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Mar. Drugs, Volume 10, Issue 3 (March 2012), Pages 521-676

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Antiviral Activities and Putative Identification of Compounds in Microbial Extracts from the Hawaiian Coastal Waters
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(3), 521-538; doi:10.3390/md10030521
Received: 25 December 2011 / Revised: 3 February 2012 / Accepted: 6 February 2012 / Published: 24 February 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (973 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine environments are a rich source of significant bioactive compounds. The Hawaiian archipelago, located in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, hosts diverse microorganisms, including many endemic species. Thirty-eight microbial extracts from Hawaiian coastal waters were evaluated for their antiviral activity against [...] Read more.
Marine environments are a rich source of significant bioactive compounds. The Hawaiian archipelago, located in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, hosts diverse microorganisms, including many endemic species. Thirty-eight microbial extracts from Hawaiian coastal waters were evaluated for their antiviral activity against four mammalian viruses including herpes simplex virus type one (HSV-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), vaccinia virus and poliovirus type one (poliovirus-1) using in vitro cell culture assay. Nine of the 38 microbial crude extracts showed antiviral potencies and three of these nine microbial extracts exhibited significant activity against the enveloped viruses. A secosteroid, 5α(H),17α(H),(20R)-beta-acetoxyergost-8(14)-ene was putatively identified and confirmed to be the active compound in these marine microbial extracts. These results warrant future in-depth tests on the isolation of these active elements in order to explore and validate their antiviral potential as important therapeutic remedies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-infective Agents)
Open AccessArticle Scopararanes C–G: New Oxygenated Pimarane Diterpenes from the Marine Sediment-Derived Fungus Eutypella scoparia FS26
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(3), 539-550; doi:10.3390/md10030539
Received: 29 November 2011 / Revised: 16 February 2012 / Accepted: 20 February 2012 / Published: 27 February 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (447 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Five new oxygenated pimarane diterpenes, named scopararanes C–G (15) were isolated from the culture of a marine sediment-derived fungus Eutypella scoparia FS26 obtained from the South China Sea. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis [...] Read more.
Five new oxygenated pimarane diterpenes, named scopararanes C–G (15) were isolated from the culture of a marine sediment-derived fungus Eutypella scoparia FS26 obtained from the South China Sea. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of compounds 15, were determined by CD spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. All isolated compounds (15) were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against MCF-7, NCI-H460, and SF-268 tumor cell lines by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terpenoids of Marine Origin)
Open AccessArticle Kiamycin, a Unique Cytotoxic Angucyclinone Derivative from a Marine Streptomyces sp.
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(3), 551-558; doi:10.3390/md10030551
Received: 9 January 2012 / Revised: 17 February 2012 / Accepted: 20 February 2012 / Published: 27 February 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (200 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Kiamycin (1), a new angucyclinone derivative possessing an 1,12-epoxybenz[a]anthracene ring system, was isolated from the marine Streptomyces sp. strain M268 along with the known compounds 8-O-methyltetrangomycin (3) and 8-O-methylrabelomycin (4). Their structures [...] Read more.
Kiamycin (1), a new angucyclinone derivative possessing an 1,12-epoxybenz[a]anthracene ring system, was isolated from the marine Streptomyces sp. strain M268 along with the known compounds 8-O-methyltetrangomycin (3) and 8-O-methylrabelomycin (4). Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. The new angucyclinone derivative showed inhibitory activities against the human cell lines HL-60 (leukemia), A549 (lung adenocarcinoma), and BEL-7402 (hepatoma) with inhibition rates of 68.2%, 55.9%, and 31.7%, respectively, at 100 µM. It appears to have potential as an anticancer agent with selective activity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Activation of the Dormant Secondary Metabolite Production by Introducing Gentamicin-Resistance in a Marine-Derived Penicillium purpurogenum G59
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(3), 559-582; doi:10.3390/md10030559
Received: 22 November 2011 / Revised: 13 February 2012 / Accepted: 21 February 2012 / Published: 2 March 2012
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (1162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A new approach to activate silent gene clusters for dormant secondary metabolite production has been developed by introducing gentamicin-resistance to an originally inactive, marine-derived fungal strain Penicillium purpurogenum G59. Upon treatment of the G59 spores with a high concentration of gentamicin in [...] Read more.
A new approach to activate silent gene clusters for dormant secondary metabolite production has been developed by introducing gentamicin-resistance to an originally inactive, marine-derived fungal strain Penicillium purpurogenum G59. Upon treatment of the G59 spores with a high concentration of gentamicin in aqueous DMSO, a total of 181 mutants were obtained by single colony isolation. In contrast to the strain G59, the EtOAc extracts of nine mutant cultures showed inhibitory effects on K562 cells, indicating that the nine mutants had acquired capability to produce antitumor metabolites. This was evidenced by TLC and HPLC analysis of EtOAc extracts of G59 and the nine mutants. Further isolation and characterization demonstrated that four antitumor secondary metabolites, janthinone (1), fructigenine A (2), aspterric acid methyl ester (3) and citrinin (4), were newly produced by mutant 5-1-4 compared to the parent strain G59, and which were also not found in the secondary metabolites of other Penicillium purpurogenum strains. However, Compounds 14 inhibited the proliferation of K562 cells with inhibition rates of 34.6% (1), 60.8% (2), 31.7% (3) and 67.1% (4) at 100 μg/mL, respectively. The present study demonstrated the effectiveness of a simple, yet practical approach to activate the production of dormant fungal secondary metabolites by introducing acquired resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics, which could be applied to the studies for eliciting dormant metabolic potential of fungi to obtain cryptic secondary metabolites. Full article
Open AccessArticle Cellular and Transcriptional Responses of Crassostrea gigas Hemocytes Exposed in Vitro to Brevetoxin (PbTx-2)
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(3), 583-597; doi:10.3390/md10030583
Received: 31 January 2012 / Revised: 20 February 2012 / Accepted: 24 February 2012 / Published: 5 March 2012
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (220 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Hemocytes mediate a series of immune reactions essential for bivalve survival in the environment, however, the impact of harmful algal species and their associated phycotoxins upon bivalve immune system is under debate. To better understand the possible toxic effects of these toxins, Crassostrea gigas hemocytes were exposed to brevetoxin (PbTx-2). Hemocyte viability, monitored through the neutral red retention and MTT reduction assays, and apoptosis (Hoechst staining) remained unchanged during 12 h of exposure to PbTx-2 in concentrations up to 1000 µg/L. Despite cell viability and apoptosis remained stable, hemocytes incubated for 4 h with 1000 µg/L of PbTx-2 revealed higher expression levels of Hsp70 (p < 0.01) and CYP356A1 ( p < 0.05) transcripts and a tendency to increase FABP expression, as evaluated by Real-Time quantitative PCR. The expression of other studied genes (BPI, IL-17, GSTO, EcSOD, Prx6, SOD and GPx) remained unchanged. The results suggest that the absence of cytotoxic effects of PbTx-2 in Crassostrea gigas hemocytes, even at high concentrations, allow early defense responses to be produced by activating protective mechanisms associated to detoxification (CYP356A1 and possibly FABP) and stress (Hsp70), but not to immune or to antioxidant (BPI, IL-17, EcSOD, Prx6, GPx and SOD) related genes. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Fatty Acid Glycoside from a Marine-Derived Fungus Isolated from Mangrove Plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(3), 598-603; doi:10.3390/md10030598
Received: 16 January 2012 / Revised: 14 February 2012 / Accepted: 1 March 2012 / Published: 6 March 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (184 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
To study the antimicrobial components from the endophytic fungus A1 of mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea Gaertn. F., a new fatty acid glucoside was isolated by column chromatography from the broth of A1, and its structure was identified as R [...] Read more.
To study the antimicrobial components from the endophytic fungus A1 of mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea Gaertn. F., a new fatty acid glucoside was isolated by column chromatography from the broth of A1, and its structure was identified as R-3-hydroxyundecanoic acid methylester-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (1) by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR (HMQC, 1H-1H COSY and HMBC) and chemical methods. Antimicrobial assay showed compound 1 possessed modest inhibitory effect on Saphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) using the filter paper disc agar diffusion method. Full article
Open AccessArticle Sarcocrassocolides M–O, Bioactive Cembranoids from the Dongsha Atoll Soft Coral Sarcophyton crassocaule
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(3), 617-626; doi:10.3390/md10030617
Received: 23 November 2011 / Revised: 29 February 2012 / Accepted: 29 February 2012 / Published: 8 March 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (457 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three new cembranoids, sarcocrassocolides M–O (1–3), have been isolated from the soft coral Sarcophyton crassocaule. The structures of the metabolites were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1–3 were shown to exhibit moderate cytotoxicity toward a limited panel of cancer cell lines [...] Read more.
Three new cembranoids, sarcocrassocolides M–O (1–3), have been isolated from the soft coral Sarcophyton crassocaule. The structures of the metabolites were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1–3 were shown to exhibit moderate cytotoxicity toward a limited panel of cancer cell lines and display significant in vitro anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells by inhibiting the expression of the iNOS protein. Full article
Open AccessArticle Chondrosterins A–E, Triquinane-Type Sesquiterpenoids from Soft Coral-Associated Fungus Chondrostereum sp.
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(3), 627-638; doi:10.3390/md10030627
Received: 6 February 2012 / Revised: 5 March 2012 / Accepted: 5 March 2012 / Published: 13 March 2012
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (738 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. was collected from a soft coral Sarcophyton tortuosum from the South China Sea. This fungus was cultured in potato dextrose broth medium and the culture broth was extracted with EtOAc. Five new triquinane-type sesquiterpenoids, chondrosterins A–E ( [...] Read more.
The marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. was collected from a soft coral Sarcophyton tortuosum from the South China Sea. This fungus was cultured in potato dextrose broth medium and the culture broth was extracted with EtOAc. Five new triquinane-type sesquiterpenoids, chondrosterins A–E (15), and the known sesquiterpenoid hirsutanol C (6), were isolated. The structures were elucidated mainly on the basis of NMR, MS, and X-ray single-crystal diffraction data. Chondrosterin A (1) showed significant cytotoxic activities against cancer lines A549, CNE2, and LoVo with IC50 values of 2.45, 4.95, and 5.47 μM, respectively. Full article
Open AccessArticle Identification and Characterization of an Anti-Fibrotic Benzopyran Compound Isolated from Mangrove-Derived Streptomyces xiamenensis
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(3), 639-654; doi:10.3390/md10030639
Received: 21 January 2012 / Revised: 27 February 2012 / Accepted: 6 March 2012 / Published: 15 March 2012
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (345 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
An anti-fibrotic compound produced by Streptomyces xiamenensis, found in mangrove sediments, was investigated for possible therapeutic effects against fibrosis. The compound, N-[[3,4-dihydro-3S-hydroxy-2S-methyl-2-(4¢R-methyl-3¢S-pentenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-6-yl]carbonyl]-threonine (1), was isolated from crude extracts and [...] Read more.
An anti-fibrotic compound produced by Streptomyces xiamenensis, found in mangrove sediments, was investigated for possible therapeutic effects against fibrosis. The compound, N-[[3,4-dihydro-3S-hydroxy-2S-methyl-2-(4¢R-methyl-3¢S-pentenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-6-yl]carbonyl]-threonine (1), was isolated from crude extracts and its structure, including the absolute configuration was determined by extensive spectroscopic data analyses, Mosher’s method, Marfey’s reagent and quantum mechanical calculations. In terms of biological effects, this compound inhibits the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts (WI26), blocks adhesion of human acute monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1) to a monolayer of WI26 cells, and reduces the contractile capacity of WI26 cells in three-dimensional free-floating collagen gels. Altogether, these data indicate that we have identified a bioactive alkaloid (1) with multiple inhibitory biological effects on lung excessive fibrotic characteristics, that are likely involved in fibrosis, suggesting that this molecule might indeed have therapeutic potential against fibrosis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Isolation and Structural Determination of the First 8-epi-type Tetrodotoxin Analogs from the Newt, Cynops ensicauda popei, and Comparison of Tetrodotoxin Analogs Profiles of This Newt and the Puffer Fish, Fugu poecilonotus
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(3), 655-667; doi:10.3390/md10030655
Received: 28 February 2012 / Revised: 16 March 2012 / Accepted: 17 March 2012 / Published: 22 March 2012
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (477 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Identification of new tetrodotoxin (TTX) analogs from TTX-possessing animals might provide insight into its biosynthesis and metabolism. In this study, four new analogs, 8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, 4,9-anhydro-8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, 1-hydroxy-8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, and 1-hydroxy-4,4a-anhydro-8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, were isolated from the newt, Cynops [...] Read more.
Identification of new tetrodotoxin (TTX) analogs from TTX-possessing animals might provide insight into its biosynthesis and metabolism. In this study, four new analogs, 8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, 4,9-anhydro-8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, 1-hydroxy-8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, and 1-hydroxy-4,4a-anhydro-8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, were isolated from the newt, Cynops ensicauda popei, and their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods. These are the first 8-epi-type analogs of TTX that have been found in a natural source. Furthermore, we examined the composition of the TTX analogs in this newt and in the ovary of the puffer fish, Fugu poecilonotus, using LC/MS. The results indicate that TTX and 11-deoxyTTX were present in both sources. However, 6-epiTTX and 8-epi-type analogs were detected only in the newt, while 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX was a specific and major analog in the puffer fish. Such considerable differences among analog compositions might reflect differences in the biosynthesis or metabolism of TTX between these animals. Full article
Open AccessArticle Two Antimycin A Analogues from Marine-Derived Actinomycete Streptomyces lusitanus
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(3), 668-676; doi:10.3390/md10030668
Received: 14 February 2012 / Revised: 8 March 2012 / Accepted: 10 March 2012 / Published: 22 March 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two new antimycin A analogues, antimycin B1 and B2 (12), were isolated from a spent broth of a marine-derived bacterium, Streptomyces lusitanus. The structures of 1 and 2 were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and [...] Read more.
Two new antimycin A analogues, antimycin B1 and B2 (12), were isolated from a spent broth of a marine-derived bacterium, Streptomyces lusitanus. The structures of 1 and 2 were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. The isolated compounds were tested for their anti-bacterial potency. Compound 1 was found to be inactive against the bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphyloccocus aureus, and Loktanella hongkongensis. Compound 2 showed antibacterial activities against S. aureus and L. hongkongensis with MIC values of 32.0 and 8.0 μg/mL, respectively. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Fucoxantin: A Treasure from the Sea
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(3), 604-616; doi:10.3390/md10030604
Received: 29 December 2011 / Revised: 21 February 2012 / Accepted: 27 February 2012 / Published: 7 March 2012
Cited by 57 | PDF Full-text (183 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 2.3 billion people will be overweight and 700 million obese in 2015. The reasons for this disastrous trend are attributed to the global tendency toward the reduced magnitude of exercise and physical activity and the [...] Read more.
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 2.3 billion people will be overweight and 700 million obese in 2015. The reasons for this disastrous trend are attributed to the global tendency toward the reduced magnitude of exercise and physical activity and the increased dietary intake of fats, sugars and calories with reduced amount of vitamins and minerals. To prevent life-style-related diseases, like Metabolic Syndrome (MS), researchers’ attention is increasingly focusing on some of the so called “functional foods” which may be useful for their prevention and treatment. One of these functional ingredients is fucoxanthin (FX), a characteristic carotenoid present in edible brown seaweeds, such as Undaria pinnatifida (Wakame), Hijikia fusiformis (Hijiki), Laminaria japonica (Ma-Kombu) and Sargassum fulvellum. The increasing popularity of this molecule is certainly due to its anti-obesity effect, primarily detected by murine studies. These works revealed FX mediated induction of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) in abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) mitochondria, leading to the oxidation of fatty acids and heat production in WAT. Beyond this important role, in recent studies FX has shown a great antioxidant activity, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and anti-photoaging properties. The aim of this review is to highlight the main effects of FX on human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress)

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