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Sensors, Volume 10, Issue 2 (February 2010), Pages 1012-1422

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Observation and Measurement of Negative Differential Resistance on PtSi Schottky Junctions on Porous Silicon
Sensors 2010, 10(2), 1012-1020; doi:10.3390/s100201012
Received: 19 November 2009 / Revised: 29 December 2009 / Accepted: 18 January 2010 / Published: 27 January 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (574 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanosize porous Si is made by two step controlled etching of Si. The first etching step is carried on the Si surface and the second is performed after deposition of 75 Å of platinum on the formed surface. A platinum silicide structure [...] Read more.
Nanosize porous Si is made by two step controlled etching of Si. The first etching step is carried on the Si surface and the second is performed after deposition of 75 Å of platinum on the formed surface. A platinum silicide structure with a size of less than 25 nm is formed on the porous Si surface, as measured with an Atomic Forced Microscope (AFM). Differential resistance curve as a function of voltage in 77 K and 100 K shows a negative differential resistance and indicates the effect of quantum tunneling. In general form, the ratio of maximum to minimum tunneling current (PVR) and the number of peaks in I-V curves reduces by increasing the temperature. However, due to accumulation of carriers behind the potential barrier and superposition of several peaks, it is observed that the PVR increases at 100 K and the maximum PVR at 100 K is 189.6. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ISFET Sensors)
Open AccessArticle CENet: A Cabinet Environmental Sensing Network
Sensors 2010, 10(2), 1021-1040; doi:10.3390/s100201021
Received: 29 November 2009 / Revised: 24 December 2009 / Accepted: 28 December 2009 / Published: 28 January 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (834 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For data center cooling and intelligent substation systems, real time cabinet environmental monitoring is a strong requirement. Monitoring data, such as temperature, humidity, and noise, is important for operators to manage the facilities in cabinets. We here propose a sensing network, called [...] Read more.
For data center cooling and intelligent substation systems, real time cabinet environmental monitoring is a strong requirement. Monitoring data, such as temperature, humidity, and noise, is important for operators to manage the facilities in cabinets. We here propose a sensing network, called CENet, which is energy efficient and reliable for cabinet environmental monitoring. CENet achieves above 93% reliable data yield and sends fewer beacons compared to periodic beaconing. It does so through a data-aided routing protocol. In addition, based on B-MAC, we propose a scheduling scheme to increase the lifetime of the network by reducing unnecessary message snooping and channel listening, thus it is more energy efficient than B-MAC. The performance of CENet is evaluated by simulations and experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Multiscale Region-Based Motion Detection and Background Subtraction Algorithm
Sensors 2010, 10(2), 1041-1061; doi:10.3390/s100201041
Received: 1 December 2009 / Revised: 15 January 2010 / Accepted: 22 January 2010 / Published: 28 January 2010
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (2303 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a region-based method for background subtraction. It relies on color histograms, texture information, and successive division of candidate rectangular image regions to model the background and detect motion. Our proposed algorithm uses this principle and combines it with Gaussian [...] Read more.
This paper presents a region-based method for background subtraction. It relies on color histograms, texture information, and successive division of candidate rectangular image regions to model the background and detect motion. Our proposed algorithm uses this principle and combines it with Gaussian Mixture background modeling to produce a new method which outperforms the classic Gaussian Mixture background subtraction method. Our method has the advantages of filtering noise during image differentiation and providing a selectable level of detail for the contour of the moving shapes. The algorithm is tested on various video sequences and is shown to outperform state-of-the-art background subtraction methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Motion Detectors)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Three Electronic Noses for Detecting Incipient Wood Decay
Sensors 2010, 10(2), 1062-1092; doi:10.3390/s100201062
Received: 29 December 2009 / Revised: 18 January 2010 / Accepted: 26 January 2010 / Published: 29 January 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1678 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tree assessment methodologies, currently used to evaluate the structural stability of individual urban trees, usually involve a visual analysis followed by measurements of the internal soundness of wood using various instruments that are often invasive, expensive, or inadequate for use within the [...] Read more.
Tree assessment methodologies, currently used to evaluate the structural stability of individual urban trees, usually involve a visual analysis followed by measurements of the internal soundness of wood using various instruments that are often invasive, expensive, or inadequate for use within the urban environment. Moreover, most conventional instruments do not provide an adequate evaluation of decay that occurs in the root system. The intent of this research was to evaluate the possibility of integrating conventional tools, currently used for assessments of decay in urban trees, with the electronic nose–a new innovative tool used in diverse fields and industries for various applications such as quality control in manufacturing, environmental monitoring, medical diagnoses, and perfumery. Electronic-nose (e-nose) technologies were tested for the capability of detecting differences in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by wood decay fungi and wood from healthy and decayed trees. Three e-noses, based on different types of operational technologies and analytical methods, were evaluated independently (not directly compared) to determine the feasibility of detecting incipient decays in artificially-inoculated wood. All three e-nose devices were capable of discriminating between healthy and artificially-inoculated, decayed wood with high levels of precision and confidence. The LibraNose quartz microbalance (QMB) e-nose generally provided higher levels of discrimination of sample unknowns, but not necessarily more accurate or effective detection than the AromaScan A32S conducting polymer and PEN3 metal-oxide (MOS) gas sensor e-noses for identifying and distinguishing woody samples containing different agents of wood decay. However, the conducting polymer e-nose had the greater advantage for identifying unknowns from diverse woody sample types due to the associated software capability of utilizing prior-developed, application-specific reference libraries with aroma pattern-recognition and neural-net training algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Sensors and Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Using Fuzzy Logic to Enhance Stereo Matching in Multiresolution Images
Sensors 2010, 10(2), 1093-1118; doi:10.3390/100201093
Received: 10 December 2009 / Revised: 14 January 2010 / Accepted: 18 January 2010 / Published: 29 January 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1148 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stereo matching is an open problem in Computer Vision, for which local features are extracted to identify corresponding points in pairs of images. The results are heavily dependent on the initial steps. We apply image decomposition in multiresolution levels, for reducing the [...] Read more.
Stereo matching is an open problem in Computer Vision, for which local features are extracted to identify corresponding points in pairs of images. The results are heavily dependent on the initial steps. We apply image decomposition in multiresolution levels, for reducing the search space, computational time, and errors. We propose a solution to the problem of how deep (coarse) should the stereo measures start, trading between error minimization and time consumption, by starting stereo calculation at varying resolution levels, for each pixel, according to fuzzy decisions. Our heuristic enhances the overall execution time since it only employs deeper resolution levels when strictly necessary. It also reduces errors because it measures similarity between windows with enough details. We also compare our algorithm with a very fast multi-resolution approach, and one based on fuzzy logic. Our algorithm performs faster and/or better than all those approaches, becoming, thus, a good candidate for robotic vision applications. We also discuss the system architecture that efficiently implements our solution. Full article
Open AccessArticle Development of a Fingertip Glove Equipped with Magnetic Tracking Sensors
Sensors 2010, 10(2), 1119-1140; doi:10.3390/s100201119
Received: 24 November 2009 / Revised: 11 January 2010 / Accepted: 20 January 2010 / Published: 29 January 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (409 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we present the development of a data glove system based on fingertip tracking techniques. To track the fingertip position and orientation, a sensor module and two generator coils are attached on the fingertip and metacarpal of the corresponding finger. [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present the development of a data glove system based on fingertip tracking techniques. To track the fingertip position and orientation, a sensor module and two generator coils are attached on the fingertip and metacarpal of the corresponding finger. By tracking the fingertip, object manipulation tasks in a virtual environment or teleoperation system can be carried out more precisely, because fingertips are the foremost areas that reach the surface of an object in most of grasping processes. To calculate the bending angles of a finger, we also propose a method of constructing the shape of the finger. Since the coils are installed on the fingertips and metacarpals, there is no contact point between the sensors and finger joints. Hence, the shape of the sensors does not change as the fingers are bending, and both the quality of measurement and the lifetime of the sensors will not decrease in time. For the convenience of using this glove, a simple and efficient calibration process consisting of only one calibration gesture is also provided, so that all required parameters can be determined automatically. So far, the experimental results of the sensors performing linear movement and bending angle measurements are very satisfactory. It reveals that our data glove is available for a man-machine interface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle System Interface for an Integrated Intelligent Safety System (ISS) for Vehicle Applications
Sensors 2010, 10(2), 1141-1153; doi:10.3390/s100201141
Received: 10 November 2009 / Revised: 29 November 2009 / Accepted: 9 January 2010 / Published: 29 January 2010
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (327 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper deals with the interface-relevant activity of a vehicle integrated intelligent safety system (ISS) that includes an airbag deployment decision system (ADDS) and a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS). A program is developed in LabWindows/CVI, using C for prototype implementation. The [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the interface-relevant activity of a vehicle integrated intelligent safety system (ISS) that includes an airbag deployment decision system (ADDS) and a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS). A program is developed in LabWindows/CVI, using C for prototype implementation. The prototype is primarily concerned with the interconnection between hardware objects such as a load cell, web camera, accelerometer, TPM tire module and receiver module, DAQ card, CPU card and a touch screen. Several safety subsystems, including image processing, weight sensing and crash detection systems, are integrated, and their outputs are combined to yield intelligent decisions regarding airbag deployment. The integrated safety system also monitors tire pressure and temperature. Testing and experimentation with this ISS suggests that the system is unique, robust, intelligent, and appropriate for in-vehicle applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Machine Learning Methods for Classifying Human Physical Activity from On-Body Accelerometers
Sensors 2010, 10(2), 1154-1175; doi:10.3390/s100201154
Received: 31 December 2009 / Revised: 26 January 2010 / Accepted: 26 January 2010 / Published: 1 February 2010
Cited by 122 | PDF Full-text (836 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of on-body wearable sensors is widespread in several academic and industrial domains. Of great interest are their applications in ambulatory monitoring and pervasive computing systems; here, some quantitative analysis of human motion and its automatic classification are the main computational [...] Read more.
The use of on-body wearable sensors is widespread in several academic and industrial domains. Of great interest are their applications in ambulatory monitoring and pervasive computing systems; here, some quantitative analysis of human motion and its automatic classification are the main computational tasks to be pursued. In this paper, we discuss how human physical activity can be classified using on-body accelerometers, with a major emphasis devoted to the computational algorithms employed for this purpose. In particular, we motivate our current interest for classifiers based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). An example is illustrated and discussed by analysing a dataset of accelerometer time series. Full article
Open AccessArticle Cooperative Anchor-Free Position Estimation for Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2010, 10(2), 1176-1215; doi:10.3390/s100201176
Received: 30 December 2009 / Revised: 27 January 2010 / Accepted: 27 January 2010 / Published: 1 February 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (719 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a distributed algorithm for establishing connectivity and location estimation in cluster-based wireless sensor networks. The algorithm exploits the information flow while coping with distributed signal processing and the requirements of network scalability. Once the estimation procedure and communication protocol [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a distributed algorithm for establishing connectivity and location estimation in cluster-based wireless sensor networks. The algorithm exploits the information flow while coping with distributed signal processing and the requirements of network scalability. Once the estimation procedure and communication protocol are performed, sensor clusters can be merged to establish a single global coordinate system without GPS sensors using only distance information. In order to adjust the sensor positions, the refinement schemes and cooperative fusion approaches are applied to reduce the estimation error and improve the measurement accuracy. This paper outlines the technical foundations of the localization techniques and presents the tradeoffs in algorithm design. The feasibility of the proposed schemes is shown to be effective under certain assumptions and the analysis is supported by simulation and numerical studies. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Finite Element Model of a MEMS-based Surface Acoustic Wave Hydrogen Sensor
Sensors 2010, 10(2), 1232-1250; doi:10.3390/s100201232
Received: 15 December 2009 / Revised: 31 December 2009 / Accepted: 23 January 2010 / Published: 2 February 2010
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (524 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hydrogen plays a significant role in various industrial applications, but careful handling and continuous monitoring are crucial since it is explosive when mixed with air. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors provide desirable characteristics for hydrogen detection due to their small size, low [...] Read more.
Hydrogen plays a significant role in various industrial applications, but careful handling and continuous monitoring are crucial since it is explosive when mixed with air. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors provide desirable characteristics for hydrogen detection due to their small size, low fabrication cost, ease of integration and high sensitivity. In this paper a finite element model of a Surface Acoustic Wave sensor is developed using ANSYS12© and tested for hydrogen detection. The sensor consists of a YZ-lithium niobate substrate with interdigital electrodes (IDT) patterned on the surface. A thin palladium (Pd) film is added on the surface of the sensor due to its high affinity for hydrogen. With increased hydrogen absorption the palladium hydride structure undergoes a phase change due to the formation of the β-phase, which deteriorates the crystal structure. Therefore with increasing hydrogen concentration the stiffness and the density are significantly reduced. The values of the modulus of elasticity and the density at different hydrogen concentrations in palladium are utilized in the finite element model to determine the corresponding SAW sensor response. Results indicate that with increasing the hydrogen concentration the wave velocity decreases and the attenuation of the wave is reduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Secure Adaptive Topology Control for Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks
Sensors 2010, 10(2), 1251-1278; doi:10.3390/s100201251
Received: 10 October 2009 / Revised: 25 January 2010 / Accepted: 30 January 2010 / Published: 3 February 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3510 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a secure decentralized clustering algorithm for wireless ad-hoc sensor networks. The algorithm operates without a centralized controller, operates asynchronously, and does not require that the location of the sensors be known a priori. Based on the cluster-based topology, secure [...] Read more.
This paper presents a secure decentralized clustering algorithm for wireless ad-hoc sensor networks. The algorithm operates without a centralized controller, operates asynchronously, and does not require that the location of the sensors be known a priori. Based on the cluster-based topology, secure hierarchical communication protocols and dynamic quarantine strategies are introduced to defend against spam attacks, since this type of attacks can exhaust the energy of sensor nodes and will shorten the lifetime of a sensor network drastically. By adjusting the threshold of infected percentage of the cluster coverage, our scheme can dynamically coordinate the proportion of the quarantine region and adaptively achieve the cluster control and the neighborhood control of attacks. Simulation results show that the proposed approach is feasible and cost effective for wireless sensor networks. Full article
Open AccessArticle Direct Electrochemistry and Electrocatalysis of Hemoglobin at Mesoporous Carbon Modified Electrode
Sensors 2010, 10(2), 1279-1290; doi:10.3390/s100201279
Received: 30 November 2009 / Revised: 30 December 2009 / Accepted: 18 January 2010 / Published: 3 February 2010
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (331 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The novel highly ordered mesoporous carbon (known as FDU-15), prepared by the organic-organic self-assembly method was been used for first time for the immobilization of hemoglobin (Hb) and its bioelectrochemical properties were studied. The resulting Hb/FDU-15 film provided a favorable microenvironment for [...] Read more.
The novel highly ordered mesoporous carbon (known as FDU-15), prepared by the organic-organic self-assembly method was been used for first time for the immobilization of hemoglobin (Hb) and its bioelectrochemical properties were studied. The resulting Hb/FDU-15 film provided a favorable microenvironment for Hb to perform direct electron transfers at the electrode. The immobilized Hb also displayed its good electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The results demonstrate that mesoporous carbon FDU-15 can improve the Hb loading with retention of its bioactivity and greatly promote the direct electron transfer, which can be attributed to its high specific surface area, uniform ordered porous structure, suitable pore size and biocompatibility. Our present study may provide an alternative way for the construction of nanostructure biofunctional surfaces and pave the way for its application to biosensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Evaluating the Consistency of the 1982–1999 NDVI Trends in the Iberian Peninsula across Four Time-series Derived from the AVHRR Sensor: LTDR, GIMMS, FASIR, and PAL-II
Sensors 2010, 10(2), 1291-1314; doi:10.3390/s100201291
Received: 30 December 2009 / Revised: 14 January 2010 / Accepted: 19 January 2010 / Published: 8 February 2010
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (4059 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Successive efforts have processed the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor archive to produce Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) datasets (i.e., PAL, FASIR, GIMMS, and LTDR) under different corrections and processing schemes. Since NDVI datasets are used to evaluate [...] Read more.
Successive efforts have processed the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor archive to produce Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) datasets (i.e., PAL, FASIR, GIMMS, and LTDR) under different corrections and processing schemes. Since NDVI datasets are used to evaluate carbon gains, differences among them may affect nations’ carbon budgets in meeting international targets (such as the Kyoto Protocol). This study addresses the consistency across AVHRR NDVI datasets in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) by evaluating whether their 1982–1999 NDVI trends show similar spatial patterns. Significant trends were calculated with the seasonal Mann-Kendall trend test and their spatial consistency with partial Mantel tests. Over 23% of the Peninsula (N, E, and central mountain ranges) showed positive and significant NDVI trends across the four datasets and an additional 18% across three datasets. In 20% of Iberia (SW quadrant), the four datasets exhibited an absence of significant trends and an additional 22% across three datasets. Significant NDVI decreases were scarce (croplands in the Guadalquivir and Segura basins, La Mancha plains, and Valencia). Spatial consistency of significant trends across at least three datasets was observed in 83% of the Peninsula, but it decreased to 47% when comparing across the four datasets. FASIR, PAL, and LTDR were the most spatially similar datasets, while GIMMS was the most different. The different performance of each AVHRR dataset to detect significant NDVI trends (e.g., LTDR detected greater significant trends (both positive and negative) and in 32% more pixels than GIMMS) has great implications to evaluate carbon budgets. The lack of spatial consistency across NDVI datasets derived from the same AVHRR sensor archive, makes it advisable to evaluate carbon gains trends using several satellite datasets and, whether possible, independent/additional data sources to contrast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication and Characterization of CMOS-MEMS Thermoelectric Micro Generators
Sensors 2010, 10(2), 1315-1325; doi:10.3390/s100201315
Received: 24 December 2009 / Revised: 28 January 2010 / Accepted: 1 February 2010 / Published: 9 February 2010
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (586 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work presents a thermoelectric micro generator fabricated by the commercial 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process and the post-CMOS process. The micro generator is composed of 24 thermocouples in series. Each thermocouple is constructed by p-type and n-type polysilicon [...] Read more.
This work presents a thermoelectric micro generator fabricated by the commercial 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process and the post-CMOS process. The micro generator is composed of 24 thermocouples in series. Each thermocouple is constructed by p-type and n-type polysilicon strips. The output power of the generator depends on the temperature difference between the hot and cold parts in the thermocouples. In order to prevent heat-receiving in the cold part in the thermocouples, the cold part is covered with a silicon dioxide layer with low thermal conductivity to insulate the heat source. The hot part of the thermocouples is suspended and connected to an aluminum plate, to increases the heat-receiving area in the hot part. The generator requires a post-CMOS process to release the suspended structures. The post-CMOS process uses an anisotropic dry etching to remove the oxide sacrificial layer and an isotropic dry etching to etch the silicon substrate. Experimental results show that the micro generator has an output voltage of 67 μV at the temperature difference of 1 K. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering - 2009)
Open AccessCommunication A Lanthanide-Based Chemosensor for Bioavailable Fe3+ Using a Fluorescent Siderophore: An Assay Displacement Approach
Sensors 2010, 10(2), 1326-1337; doi:10.3390/s100201326
Received: 24 December 2009 / Revised: 28 January 2010 / Accepted: 5 February 2010 / Published: 11 February 2010
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (306 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The measurement of trace analytes in aqueous systems has become increasingly important for understanding ocean primary productivity. In oceanography, iron (Fe) is a key element in regulating ocean productivity, microplankton assemblages and has been identified as a causative element in the development [...] Read more.
The measurement of trace analytes in aqueous systems has become increasingly important for understanding ocean primary productivity. In oceanography, iron (Fe) is a key element in regulating ocean productivity, microplankton assemblages and has been identified as a causative element in the development of some harmful algal blooms.The chemosenor developed in this study is based on an indicator displacement approach that utilizes time-resolved fluorescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer as the sensing mechanism to achieve detection of Fe3+ ions as low as 5 nM. This novel approach holds promise for the development of photoactive chemosensors for ocean deployment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Chemosensors)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Thick and Thin Film SiCN for Pressure Sensing at High Temperatures
Sensors 2010, 10(2), 1338-1354; doi:10.3390/s100201338
Received: 29 December 2009 / Revised: 21 January 2010 / Accepted: 1 February 2010 / Published: 11 February 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (849 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pressure measurement in high temperature environments is important in many applications to provide valuable information for performance studies. Information on pressure patterns is highly desirable for improving performance, condition monitoring and accurate prediction of the remaining life of systems that operate in [...] Read more.
Pressure measurement in high temperature environments is important in many applications to provide valuable information for performance studies. Information on pressure patterns is highly desirable for improving performance, condition monitoring and accurate prediction of the remaining life of systems that operate in extremely high temperature environments, such as gas turbine engines. A number of technologies have been recently investigated, however these technologies target specific applications and they are limited by the maximum operating temperature. Thick and thin films of SiCN can withstand high temperatures. SiCN is a polymer-derived ceramic with liquid phase polymer as its starting material. This provides the advantage that it can be molded to any shape. CERASET™ also yields itself for photolithography, with the addition of photo initiator 2, 2-Dimethoxy-2-phenyl-acetophenone (DMPA), thereby enabling photolithographical patterning of the pre-ceramic polymer using UV lithography. SiCN fabrication includes thermosetting, crosslinking and pyrolysis. The technology is still under investigation for stability and improved performance. This work presents the preparation of SiCN films to be used as the body of a sensor for pressure measurements in high temperature environments. The sensor employs the phenomenon of drag effect. The pressure sensor consists of a slender sensitive element and a thick blocking element. The dimensions and thickness of the films depend on the intended application of the sensors. Fabrication methods of SiCN ceramics both as thin (about 40–60 µm) and thick (about 2–3 mm) films for high temperature applications are discussed. In addition, the influence of thermosetting and annealing processes on mechanical properties is investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering - 2009)
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Open AccessArticle Whole-Cell Fluorescent Biosensors for Bioavailability and Biodegradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Sensors 2010, 10(2), 1377-1398; doi:10.3390/s100201377
Received: 29 December 2009 / Revised: 14 January 2010 / Accepted: 29 January 2010 / Published: 21 February 2010
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (373 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Whole-cell microbial biosensors are one of the newest molecular tools used in environmental monitoring. Such biosensors are constructed through fusing a reporter gene such as lux, gfp or lacZ,to a responsive promoter. There have been many reports of the applications [...] Read more.
Whole-cell microbial biosensors are one of the newest molecular tools used in environmental monitoring. Such biosensors are constructed through fusing a reporter gene such as lux, gfp or lacZ,to a responsive promoter. There have been many reports of the applications of biosensors, particularly their use in assaying pollutant toxicity and bioavailability. This paper reviews the basic concepts behind the construction of whole-cell microbial biosensors for pollutant monitoring, and describes the applications of two such biosensors for detecting the bioavailability and biodegradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Chemosensors)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview ZnO-Based Amperometric Enzyme Biosensors
Sensors 2010, 10(2), 1216-1231; doi:10.3390/s100201216
Received: 16 December 2009 / Revised: 19 January 2010 / Accepted: 19 January 2010 / Published: 1 February 2010
Cited by 75 | PDF Full-text (1221 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanostructured ZnO with its unique properties could provide a suitable microenvironment for immobilization of enzymes while retaining their biological activity, and thus lead to an expanded use of this nanomaterial for the construction of electrochemical biosensors with enhanced analytical performance. ZnO-based enzyme [...] Read more.
Nanostructured ZnO with its unique properties could provide a suitable microenvironment for immobilization of enzymes while retaining their biological activity, and thus lead to an expanded use of this nanomaterial for the construction of electrochemical biosensors with enhanced analytical performance. ZnO-based enzyme electrochemical biosensors are summarized in several tables for an easy overview according to the target biosensing analyte (glucose, hydrogen peroxide, phenol and cholesterol), respectively. Moreover, recent developments in enzyme electrochemical biosensors based on ZnO nanomaterials are reviewed with an emphasis on the fabrications and features of ZnO, approaches for biosensor construction (e.g., modified electrodes and enzyme immobilization) and biosensor performances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal-Oxide Based Nanosensors)
Open AccessReview Design Strategies of Fluorescent Biosensors Based on Biological Macromolecular Receptors
Sensors 2010, 10(2), 1355-1376; doi:10.3390/s100201355
Received: 5 January 2010 / Revised: 29 January 2010 / Accepted: 4 February 2010 / Published: 12 February 2010
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (548 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fluorescent biosensors to detect the bona fide events of biologically important molecules in living cells are increasingly demanded in the field of molecular cell biology. Recent advances in the development of fluorescent biosensors have made an outstanding contribution to elucidating not only [...] Read more.
Fluorescent biosensors to detect the bona fide events of biologically important molecules in living cells are increasingly demanded in the field of molecular cell biology. Recent advances in the development of fluorescent biosensors have made an outstanding contribution to elucidating not only the roles of individual biomolecules, but also the dynamic intracellular relationships between these molecules. However, rational design strategies of fluorescent biosensors are not as mature as they look. An insatiable request for the establishment of a more universal and versatile strategy continues to provide an attractive alternative, so-called modular strategy, which permits facile preparation of biosensors with tailored characteristics by a simple combination of a receptor and a signal transducer. This review describes an overview of the progress in design strategies of fluorescent biosensors, such as auto-fluorescent protein-based biosensors, protein-based biosensors covalently modified with synthetic fluorophores, and signaling aptamers, and highlights the insight into how a given receptor is converted to a fluorescent biosensor. Furthermore, we will demonstrate a significance of the modular strategy for the sensor design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Chemosensors)
Open AccessReview Neurological Tremor: Sensors, Signal Processing and Emerging Applications
Sensors 2010, 10(2), 1399-1422; doi:10.3390/s100201399
Received: 23 December 2009 / Revised: 22 January 2010 / Accepted: 20 February 2010 / Published: 24 February 2010
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (1254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neurological tremor is the most common movement disorder, affecting more than 4% of elderly people. Tremor is a non linear and non stationary phenomenon, which is increasingly recognized. The issue of selection of sensors is central in the characterization of tremor. This [...] Read more.
Neurological tremor is the most common movement disorder, affecting more than 4% of elderly people. Tremor is a non linear and non stationary phenomenon, which is increasingly recognized. The issue of selection of sensors is central in the characterization of tremor. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art instrumentation and methods of signal processing for tremor occurring in humans. We describe the advantages and disadvantages of the most commonly used sensors, as well as the emerging wearable sensors being developed to assess tremor instantaneously. We discuss the current limitations and the future applications such as the integration of tremor sensors in BCIs (brain-computer interfaces) and the need for sensor fusion approaches for wearable solutions. Full article
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