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Sensors, Volume 14, Issue 6 (June 2014), Pages 9369-11277

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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Rozenstein, O., et al. Derivation of Land Surface Temperature for Landsat-8 TIRS Using a Split Window Algorithm. Sensors 2014, 14, 5768–5780
Sensors 2014, 14(6), 11277; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140611277
Received: 21 May 2014 / Accepted: 29 May 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (215 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have recently been made aware by a reader of a typo in Equation (4a) of our recent paper [1]. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Implementation of Ultrasonic Sensing for High Resolution Measurement of Binary Gas Mixture Fractions
Sensors 2014, 14(6), 11260-11276; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140611260
Received: 15 March 2014 / Revised: 3 June 2014 / Accepted: 12 June 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1458 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We describe an ultrasonic instrument for continuous real-time analysis of the fractional mixture of a binary gas system. The instrument is particularly well suited to measurement of leaks of a high molecular weight gas into a system that is nominally composed of a
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We describe an ultrasonic instrument for continuous real-time analysis of the fractional mixture of a binary gas system. The instrument is particularly well suited to measurement of leaks of a high molecular weight gas into a system that is nominally composed of a single gas. Sensitivity < 5 × 10−5 is demonstrated to leaks of octaflouropropane (C3F8) coolant into nitrogen during a long duration (18 month) continuous study. The sensitivity of the described measurement system is shown to depend on the difference in molecular masses of the two gases in the mixture. The impact of temperature and pressure variances on the accuracy of the measurement is analysed. Practical considerations for the implementation and deployment of long term, in situ ultrasonic leak detection systems are also described. Although development of the described systems was motivated by the requirements of an evaporative fluorocarbon cooling system, the instrument is applicable to the detection of leaks of many other gases and to processes requiring continuous knowledge of particular binary gas mixture fractions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Fluid Leak Detection) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Robust Pedestrian Tracking and Recognition from FLIR Video: A Unified Approach via Sparse Coding
Sensors 2014, 14(6), 11245-11259; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140611245
Received: 5 May 2014 / Revised: 3 June 2014 / Accepted: 13 June 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (6942 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sparse coding is an emerging method that has been successfully applied to both robust object tracking and recognition in the vision literature. In this paper, we propose to explore a sparse coding-based approach toward joint object tracking-and-recognition and explore its potential in the
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Sparse coding is an emerging method that has been successfully applied to both robust object tracking and recognition in the vision literature. In this paper, we propose to explore a sparse coding-based approach toward joint object tracking-and-recognition and explore its potential in the analysis of forward-looking infrared (FLIR) video to support nighttime machine vision systems. A key technical contribution of this work is to unify existing sparse coding-based approaches toward tracking and recognition under the same framework, so that they can benefit from each other in a closed-loop. On the one hand, tracking the same object through temporal frames allows us to achieve improved recognition performance through dynamical updating of template/dictionary and combining multiple recognition results; on the other hand, the recognition of individual objects facilitates the tracking of multiple objects (i.e., walking pedestrians), especially in the presence of occlusion within a crowded environment. We report experimental results on both the CASIAPedestrian Database and our own collected FLIR video database to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed joint tracking-and-recognition approach. Full article
Open AccessReview Bacteria Inside Semiconductors as Potential Sensor Elements: Biochip Progress
Sensors 2014, 14(6), 11225-11244; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140611225
Received: 9 April 2014 / Revised: 10 June 2014 / Accepted: 19 June 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (743 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It was discovered at the beginning of this Century that living bacteria—and specifically the extremophile Pseudomonas syzgii—could be captured inside growing crystals of pure water-corroding semiconductors—specifically germanium—and thereby initiated pursuit of truly functional “biochip-based” biosensors. This observation was first made at the
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It was discovered at the beginning of this Century that living bacteria—and specifically the extremophile Pseudomonas syzgii—could be captured inside growing crystals of pure water-corroding semiconductors—specifically germanium—and thereby initiated pursuit of truly functional “biochip-based” biosensors. This observation was first made at the inside ultraviolet-illuminated walls of ultrapure water-flowing semiconductor fabrication facilities (fabs) and has since been, not as perfectly, replicated in simpler flow cell systems for chip manufacture, described here. Recognizing the potential importance of these adducts as optical switches, for example, or probes of metabolic events, the influences of the fabs and their components on the crystal nucleation and growth phenomena now identified are reviewed and discussed with regard to further research needs. For example, optical beams of current photonic circuits can be more easily modulated by integral embedded cells into electrical signals on semiconductors. Such research responds to a recently published Grand Challenge in ceramic science, designing and synthesizing oxide electronics, surfaces, interfaces and nanoscale structures that can be tuned by biological stimuli, to reveal phenomena not otherwise possible with conventional semiconductor electronics. This short review addresses only the fabrication facilities’ features at the time of first production of these potential biochips. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue On-Chip Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Medical Cloud-Based Platform for Respiration Rate Measurement and Hierarchical Classification of Breath Disorders
Sensors 2014, 14(6), 11204-11224; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140611204
Received: 16 April 2014 / Revised: 10 June 2014 / Accepted: 20 June 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (1918 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The measurement of human respiratory signals is crucial in cyberbiological systems. A disordered breathing pattern can be the first symptom of different physiological, mechanical, or psychological dysfunctions. Therefore, a real-time monitoring of the respiration patterns, as well as respiration rate is a critical
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The measurement of human respiratory signals is crucial in cyberbiological systems. A disordered breathing pattern can be the first symptom of different physiological, mechanical, or psychological dysfunctions. Therefore, a real-time monitoring of the respiration patterns, as well as respiration rate is a critical need in medical applications. There are several methods for respiration rate measurement. However, despite their accuracy, these methods are expensive and could not be integrated in a body sensor network. In this work, we present a real-time cloud-based platform for both monitoring the respiration rate and breath pattern classification, remotely. The proposed system is designed particularly for patients with breathing problems (e.g., respiratory complications after surgery) or sleep disorders. Our system includes calibrated accelerometer sensor, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) and cloud-computing model. We also suggest a procedure to improve the accuracy of respiration rate for patients at rest positions. The overall error in the respiration rate calculation is obtained 0.53% considering SPR-BTA spirometer as the reference. Five types of respiration disorders, Bradapnea, Tachypnea, Cheyn-stokes, Kaussmal, and Biot’s breathing are classified based on hierarchical Support Vector Machine (SVM) with seven different features. We have evaluated the performance of the proposed classification while it is individualized to every subject (case 1) as well as considering all subjects (case 2). Since the selection of kernel function is a key factor to decide SVM’s performance, in this paper three different kernel functions are evaluated. The experiments are conducted with 11 subjects and the average accuracy of 94.52% for case 1 and the accuracy of 81.29% for case 2 are achieved based on Radial Basis Function (RBF). Finally, a performance evaluation has been done for normal and impaired subjects considering sensitivity, specificity and G-mean parameters of different kernel functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors in Canada 2014)
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Open AccessArticle Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control
Sensors 2014, 14(6), 11179-11203; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140611179
Received: 26 May 2014 / Revised: 10 June 2014 / Accepted: 16 June 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1731 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants’ information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can
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In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants’ information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans’ intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It’s also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Enhancing Evacuation Plans with a Situation Awareness System Based on End-User Knowledge Provision
Sensors 2014, 14(6), 11153-11178; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140611153
Received: 18 May 2014 / Revised: 16 June 2014 / Accepted: 16 June 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1110 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent disasters have shown that having clearly defined preventive procedures and decisions is a critical component that minimizes evacuation hazards and ensures a rapid and successful evolution of evacuation plans. In this context, we present our Situation-Aware System for enhancing Evacuation Plans (SASEP)
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Recent disasters have shown that having clearly defined preventive procedures and decisions is a critical component that minimizes evacuation hazards and ensures a rapid and successful evolution of evacuation plans. In this context, we present our Situation-Aware System for enhancing Evacuation Plans (SASEP) system, which allows creating end-user business rules that technically support the specific events, conditions and actions related to evacuation plans. An experimental validation was carried out where 32 people faced a simulated emergency situation, 16 of them using SASEP and the other 16 using a legacy system based on static signs. From the results obtained, we compare both techniques and discuss in which situations SASEP offers a better evacuation route option, confirming that it is highly valuable when there is a threat in the evacuation route. In addition, a study about user satisfaction using both systems is presented showing in which cases the systems are assessed as satisfactory, relevant and not frustrating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Proximal Sensing of Plant-Pathogen Interactions in Spring Barley with Three Fluorescence Techniques
Sensors 2014, 14(6), 11135-11152; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140611135
Received: 10 March 2014 / Revised: 3 June 2014 / Accepted: 17 June 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (784 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In the last years fluorescence spectroscopy has come to be viewed as an essential approach in key research fields of applied plant sciences. However, the quantity and particularly the quality of information produced by different equipment might vary considerably. In this study we
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In the last years fluorescence spectroscopy has come to be viewed as an essential approach in key research fields of applied plant sciences. However, the quantity and particularly the quality of information produced by different equipment might vary considerably. In this study we investigate the potential of three optical devices for the proximal sensing of plant-pathogen interactions in four genotypes of spring barley. For this purpose, the fluorescence lifetime, the image-resolved multispectral fluorescence and selected indices of a portable multiparametric fluorescence device were recorded at 3, 6, and 9 days after inoculation (dai) from healthy leaves as well as from leaves inoculated with powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) or leaf rust (Puccinia hordei). Genotype-specific responses to pathogen infections were revealed already at 3 dai by higher fluorescence mean lifetimes in the spectral range from 410 to 560 nm in the less susceptible varieties. Noticeable pathogen-induced modifications were also revealed by the ‘Blue-to-Far-Red Fluorescence Ratio’ and the ‘Simple Fluorescence Ratio’. Particularly in the susceptible varieties the differences became more evident in the time-course of the experiment i.e., following the pathogen development. The relevance of the blue and green fluorescence to exploit the plant-pathogen interaction was demonstrated by the multispectral fluorescence imaging system. As shown, mildewed leaves were characterized by exceptionally high blue fluorescence, contrasting the values observed in rust inoculated leaves. Further, we confirm that the intensity of green fluorescence depends on the pathogen infection and the stage of disease development; this information might allow a differentiation of both diseases. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the detection area might influence the quality of the information, although it had a minor impact only in the current study. Finally, we highlight the relevance of different excitation-emission channels to better understand and evaluate plant-physiological alterations due to pathogen infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Context Graphs as an Efficient and User-Friendly Method of Describing and Recognizing a Situation in AAL
Sensors 2014, 14(6), 11110-11134; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140611110
Received: 15 March 2014 / Revised: 29 May 2014 / Accepted: 17 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1170 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the field of ambient assisted living, the best results are achieved with systems that are less intrusive and more intelligent, that can easily integrate both formal and informal caregivers and that can easily adapt to the changes in the situation of the
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In the field of ambient assisted living, the best results are achieved with systems that are less intrusive and more intelligent, that can easily integrate both formal and informal caregivers and that can easily adapt to the changes in the situation of the elderly or disabled person. This paper presents a graph-based representation for context information and a simple and intuitive method for situation recognition. Both the input and the results are easy to visualize, understand and use. Experiments have been performed on several AAL-specific scenarios. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Doped Polyaniline Modified Electrode Amperometric Biosensor for Gluconic Acid Determination in Grapes
Sensors 2014, 14(6), 11097-11109; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140611097
Received: 15 May 2014 / Revised: 12 June 2014 / Accepted: 17 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (645 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In winemaking gluconic acid is an important marker for quantitative evaluation of grape infection by Botrytis cinerea. A screen-printed amperometric bienzymatic sensor for the determination of gluconic acid based on gluconate kinase (GK) and 6-phospho-D-gluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) coimmobilized onto polyaniline/poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid;
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In winemaking gluconic acid is an important marker for quantitative evaluation of grape infection by Botrytis cinerea. A screen-printed amperometric bienzymatic sensor for the determination of gluconic acid based on gluconate kinase (GK) and 6-phospho-D-gluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) coimmobilized onto polyaniline/poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid; PANI-PAAMPSA) is reported in this study. The conductive polymer electrodeposed on the working electrode surface allowed the detection of NADH at low potential (0.1 V) with a linear range from 4 × 10−3 to 1 mM (R2 = 0.99) and a sensitivity of 419.44 nA∙mM−1. The bienzymatic sensor has been optimized with regard to GK/6PGDH enzymatic unit ratio and ATP/NADP+ molar ratio which resulted equal to 0.33 and 1.2, respectively. Under these conditions a sensitivity of 255.2 nA∙mM−1, a limit of detection of 5 μM and a Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) of 4.2% (n = 5) have been observed. Finally, the biosensor has been applied for gluconic acid measurements in must grape samples and the matrix effect has been taken into consideration. The results have been compared with those obtained on the same samples with a commercial kit based on a spectrophotometric enzyme assay and were in good agreement, showing the capability of the bienzymatic PANI-PAAMPSA biosensor for gluconic acid measurements and thus for the evaluation of Botrytis cinerea infection in grapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amperometric Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle A Model-Based Approach for Bridging Virtual and Physical Sensor Nodes in a Hybrid Simulation Framework
Sensors 2014, 14(6), 11070-11096; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140611070
Received: 21 March 2014 / Revised: 16 June 2014 / Accepted: 17 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1390 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Model Based Design (MBD) approach is a popular trend to speed up application development of embedded systems, which uses high-level abstractions to capture functional requirements in an executable manner, and which automates implementation code generation. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are an emerging
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The Model Based Design (MBD) approach is a popular trend to speed up application development of embedded systems, which uses high-level abstractions to capture functional requirements in an executable manner, and which automates implementation code generation. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are an emerging very promising application area for embedded systems. However, there is a lack of tools in this area, which would allow an application developer to model a WSN application by using high level abstractions, simulate it mapped to a multi-node scenario for functional analysis, and finally use the refined model to automatically generate code for different WSN platforms. Motivated by this idea, in this paper we present a hybrid simulation framework that not only follows the MBD approach for WSN application development, but also interconnects a simulated sub-network with a physical sub-network and then allows one to co-simulate them, which is also known as Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor Networks and the Internet of Things)
Open AccessArticle Spike Detection Based on Normalized Correlation with Automatic Template Generation
Sensors 2014, 14(6), 11049-11069; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140611049
Received: 6 May 2014 / Revised: 16 June 2014 / Accepted: 19 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (438 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel feedback-based spike detection algorithm for noisy spike trains is presented in this paper. It uses the information extracted from the results of spike classification for the enhancement of spike detection. The algorithm performs template matching for spike detection by a normalized
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A novel feedback-based spike detection algorithm for noisy spike trains is presented in this paper. It uses the information extracted from the results of spike classification for the enhancement of spike detection. The algorithm performs template matching for spike detection by a normalized correlator. The detected spikes are then sorted by the OSortalgorithm. The mean of spikes of each cluster produced by the OSort algorithm is used as the template of the normalized correlator for subsequent detection. The automatic generation and updating of templates enhance the robustness of the spike detection to input trains with various spike waveforms and noise levels. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm operating in conjunction with OSort is an efficient design for attaining high detection and classification accuracy for spike sorting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessEditorial Introduction to the Special Issue on “State-of-the-Art Sensor Technology in Japan 2012”
Sensors 2014, 14(6), 11045-11048; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140611045
Received: 16 June 2014 / Accepted: 19 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (138 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since the previous special issue: State-of-the-Art Sensor Technology in Japan in 2008, which collected papers on sensing technology for monitoring of humans and the environment, we have experienced the Great East Japan Earthquake, Tsunami on 11 March 2011. This special issue, while aiming
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Since the previous special issue: State-of-the-Art Sensor Technology in Japan in 2008, which collected papers on sensing technology for monitoring of humans and the environment, we have experienced the Great East Japan Earthquake, Tsunami on 11 March 2011. This special issue, while aiming in the same direction, focuses on technologies for: (1) accuracy and sensitivity, (2) wireless functions, (3) real-time response, (4) portability (miniaturization), and (5) privacy preservation to promote sensor and sensing technologies for disaster prevention and resilient systems. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Japan 2012)
Open AccessArticle A Mobile Device System for Early Warning of ECG Anomalies
Sensors 2014, 14(6), 11031-11044; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140611031
Received: 13 March 2014 / Revised: 5 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 20 June 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (512 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the rapid increase in computational power of mobile devices the amount of ambient intelligence-based smart environment systems has increased greatly in recent years. A proposition of such a solution is described in this paper, namely real time monitoring of an electrocardiogram (ECG)
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With the rapid increase in computational power of mobile devices the amount of ambient intelligence-based smart environment systems has increased greatly in recent years. A proposition of such a solution is described in this paper, namely real time monitoring of an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal during everyday activities for identification of life threatening situations. The paper, being both research and review, describes previous work of the authors, current state of the art in the context of the authors’ work and the proposed aforementioned system. Although parts of the solution were described in earlier publications of the authors, the whole concept is presented completely for the first time along with the prototype implementation on mobile device—a Windows 8 tablet with Modern UI. The system has three main purposes. The first goal is the detection of sudden rapid cardiac malfunctions and informing the people in the patient’s surroundings, family and friends and the nearest emergency station about the deteriorating health of the monitored person. The second goal is a monitoring of ECG signals under non-clinical conditions to detect anomalies that are typically not found during diagnostic tests. The third goal is to register and analyze repeatable, long-term disturbances in the regular signal and finding their patterns. Full article
Open AccessCommunication Array Formatting of the Heat-Transfer Method (HTM) for the Detection of Small Organic Molecules by Molecularly Imprinted Polymers
Sensors 2014, 14(6), 11016-11030; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140611016
Received: 8 April 2014 / Revised: 12 June 2014 / Accepted: 17 June 2014 / Published: 20 June 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (900 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work we present the first steps towards a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-based biomimetic sensor array for the detection of small organic molecules via the heat-transfer method (HTM). HTM relies on the change in thermal resistance upon binding of the target molecule
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In this work we present the first steps towards a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-based biomimetic sensor array for the detection of small organic molecules via the heat-transfer method (HTM). HTM relies on the change in thermal resistance upon binding of the target molecule to the MIP-type receptor. A flow-through sensor cell was developed, which is segmented into four quadrants with a volume of 2.5 μL each, allowing four measurements to be done simultaneously on a single substrate. Verification measurements were conducted, in which all quadrants received a uniform treatment and all four channels exhibited a similar response. Subsequently, measurements were performed in quadrants, which were functionalized with different MIP particles. Each of these quadrants was exposed to the same buffer solution, spiked with different molecules, according to the MIP under analysis. With the flow cell design we could discriminate between similar small organic molecules and observed no significant cross-selectivity. Therefore, the MIP array sensor platform with HTM as a readout technique, has the potential to become a low-cost analysis tool for bioanalytical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetic Receptors and Sensors)
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