological FA roles with the pathological ones. Considering FAs not as mere amplifiers of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), but as parallel insulin granule exocytosis inductors, partly independent of the KATP channel closure, we describe the FA initiating roles in the prediabetic state that is induced by retardations in the glycerol-3-phosphate (glucose)-promoted glycerol/FA cycle and by the impaired GPR40/FFA1 (free FA1) receptor pathway, specifically in its amplification by the redox-activated mitochondrial phospholipase, iPLA2γ. Also, excessive dietary FAs stimulate intestine enterocyte incretin secretion, further elevating GSIS, even at low glucose levels, thus contributing to diabetic hyperinsulinemia. With overnutrition and obesity, the FA overload causes impaired GSIS by metabolic dysbalance, paralleled by oxidative and metabolic stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and numerous pro-apoptotic signaling, all leading to decreased β-cell survival. Lipotoxicity is exerted by saturated FAs, whereas ω-3 polyunsaturated FAs frequently exert antilipotoxic effects. FA-facilitated inflammation upon the recruitment of excess M1 macrophages into islets (over resolving M2 type), amplified by cytokine and chemokine secretion by β-cells, leads to an inevitable failure of pancreatic β-cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Compound K Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Apoptosis in Human Liver Cancer Cells by Regulating STAT3
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1482; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061482
Received: 28 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
The ginsenoside compound K (20-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol; CK) is an intestinal bacterial metabolite of ginseng protopanaxadiol saponin that has been reported to induce apoptosis in many cancer cells; however, the precise mechanisms of its activity in human hepatocellular carcinoma
[...] Read more.
The ginsenoside compound K (20-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol; CK) is an intestinal bacterial metabolite of ginseng protopanaxadiol saponin that has been reported to induce apoptosis in many cancer cells; however, the precise mechanisms of its activity in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells remain unclear. Herein, we demonstrated that CK inhibited the growth and colony formation of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells, phenotypes that were mediated by inducing apoptosis. Meanwhile, CK showed lower toxicity in normal hepatoma cells. After treating HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells with CK, p-STAT3 levels decreased, the three branches of the unfolded protein response were activated, and levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-related proteins were increased. We also revealed that CK decreased the DNA-binding capacity of STAT3. Moreover, silencing STAT3 with CRISPR/Cas9 technology enhanced CK-induced ERS and apoptosis. Finally, we showed that CK inhibited the growth of liver cancer xenografts with little toxicity. Mice bearing human HCC xenografts that were treated with CK showed increased GRP78 expression and decreased p-STAT3 levels. Taken together, these data showed that CK induced ERS and apoptosis by inhibiting p-STAT3 in human liver cancer cells; thus, CK might be a potential therapeutic candidate for human HCC. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ponasterone A and F, Ecdysteroids from the Arctic Bryozoan Alcyonidium gelatinosum
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1481; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061481
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
A new ecdysteroid, ponasterone F (1) and the previously reported compound ponasterone A (2) were isolated from specimens of the Arctic marine bryozoan Alcyonidium gelatinosum collected at Hopenbanken, off the coast of Edgeøya, Svalbard. The structure of 1 was
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A new ecdysteroid, ponasterone F (1) and the previously reported compound ponasterone A (2) were isolated from specimens of the Arctic marine bryozoan Alcyonidium gelatinosum collected at Hopenbanken, off the coast of Edgeøya, Svalbard. The structure of 1 was elucidated, and the structure of 2 confirmed by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR and analysis of HR-MS data. The compounds were evaluated for their ability to affect bacterial survival and cell viability, as well as their agonistic activities towards the estrogen receptors α and β. The compounds were not active in these assays. Compound 2 is an arthropod hormone controlling molting and are known to act as an allelochemical when produced by plants. Even though its structure has been previously reported, this is the first time a ponasterone has been isolated from a bryozoan. A. gelatinosum produced 1 and 2 in concentrations surpassing those expected of hormonal molecules, indicating their function as defence molecules against molting predators. This work adds to the chemical diversity reported from marine bryozoans and expanded our knowledge of the chemical modifications of the ponasterones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Volatile Profile of Core Chinese Mango Germplasm by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1480; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061480
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Despite abundant published research on the volatile characterization of mango germplasm, the aroma differentiation of Chinese cultivars remains unclear. Using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the composition and relative content of volatiles in 37 cultivars representing the
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Despite abundant published research on the volatile characterization of mango germplasm, the aroma differentiation of Chinese cultivars remains unclear. Using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the composition and relative content of volatiles in 37 cultivars representing the diversity of Chinese mango germplasm were investigated. Results indicated that there are distinct differences in the components and content of volatile compounds among and within cultivars. In total, 114 volatile compounds, including 23 monoterpenes, 16 sesquiterpenes, 29 non-terpene hydrocarbons, 25 esters, 11 aldehydes, five alcohols and five ketones, were identified. The total volatile content among cultivars ranged from 211 to 26,022 μg/kg fresh weight (FW), with 123-fold variation. Terpene compounds were the basic background volatiles, and 34 cultivars exhibited abundant monoterpenes. On the basis of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), terpinolene and α-pinene were important components constituting the aroma of Chinese mango cultivars. Most obviously, a number of mango cultivars with high content of various aroma components were observed, and they can serve as potential germplasms for both breeding and direct use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid-Phase Microextraction)
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Open AccessReview Targeting Transcription Factors for Cancer Treatment
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1479; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061479
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Transcription factors are involved in a large number of human diseases such as cancers for which they account for about 20% of all oncogenes identified so far. For long time, with the exception of ligand-inducible nuclear receptors, transcription factors were considered as “undruggable”
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Transcription factors are involved in a large number of human diseases such as cancers for which they account for about 20% of all oncogenes identified so far. For long time, with the exception of ligand-inducible nuclear receptors, transcription factors were considered as “undruggable” targets. Advances knowledge of these transcription factors, in terms of structure, function (expression, degradation, interaction with co-factors and other proteins) and the dynamics of their mode of binding to DNA has changed this postulate and paved the way for new therapies targeted against transcription factors. Here, we discuss various ways to target transcription factors in cancer models: by modulating their expression or degradation, by blocking protein/protein interactions, by targeting the transcription factor itself to prevent its DNA binding either through a binding pocket or at the DNA-interacting site, some of these inhibitors being currently used or evaluated for cancer treatment. Such different targeting of transcription factors by small molecules is facilitated by modern chemistry developing a wide variety of original molecules designed to specifically abort transcription factor and by an increased knowledge of their pathological implication through the use of new technologies in order to make it possible to improve therapeutic control of transcription factor oncogenic functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transcription Factors as Therapeutic Targets)
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Open AccessArticle Parthenolide Inhibits STAT3 Signaling by Covalently Targeting Janus Kinases
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1478; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061478
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Aberrant activations of the STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) signaling pathway are associated with cancer and inflammatory diseases. Three of the four Janus kinases, JAK1, JAK2, and Tyk2, are the major upstream kinases of STAT3 in responses to cytokine stimulations.
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Aberrant activations of the STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) signaling pathway are associated with cancer and inflammatory diseases. Three of the four Janus kinases, JAK1, JAK2, and Tyk2, are the major upstream kinases of STAT3 in responses to cytokine stimulations. Among them, JAK2 is the key kinase in the IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. Here we report the mechanisms of a natural compound parthenolide from the medicinal herb Feverfew in regulating the JAK/STAT3 signaling. We found that parthenolide was a potent inhibitor of JAKs. It covalently modified the Cys178, Cys243, Cys335, and Cys480 of JAK2 and suppressed its kinase activity. It also interacted with other JAKs in a similar fashion. The binding of parthenolide to JAKs was selective. It preferentially bound to the JAKs, but not to the abundant proteins, such as tubulin and actin. Parthenolide also induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the increased ROS did not seem to contribute to the inhibition of JAK/STAT3 signaling. Furthermore, parthenolide inhibited the IL-6-induced cancer cell migration and preferentially inhibited the growth of cancer cells that had constitutively activated STAT3. Our study suggests a novel strategy to inactivate JAKs and provides a promising anti-inflammation and anticancer drug candidate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Desmoglein1 Deficiency Is a Potential Cause of Cutaneous Eruptions Induced by Shuanghuanglian Injection
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1477; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061477
Received: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Cutaneous eruption is a common drug-adverse reaction, characterised by keratinocytes inflammation and apoptosis. Shuanghuanglian injeciton (SHLI) is a typical Chinese medicine injection, which is used to treat influenza. It has been reported that SHLI has the potential to induce cutaneous adverse eruptions. However,
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Cutaneous eruption is a common drug-adverse reaction, characterised by keratinocytes inflammation and apoptosis. Shuanghuanglian injeciton (SHLI) is a typical Chinese medicine injection, which is used to treat influenza. It has been reported that SHLI has the potential to induce cutaneous adverse eruptions. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. Since desmoglein 1 (DSG1) shows a crucial role in maintaining skin barrier function and cell susceptibility, we assume that DSG1 plays a critical role in the cutaneous eruptions induced by SHLI. In our study, retinoic acid (RA) was selected to downregulate the DSG1 expression, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was first used to identify the susceptibility of the DSG1-deficiency Hacat cells. Then, SHLI was administrated to normal or DSG1-deficient Hacat cells and mice. The inflammatory factors and apoptosis rate were evaluated by RT-PCR and flow cytometry. The skin pathological morphology was observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Our results show that treated only with SHLI could not cause IL-4 and TNF-α mRNA increases in normal Hacat cells. However, in the DSG1-deficient Hacat cells or mice, SHLI induced an extreme increase of IL-4 and TNF-α mRNA levels, as well as in the apoptosis rate. The skin tissue showed a local inflammatory cell infiltration when treated with SHIL in the DSG1-deficient mice. Thus, we concluded that DSG1 deficiency was a potential causation of SHLI induced eruptions. These results indicated that keratinocytes with DSG1 deficiency were likely to induce the cutaneous eruptions when stimulated with other medicines. Full article
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Open AccessReview Comparison of Strategies to Overcome Drug Resistance: Learning from Various Kingdoms
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1476; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061476
Received: 4 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
Drug resistance, especially antibiotic resistance, is a growing threat to human health. To overcome this problem, it is significant to know precisely the mechanisms of drug resistance and/or self-resistance in various kingdoms, from bacteria through plants to animals, once more. This review compares
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Drug resistance, especially antibiotic resistance, is a growing threat to human health. To overcome this problem, it is significant to know precisely the mechanisms of drug resistance and/or self-resistance in various kingdoms, from bacteria through plants to animals, once more. This review compares the molecular mechanisms of the resistance against phycotoxins, toxins from marine and terrestrial animals, plants and fungi, and antibiotics. The results reveal that each kingdom possesses the characteristic features. The main mechanisms in each kingdom are transporters/efflux pumps in phycotoxins, mutation and modification of targets and sequestration in marine and terrestrial animal toxins, ABC transporters and sequestration in plant toxins, transporters in fungal toxins, and various or mixed mechanisms in antibiotics. Antibiotic producers in particular make tremendous efforts for avoiding suicide, and are more flexible and adaptable to the changes of environments. With these features in mind, potential alternative strategies to overcome these resistance problems are discussed. This paper will provide clues for solving the issues of drug resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview Recent Reports of Solid-Phase Cyclohexapeptide Synthesis and Applications
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1475; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061475
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 16 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
Macrocyclic peptides are privileged scaffolds for drug development and constitute a significant portion of macrocyclic drugs on the market today in fields spanning from infectious disease to oncology. Developing orally bioavailable peptide-based drugs remains a challenging task; however, macrocyclization of linear peptides can
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Macrocyclic peptides are privileged scaffolds for drug development and constitute a significant portion of macrocyclic drugs on the market today in fields spanning from infectious disease to oncology. Developing orally bioavailable peptide-based drugs remains a challenging task; however, macrocyclization of linear peptides can be an effective strategy to improve membrane permeability, proteolytic stability, oral bioavailability, and overall drug-like characteristics for this class. Significant advances in solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) have enabled the efficient construction of macrocyclic peptide and peptidomimetic libraries with macrolactamization being performed on-resin or in solution phase. The primary goal of this review is to summarize solid-phase cyclohexapeptide synthesis using the on-resin and solution-phase macrocyclization methodologies published since 2013. We also highlight their broad applications ranging from natural product total synthesis, synthetic methodology development, and medicinal chemistry, to drug development and analyses of conformational and physiochemical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid Phase Synthesis)
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Open AccessArticle Vasodilator Activity of Compounds Isolated from Plants Used in Mexican Traditional Medicine
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1474; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061474
Received: 6 April 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
Arterial hypertension is one of the main risk factors in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, it is important to look for new drugs to treat hypertension. In this study, we carried out the screening of 19 compounds (triterpenes, diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, lignans, and
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Arterial hypertension is one of the main risk factors in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, it is important to look for new drugs to treat hypertension. In this study, we carried out the screening of 19 compounds (triterpenes, diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, lignans, and flavonoids) isolated from 10 plants used in Mexican traditional medicine to determine whether they elicited vascular smooth muscle relaxation and, therefore, could represent novel anti-hypertension drug candidates. The vasorelaxant activity of these compounds was evaluated on the isolated rat aorta assay and the results obtained from this evaluation showed that three compounds induced a significant vasodilatory effect: meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid [half maximal effective concentration (EC50), 49.9 ± 11.2 µM; maximum effect (Emax), 99.8 ± 2.7%]; corosolic acid (EC50, 108.9 ± 6.7 µM; Emax, 96.4 ± 4.2%); and 5,8,4′-trihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyflavone (EC50, 122.3 ± 7.6 µM; Emax, 99.5 ± 5.4%). Subsequently, involvement of the NO/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and H2S/ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) pathways on the vasodilator activity of these compounds was assessed. The results derived from this analysis showed that the activation of both pathways contributes to the vasorelaxant effect of corosolic acid. On the other hand, the vasodilator effect of meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid and 5,8,4′-trihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyflavone, partly involves stimulation of the NO/cGMP pathway. However, these compounds also showed an important endothelium-independent vasorelaxant effect, whose mechanism of action remains to be clarified. This study indicates that meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid, corosolic acid, and 5,8,4′-trihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyflavone could be used as lead compounds for the synthesis of new derivatives with a higher potency to be developed as drugs for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Insecticidal, Fungicidal Activities and Structure–Activity Relationships of Tschimganin Analogs
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1473; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061473
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 16 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
For the first time, a novel series of tschimganin analogs were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their insecticidal and fungicidal activities. Their structures were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and HRMS. Some of these compounds displayed excellent insecticidal and fungicidal activities, suggesting
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For the first time, a novel series of tschimganin analogs were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their insecticidal and fungicidal activities. Their structures were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and HRMS. Some of these compounds displayed excellent insecticidal and fungicidal activities, suggesting that they have potential to be used as bifunctional agrochemicals. Compound 3d and 3g with electron donating groups showed better inhibitory activity and growth inhibition activity towards Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). The properties and positions of the substituents on the benzene ring have an important influence on the acaricidal activity of tschimganin analogs. Topomer comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) was employed to develop a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship model for the compounds against Tetranychus turkestani Ugarov et Nikolski. It was indicated that higher electronegativity was beneficial for acaricidal activity. Moreover, compound 3r having a 2-hydroxy-3,5- dinitrophenyl moiety displayed a fungicidal spectrum as broad as azoxystrobin against these phytopathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of a 3-Alkylpyridinium Compound from the Red Sea Sponge Amphimedon chloros with In Vitro Inhibitory Activity against the West Nile Virus NS3 Protease
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1472; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061472
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
Viruses are underrepresented as targets in pharmacological screening efforts, given the difficulties of devising suitable cell-based and biochemical assays. In this study we found that a pre-fractionated organic extract of the Red Sea sponge Amphimedon chloros was able to inhibit the West Nile
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Viruses are underrepresented as targets in pharmacological screening efforts, given the difficulties of devising suitable cell-based and biochemical assays. In this study we found that a pre-fractionated organic extract of the Red Sea sponge Amphimedon chloros was able to inhibit the West Nile Virus NS3 protease (WNV NS3). Using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the identity of the bioactive compound was determined as a 3-alkylpyridinium with m/z = 190.16. Diffusion Ordered Spectroscopy (DOSY) NMR and NMR relaxation rate analysis suggest that the bioactive compound forms oligomers of up to 35 kDa. We observed that at 9.4 μg/mL there was up to 40–70% inhibitory activity on WNV NS3 protease in orthogonal biochemical assays for solid phase extracts (SPE) of A. chloros. However, the LC-MS purified fragment was effective at inhibiting the protease up to 95% at an approximate amount of 2 µg/mL with negligible cytotoxicity to HeLa cells based on a High-Content Screening (HCS) cytological profiling strategy. To date, 3-alkylpyridinium type natural products have not been reported to show antiviral activity since the first characterization of halitoxin, or 3-alkylpyridinium, in 1978. This study provides the first account of a 3-alkylpyridinium complex that exhibits a proposed antiviral activity by inhibiting the NS3 protease. We suggest that the here-described compound can be further modified to increase its stability and tested in a cell-based assay to explore its full potential as a potential novel antiviral capable of inhibiting WNV replication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Potential of Marine and Terrestrial Species)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Poly(alkylidenimine) Dendrimers Functionalized with the Organometallic Moiety [Ru(η5-C5H5)(PPh3)2]+ as Promising Drugs Against Cisplatin-Resistant Cancer Cells and Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1471; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061471
Received: 5 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract
Here and for the first time, we show that the organometallic compound [Ru(η5-C5H5)(PPh3)2Cl] (RuCp) has potential to be used as a metallodrug in anticancer therapy, and further present a new approach for the
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Here and for the first time, we show that the organometallic compound [Ru(η5-C5H5)(PPh3)2Cl] (RuCp) has potential to be used as a metallodrug in anticancer therapy, and further present a new approach for the cellular delivery of the [Ru(η5-C5H5)(PPh3)2]+ fragment via coordination on the periphery of low-generation poly(alkylidenimine) dendrimers through nitrile terminal groups. Importantly, both the RuCp and the dendrimers functionalized with [Ru(η5-C5H5)(PPh3)2]+ fragments present remarkable toxicity towards a wide set of cancer cells (Caco-2, MCF-7, CAL-72, and A2780 cells), including cisplatin-resistant human ovarian carcinoma cell lines (A2780cisR cells). Also, RuCp and the prepared metallodendrimers are active against human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), which are often found in the tumor microenvironment where they seem to play a role in tumor progression and drug resistance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modulation of Rat Hepatic CYP1A and 2C Activity by Honokiol and Magnolol: Differential Effects on Phenacetin and Diclofenac Pharmacokinetics In Vivo
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1470; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061470
Received: 24 April 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 16 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract
Honokiol (2-(4-hydroxy-3-prop-2-enyl-phenyl)-4-prop-2-enyl-phenol) and magnolol (4-Allyl-2-(5-allyl-2-hydroxy-phenyl)phenol) are the major active polyphenol constituents of Magnolia officinalis (Magnoliaceae) bark, which has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (Houpu Tang) for the treatment of various diseases, including anxiety, stress, gastrointestinal disorders, infection, and asthma. The aim
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Honokiol (2-(4-hydroxy-3-prop-2-enyl-phenyl)-4-prop-2-enyl-phenol) and magnolol (4-Allyl-2-(5-allyl-2-hydroxy-phenyl)phenol) are the major active polyphenol constituents of Magnolia officinalis (Magnoliaceae) bark, which has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (Houpu Tang) for the treatment of various diseases, including anxiety, stress, gastrointestinal disorders, infection, and asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the direct effects of honokiol and magnolol on hepatic CYP1A and 2C-mediated metabolism in vitro using rat liver microsomes and in vivo using the Sprague-Dawley rat model. Honokiol and magnolol inhibited in vitro CYP1A activity (probe substrate: phenacetin) more potently than CYP2C activity (probe substrate: diclofenac): The mean IC50 values of honokiol for the metabolism of phenacetin and diclofenac were 8.59 μM and 44.7 μM, while those of magnolol were 19.0 μM and 47.3 μM, respectively. Notably, the systemic exposure (AUC and Cmax) of phenacetin, but not of diclofenac, was markedly enhanced by the concurrent administration of intravenous honokiol or magnolol. The differential effects of the two phytochemicals on phenacetin and diclofenac in vivo pharmacokinetics could at least be partly attributed to their lower IC50 values for the inhibition of phenacetin metabolism than for diclofenac metabolism. In addition, the systemic exposure, CL, and Vss of honokiol and magnolol tended to be similar between the rat groups receiving phenacetin and diclofenac. These findings improve our understanding of CYP-mediated drug interactions with M. officinalis and its active constituents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Proliferation Effect of Theasaponin E1 on the ALDH-Positive Ovarian Cancer Stem-Like Cells
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1469; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061469
Received: 20 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract
Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate of all gynecological malignancies and the five-year death rate of patients has remained high in the past five decades. Recently, with the rise of cancer stem cells (CSCs) theory, an increasing amount of research has suggested
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Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate of all gynecological malignancies and the five-year death rate of patients has remained high in the past five decades. Recently, with the rise of cancer stem cells (CSCs) theory, an increasing amount of research has suggested that CSCs give rise to tumor recurrence and metastasis. Theasaponin E1 (TSE1), which was isolated from green tea (Camellia sinensis) seeds, has been proposed to be an effective compound for tumor treatment. However, studies on whether TSE1 takes effect through CSCs have rarely been reported. In this paper, ALDH-positive (ALDH+) ovarian cancer stem-like cells from two platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines A2780/CP70 and OVCAR-3 were used to study the anti-proliferation effect of TSE1 on CSCs. The ALDH+ cells showed significantly stronger sphere forming vitality and stronger cell migration capability. In addition, the stemness marker proteins CD44, Oct-4, Nanog, as well as Bcl-2 and MMP-9 expression levels of ALDH+ cells were upregulated compared with the original tumor cells, indicating that they have certain stem cell characteristics. At the same time, the results showed that TSE1 could inhibit cell proliferation and suspension sphere formation in ALDH+ cells. Our data suggests that TSE1 as a natural compound has the potential to reduce human ovarian cancer mortality. However, more research is still needed to find out the molecular mechanism of TSE1-mediated inhibition of ALDH+ cells and possible drug applications on the disease. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Determination of the Phenolic Profile and Antioxidant Properties of Salvia viridis L. Shoots: A Comparison of Aqueous and Hydroethanolic Extracts
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1468; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061468
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract
Salvia viridis L. is an annual herb used in Mediterranean medicine. The purpose of this study was to determine the polyphenol profile of aqueous (decoction and infusion) and hydroethanolic extracts of aerial parts of field-grown S.viridis and to evaluate their antioxidant activity.
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Salvia viridis L. is an annual herb used in Mediterranean medicine. The purpose of this study was to determine the polyphenol profile of aqueous (decoction and infusion) and hydroethanolic extracts of aerial parts of field-grown S.viridis and to evaluate their antioxidant activity. The polyphenol profiling was performed via UPLC-DAD/ESI-MS. Additionally, the total polyphenol content in extracts tested were determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometry using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The antioxidant effect was evaluated by the FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, O2•− scavenging and TBARS methods. The hydroethanolic extract gave the highest content of total phenolic compounds, followed by the infusion. The UPLC-DAD/ESI-MS analysis of extracts showed a total of 19 phenolic compounds identified as flavonoids (four compounds), phenylethanoids (eight compounds) and phenolic acids (seven compounds). Rosmarinic acid was the predominant phenolic acid, verbascoside was the predominant phenylethanoid, while apigenin glucuronide or methylluteolin glucuronide, depending on the sample, were the predominant flavonoids in the analyzed extracts. The presence of a high polyphenol level indicated a high antioxidant activity of both the infusion and the hydroalcoholic extract. These results indicate that S. viridis is a rich resource of phenolic compounds and can be used in dietary applications with the potential to reduce oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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