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Sensors, Volume 11, Issue 11 (November 2011), Pages 10010-11035

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Open AccessArticle System-Level Biochip for Impedance Sensing and Programmable Manipulation of Bladder Cancer Cells
Sensors 2011, 11(11), 11021-11035; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111111021
Received: 8 October 2011 / Revised: 17 November 2011 / Accepted: 17 November 2011 / Published: 23 November 2011
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (2036 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This paper develops a dielectrophoretic (DEP) chip with multi-layer electrodes and a micro-cavity array for programmable manipulations of cells and impedance measurement. The DEP chip consists of an ITO top electrode, flow chamber, middle electrode on an SU-8 surface, micro-cavity arrays of SU-8
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This paper develops a dielectrophoretic (DEP) chip with multi-layer electrodes and a micro-cavity array for programmable manipulations of cells and impedance measurement. The DEP chip consists of an ITO top electrode, flow chamber, middle electrode on an SU-8 surface, micro-cavity arrays of SU-8 and distributed electrodes at the bottom of the micro-cavity. Impedance sensing of single cells could be performed as follows: firstly, cells were trapped in a micro-cavity array by negative DEP force provided by top and middle electrodes; then, the impedance measurement for discrimination of different stage of bladder cancer cells was accomplished by the middle and bottom electrodes. After impedance sensing, the individual releasing of trapped cells was achieved by negative DEP force using the top and bottom electrodes in order to collect the identified cells once more. Both cell manipulations and impedance measurement had been integrated within a system controlled by a PC-based LabVIEW program. In the experiments, two different stages of bladder cancer cell lines (grade III: T24 and grade II: TSGH8301) were utilized for the demonstration of programmable manipulation and impedance sensing; as the results show, the lower-grade bladder cancer cells (TSGH8301) possess higher impedance than the higher-grade ones (T24). In general, the multi-step manipulations of cells can be easily programmed by controlling the electrical signal in our design, which provides an excellent platform technology for lab-on-a-chip (LOC) or a micro-total-analysis-system (Micro TAS). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biochips)
Open AccessArticle Selective Change Driven Imaging: A Biomimetic Visual Sensing Strategy
Sensors 2011, 11(11), 11000-11020; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111111000
Received: 15 October 2011 / Revised: 15 November 2011 / Accepted: 18 November 2011 / Published: 23 November 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2383 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Selective Change Driven (SCD) Vision is a biologically inspired strategy for acquiring, transmitting and processing images that significantly speeds up image sensing. SCD vision is based on a new CMOS image sensor which delivers, ordered by the absolute magnitude of its change, the
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Selective Change Driven (SCD) Vision is a biologically inspired strategy for acquiring, transmitting and processing images that significantly speeds up image sensing. SCD vision is based on a new CMOS image sensor which delivers, ordered by the absolute magnitude of its change, the pixels that have changed after the last time they were read out. Moreover, the traditional full frame processing hardware and programming methodology has to be changed, as a part of this biomimetic approach, to a new processing paradigm based on pixel processing in a data flow manner, instead of full frame image processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetic Sensors, Actuators and Integrated Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Thermal Infrared Spectrometer for Earth Science Remote Sensing Applications—Instrument Modifications and Measurement Procedures
Sensors 2011, 11(11), 10981-10999; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111110981
Received: 18 October 2011 / Revised: 16 November 2011 / Accepted: 16 November 2011 / Published: 23 November 2011
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (1469 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this article we describe a new instrumental setup at the University of Twente Faculty ITC with an optimized processing chain to measure absolute directional-hemispherical reflectance values of typical earth science samples in the 2.5 to 16 µm range. A Bruker Vertex 70
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In this article we describe a new instrumental setup at the University of Twente Faculty ITC with an optimized processing chain to measure absolute directional-hemispherical reflectance values of typical earth science samples in the 2.5 to 16 µm range. A Bruker Vertex 70 FTIR spectrometer was chosen as the base instrument. It was modified with an external integrating sphere with a 30 mm sampling port to allow measuring large, inhomogeneous samples and quantitatively compare the laboratory results to airborne and spaceborne remote sensing data. During the processing to directional-hemispherical reflectance values, a background radiation subtraction is performed, removing the effect of radiance not reflected from the sample itself on the detector. This provides more accurate reflectance values for low-reflecting samples. Repeat measurements taken over a 20 month period on a quartz sand standard show that the repeatability of the system is very high, with a standard deviation ranging between 0.001 and 0.006 reflectance units depending on wavelength. This high level of repeatability is achieved even after replacing optical components, re-aligning mirrors and placement of sample port reducers. Absolute reflectance values of measurements taken by the instrument here presented compare very favorably to measurements of other leading laboratories taken on identical sample standards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Autonomous Navigation for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Based on Information Filters and Active Sensing
Sensors 2011, 11(11), 10958-10980; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111110958
Received: 8 October 2011 / Revised: 11 November 2011 / Accepted: 18 November 2011 / Published: 22 November 2011
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (1109 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper addresses an autonomous navigation method for the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) C-Ranger applying information-filter-based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), and its sea trial experiments in Tuandao Bay (Shangdong Province, P.R. China). Weak links in the information matrix in an extended information
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This paper addresses an autonomous navigation method for the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) C-Ranger applying information-filter-based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), and its sea trial experiments in Tuandao Bay (Shangdong Province, P.R. China). Weak links in the information matrix in an extended information filter (EIF) can be pruned to achieve an efficient approach-sparse EIF algorithm (SEIF-SLAM). All the basic update formulae can be implemented in constant time irrespective of the size of the map; hence the computational complexity is significantly reduced. The mechanical scanning imaging sonar is chosen as the active sensing device for the underwater vehicle, and a compensation method based on feedback of the AUV pose is presented to overcome distortion of the acoustic images due to the vehicle motion. In order to verify the feasibility of the navigation methods proposed for the C-Ranger, a sea trial was conducted in Tuandao Bay. Experimental results and analysis show that the proposed navigation approach based on SEIF-SLAM improves the accuracy of the navigation compared with conventional method; moreover the algorithm has a low computational cost when compared with EKF-SLAM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Alternative Post-Processing on a CMOS Chip to Fabricate a Planar Microelectrode Array
Sensors 2011, 11(11), 10940-10957; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111110940
Received: 24 October 2011 / Revised: 9 November 2011 / Accepted: 18 November 2011 / Published: 22 November 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3834 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present an alternative post-processing on a CMOS chip to release a planar microelectrode array (pMEA) integrated with its signal readout circuit, which can be used for monitoring the neuronal activity of vestibular ganglion neurons in newborn Wistar strain rats. This chip is
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We present an alternative post-processing on a CMOS chip to release a planar microelectrode array (pMEA) integrated with its signal readout circuit, which can be used for monitoring the neuronal activity of vestibular ganglion neurons in newborn Wistar strain rats. This chip is fabricated through a 0.6 µm CMOS standard process and it has 12 pMEA through a 4 ´ 3 electrodes matrix. The alternative CMOS post-process includes the development of masks to protect the readout circuit and the power supply pads. A wet etching process eliminates the aluminum located on the surface of the p+-type silicon. This silicon is used as transducer for recording the neuronal activity and as interface between the readout circuit and neurons. The readout circuit is composed of an amplifier and tunable bandpass filter, which is placed on a 0.015 mm2 silicon area. The tunable bandpass filter has a bandwidth of 98 kHz and a common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of 87 dB. These characteristics of the readout circuit are appropriate for neuronal recording applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biochips)
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Open AccessArticle Dynamic Control of Adsorption Sensitivity for Photo-EMF-Based Ammonia Gas Sensors Using a Wireless Network
Sensors 2011, 11(11), 10930-10939; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111110930
Received: 13 October 2011 / Revised: 11 November 2011 / Accepted: 18 November 2011 / Published: 22 November 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1354 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes an adsorption sensitivity control method that uses a wireless network and illumination light intensity in a photo-electromagnetic field (EMF)-based gas sensor for measurements in real time of a wide range of ammonia concentrations. The minimum measurement error for a range
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This paper proposes an adsorption sensitivity control method that uses a wireless network and illumination light intensity in a photo-electromagnetic field (EMF)-based gas sensor for measurements in real time of a wide range of ammonia concentrations. The minimum measurement error for a range of ammonia concentration from 3 to 800 ppm occurs when the gas concentration magnitude corresponds with the optimal intensity of the illumination light. A simulation with LabView-engineered modules for automatic control of a new intelligent computer system was conducted to improve measurement precision over a wide range of gas concentrations. This gas sensor computer system with wireless network technology could be useful in the chemical industry for automatic detection and measurement of hazardous ammonia gas levels in real time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessReview Plasmonic Nanostructures for Nano-Scale Bio-Sensing
Sensors 2011, 11(11), 10907-10929; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111110907
Received: 8 October 2011 / Revised: 13 November 2011 / Accepted: 14 November 2011 / Published: 21 November 2011
Cited by 125 | PDF Full-text (1413 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The optical properties of various nanostructures have been widely adopted for biological detection, from DNA sequencing to nano-scale single molecule biological function measurements. In particular, by employing localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), we can expect distinguished sensing performance with high sensitivity and resolution.
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The optical properties of various nanostructures have been widely adopted for biological detection, from DNA sequencing to nano-scale single molecule biological function measurements. In particular, by employing localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), we can expect distinguished sensing performance with high sensitivity and resolution. This indicates that nano-scale detections can be realized by using the shift of resonance wavelength of LSPR in response to the refractive index change. In this paper, we overview various plasmonic nanostructures as potential sensing components. The qualitative descriptions of plasmonic nanostructures are supported by the physical phenomena such as plasmonic hybridization and Fano resonance. We present guidelines for designing specific nanostructures with regard to wavelength range and target sensing materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle Development of a New Surface Acoustic Wave Based Gyroscope on a X-112°Y LiTaO3 Substrate
Sensors 2011, 11(11), 10894-10906; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111110894
Received: 12 October 2011 / Revised: 11 November 2011 / Accepted: 11 November 2011 / Published: 21 November 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (948 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new micro gyroscope based on the surface acoustic wave (SAW) gyroscopic effect was developed. The SAW gyroscopic effect is investigated by applying the surface effective permittivity method in the regime of small ratios of the rotation velocity and the frequency of the
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A new micro gyroscope based on the surface acoustic wave (SAW) gyroscopic effect was developed. The SAW gyroscopic effect is investigated by applying the surface effective permittivity method in the regime of small ratios of the rotation velocity and the frequency of the SAW. The theoretical analysis indicates that the larger velocity shift was observed from the rotated X-112°Y LiTaO3 substrate. Then, two SAW delay lines with reverse direction and an operation frequency of 160 MHz are fabricated on a same X-112°Y LiTaO3 chip as the feedback of two SAW oscillators, which act as the sensor element. The single-phase unidirectional transducer (SPUDT) and combed transducers were used to structure the delay lines to improve the frequency stability of the oscillator. The rotation of a piezoelectric medium gives rise to a shift of the propagation velocity of SAW due to the Coriolis force, resulting in the frequency shift of the SAW device, and hence, the evaluation of the sensor performance. Meanwhile, the differential structure was performed to double the sensitivity and compensate for the temperature effects. Using a precise rate table, the performance of the fabricated SAW gyroscope was evaluated experimentally. A sensitivity of 1.332 Hz deg−1 s at angular rates of up to 1,000 deg s−1 and good linearity are observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Distributed Bees Algorithm Parameters Optimization for a Cost Efficient Target Allocation in Swarms of Robots
Sensors 2011, 11(11), 10880-10893; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111110880
Received: 10 October 2011 / Revised: 15 November 2011 / Accepted: 15 November 2011 / Published: 21 November 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (378 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Swarms of robots can use their sensing abilities to explore unknown environments and deploy on sites of interest. In this task, a large number of robots is more effective than a single unit because of their ability to quickly cover the area. However,
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Swarms of robots can use their sensing abilities to explore unknown environments and deploy on sites of interest. In this task, a large number of robots is more effective than a single unit because of their ability to quickly cover the area. However, the coordination of large teams of robots is not an easy problem, especially when the resources for the deployment are limited. In this paper, the Distributed Bees Algorithm (DBA), previously proposed by the authors, is optimized and applied to distributed target allocation in swarms of robots. Improved target allocation in terms of deployment cost efficiency is achieved through optimization of the DBA’s control parameters by means of a Genetic Algorithm. Experimental results show that with the optimized set of parameters, the deployment cost measured as the average distance traveled by the robots is reduced. The cost-efficient deployment is in some cases achieved at the expense of increased robots’ distribution error. Nevertheless, the proposed approach allows the swarm to adapt to the operating conditions when available resources are scarce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collaborative Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Calibrating Single-Ended Fiber-Optic Raman Spectra Distributed Temperature Sensing Data
Sensors 2011, 11(11), 10859-10879; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111110859
Received: 19 October 2011 / Revised: 15 November 2011 / Accepted: 16 November 2011 / Published: 21 November 2011
Cited by 80 | PDF Full-text (499 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Hydrologic research is a very demanding application of fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) in terms of precision, accuracy and calibration. The physics behind the most frequently used DTS instruments are considered as they apply to four calibration methods for single-ended DTS installations. The
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Hydrologic research is a very demanding application of fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) in terms of precision, accuracy and calibration. The physics behind the most frequently used DTS instruments are considered as they apply to four calibration methods for single-ended DTS installations. The new methods presented are more accurate than the instrument-calibrated data, achieving accuracies on the order of tenths of a degree root mean square error (RMSE) and mean bias. Effects of localized non-uniformities that violate the assumptions of single-ended calibration data are explored and quantified. Experimental design considerations such as selection of integration times or selection of the length of the reference sections are discussed, and the impacts of these considerations on calibrated temperatures are explored in two case studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Fiber Sensors 2012)
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Open AccessArticle Rapid Detection of Polychlorinated Biphenyls at Trace Levels in Real Environmental Samples by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering
Sensors 2011, 11(11), 10851-10858; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111110851
Received: 1 October 2011 / Revised: 8 November 2011 / Accepted: 9 November 2011 / Published: 18 November 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (951 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Detection of trace levels of persistent pollutants in the environment is difficult but significant. Organic pollutant homologues, due to their similar physical and chemical properties, are even more difficult to distinguish, especially in trace amounts. We report here a simple method to detect
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Detection of trace levels of persistent pollutants in the environment is difficult but significant. Organic pollutant homologues, due to their similar physical and chemical properties, are even more difficult to distinguish, especially in trace amounts. We report here a simple method to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil and distilled spirit samples by the surface-enhanced Raman scattering technique using Ag nanorod arrays as substrates. By this method, polychlorinated biphenyls can be detected to a concentration of 5 μg/g in dry soil samples within 1 minute. Furthermore, based on simulation and understanding of the Raman characteristics of PCBs, we recognized homologues of tetrachlorobiphenyl by using the surface-enhance Raman scattering method even in trace amounts in acetone solutions, and their characteristic Raman peaks still can be distinguished at a concentration of 10-6 mol/L. This study provides a fast, simple and sensitive method for the detection and recognition of organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensing of Organic Pollution in Soil, Air, Water and Food)
Open AccessCommunication Electrochemical Characterization of Riboflavin-Enhanced Reduction of Trinitrotoluene
Sensors 2011, 11(11), 10840-10850; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111110840
Received: 21 September 2011 / Revised: 1 November 2011 / Accepted: 17 November 2011 / Published: 18 November 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is great interest in understanding trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) contamination, detection and remediation in the environment due to TNT’s negative health effects and security implications. Numerous publications have focused on detecting TNT in groundwater using multiple techniques, including electrochemistry. The main
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There is great interest in understanding trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) contamination, detection and remediation in the environment due to TNT’s negative health effects and security implications. Numerous publications have focused on detecting TNT in groundwater using multiple techniques, including electrochemistry. The main degradation pathway of nitrotoluenes in the environment is reduction, frequently with biological and/or photolytic assistance. Riboflavin has also been noted to aid in TNT remediation in soils and groundwater when exposed to light. This report indicates that adding riboflavin to a TNT or DNT solution enhances redox currents in electrochemical experiments. Here AC voltammetry was performed and peak currents compared with and without riboflavin present. Results indicated that TNT, DNT and riboflavin could be detected using AC voltammetry on modified gold electrodes and the addition of riboflavin affected redox peaks of TNT and DNT. Poised potential experiments indicated that it is possible to enhance reduction of TNT in the presence of riboflavin and light. These results were dramatic enough to explain long term enhancement of bioremediation in environments containing high levels of riboflavin and enhance the limit of detection in electrochemically-based nitrotoluene sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Fuzzy Mobile-Robot Positioning in Intelligent Spaces Using Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2011, 11(11), 10820-10839; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111110820
Received: 18 September 2011 / Revised: 1 November 2011 / Accepted: 14 November 2011 / Published: 17 November 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (2284 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work presents the development and experimental evaluation of a method based on fuzzy logic to locate mobile robots in an Intelligent Space using Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The problem consists of locating a mobile node using only inter-node range measurements, which are
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This work presents the development and experimental evaluation of a method based on fuzzy logic to locate mobile robots in an Intelligent Space using Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The problem consists of locating a mobile node using only inter-node range measurements, which are estimated by radio frequency signal strength attenuation. The sensor model of these measurements is very noisy and unreliable. The proposed method makes use of fuzzy logic for modeling and dealing with such uncertain information. Besides, the proposed approach is compared with a probabilistic technique showing that the fuzzy approach is able to handle highly uncertain situations that are difficult to manage by well-known localization methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensorial Systems Applied to Intelligent Spaces)
Open AccessArticle Brillouin Corrosion Expansion Sensors for Steel Reinforced Concrete Structures Using a Fiber Optic Coil Winding Method
Sensors 2011, 11(11), 10798-10819; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111110798
Received: 8 October 2011 / Revised: 10 November 2011 / Accepted: 12 November 2011 / Published: 16 November 2011
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (2127 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a novel kind of method to monitor corrosion expansion of steel rebars in steel reinforced concrete structures named fiber optic coil winding method is proposed, discussed and tested. It is based on the fiber optical Brillouin sensing technique. Firstly, a
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In this paper, a novel kind of method to monitor corrosion expansion of steel rebars in steel reinforced concrete structures named fiber optic coil winding method is proposed, discussed and tested. It is based on the fiber optical Brillouin sensing technique. Firstly, a strain calibration experiment is designed and conducted to obtain the strain coefficient of single mode fiber optics. Results have shown that there is a good linear relationship between Brillouin frequency and applied strain. Then, three kinds of novel fiber optical Brillouin corrosion expansion sensors with different fiber optic coil winding packaging schemes are designed. Sensors were embedded into concrete specimens to monitor expansion strain caused by steel rebar corrosion, and their performance was studied in a designed electrochemical corrosion acceleration experiment. Experimental results have shown that expansion strain along the fiber optic coil winding area can be detected and measured by the three kinds of sensors with different measurement range during development the corrosion. With the assumption of uniform corrosion, diameters of corrosion steel rebars were obtained using calculated average strains. A maximum expansion strain of 6,738 με was monitored. Furthermore, the uniform corrosion analysis model was established and the evaluation formula to evaluate mass loss rate of steel rebar under a given corrosion rust expansion rate was derived. The research has shown that three kinds of Brillouin sensors can be used to monitor the steel rebar corrosion expansion of reinforced concrete structures with good sensitivity, accuracy and monitoring range, and can be applied to monitor different levels of corrosion. By means of this kind of monitoring technique, quantitative corrosion expansion monitoring can be carried out, with the virtues of long durability, real-time monitoring and quasi-distribution monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Fiber Sensors 2012)
Open AccessArticle A Nanostructured Piezoelectric Immunosensor for Detection of Human Cardiac Troponin T
Sensors 2011, 11(11), 10785-10797; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111110785
Received: 10 October 2011 / Revised: 2 November 2011 / Accepted: 9 November 2011 / Published: 16 November 2011
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (263 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A piezoelectric immunosensor based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) co-immobilized on a dithiol-modified surface is proposed for detection of human cardiac troponin T (TnT). Anti-human troponin T (anti-TnT) antibodies were covalently immobilized on the nanostructured electrode surface by thiol-aldehyde linkages. In a homogeneous bulk
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A piezoelectric immunosensor based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) co-immobilized on a dithiol-modified surface is proposed for detection of human cardiac troponin T (TnT). Anti-human troponin T (anti-TnT) antibodies were covalently immobilized on the nanostructured electrode surface by thiol-aldehyde linkages. In a homogeneous bulk solution, TnT was captured by anti-TnT immobilized on the QCM electrode. Cyclic voltammetry studies were used to characterize the AuNPs layer on the electrode surface and the anti-TnT immobilization steps. The QCM-flow immunosensor exhibited good reliability, measuring concentrations of TnT from 0.003 to 0.5 ng mL−1 in human serum with high linearity (r = 0.989; p < 0.01). The immunosensor exhibited a 7% coefficient of variation and 0.0015 ng mL−1 limit of detection, indicating a high reproducibility and sensitivity. The proposed QCM nanostructured immunosensor is easy to use and has promising potential in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction due to its speed and high sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biosensors)
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