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Energies, Volume 11, Issue 6 (June 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The process of hydrocarbon generation is a function of kerogen content, type, and its maturity. [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Influence of High-Speed Train Power Consumption and Arc Fault Resistances on a Novel Ground Fault Location Method for 2 × 25 kV Railway Power Supply Systems
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1601; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061601 (registering DOI)
Received: 17 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
The 2 × 25 kV power supply system is the most frequently used traction rail system to provide the huge power needed by high-speed trains. However, locating the ground fault in this power supply system is more complicated than in other configurations of
[...] Read more.
The 2 × 25 kV power supply system is the most frequently used traction rail system to provide the huge power needed by high-speed trains. However, locating the ground fault in this power supply system is more complicated than in other configurations of electrical railway power supply due to the installation of autotransformers throughout the line section. In previous papers, the authors have described a ground fault location method with an insignificant installation cost. The method and, moreover, the location discriminate between whether the ground fault is located between a positive conductor and ground or a negative conductor and ground. The current of the high-speed train influences the accuracy of the location of the ground fault. An additional factor which influences the location method is the existence of an arc resistance between the positive or negative conductor and ground. In this paper, the influence of high-speed train currents and arc resistances are analysed to evaluate the error in the location method. The major conclusion of the paper is that the location method has an acceptable precision even taking into consideration the high-speed train current and arc resistance. The validation of the method has been performed by laboratory tests and computer simulations with satisfactory results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Open AccessArticle A Frequency Control Strategy Considering Large Scale Wind Power Cluster Integration Based on Distributed Model Predictive Control
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1600; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061600 (registering DOI)
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
With large scale wind integration and increasing wind penetration in power systems, relying solely on conventional generators for frequency control is not enough to satisfy system frequency stability requirements. It is imperative that wind power have certain capabilities to participate in frequency control
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With large scale wind integration and increasing wind penetration in power systems, relying solely on conventional generators for frequency control is not enough to satisfy system frequency stability requirements. It is imperative that wind power have certain capabilities to participate in frequency control by cooperating with conventional power sources. Firstly, a multi-area interconnected power system frequency response model containing wind power clusters and conventional generators is established with consideration of several nonlinear constraints. Moreover, a distributed model predictive control (DMPC) strategy considering Laguerre functions is proposed, which implements online rolling optimization by using ultra-short-term wind power forecasting data in order to realize advanced frequency control. Finally, a decomposition-coordination control algorithm considering Nash equilibrium is presented, which realizes online fast optimization of multivariable systems with constraints. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy and algorithm. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A New Plugging Technology and Its Application for the Extensively Collapsed Ore Pass in the Non-Empty Condition
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1599; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061599 (registering DOI)
Received: 25 April 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Aiming at some long ore passes with severe damages and extensive collapses, we describe an optimal measure to plug a local area of ore pass in order to maintain the capacity of continued use. This paper, taking a new plug for the extensively
[...] Read more.
Aiming at some long ore passes with severe damages and extensive collapses, we describe an optimal measure to plug a local area of ore pass in order to maintain the capacity of continued use. This paper, taking a new plug for the extensively collapsed long ore pass in the non-empty condition as a breakthrough, builds a structure-plugging system for ore pass based on plug effect, suspension effect, arch effect, and span-reducing effect. Meanwhile, a key plugging technology has been integrated which includes a stability evaluation method of plugging structure, controlled technology of drilling with casing in the composite rock mass, and controllable grouting for inhomogeneous loose rock mass. According to this structure-plugging system and technology, a case has been successful for the main ore pass in the Xingshan Iron Mine in China, which has created a precedent in the world. The practice results show that using this technology to plug the extensively collapsed long ore pass has a series of advantages including of scientific design, strong safety, high efficiency, and low cost. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysis and Optimization of the Electromagnetic Performance of a Novel Stator Modular Ring Drive Thruster Motor
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1598; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061598 (registering DOI)
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
A rim driven thruster (RDT) is an integrated deep-sea motor thruster that has been widely studied. In order to improve the performance of RDT, a novel RDT motor with a modular stator is proposed in this paper. The electromagnetic performance of the new
[...] Read more.
A rim driven thruster (RDT) is an integrated deep-sea motor thruster that has been widely studied. In order to improve the performance of RDT, a novel RDT motor with a modular stator is proposed in this paper. The electromagnetic performance of the new RDT motor is analyzed by the finite element method (FEM). The influence of structure parameters on the electromagnetic performance of the new RDT motor are analyzed in detail. It is shown that the effect of additional tooth width and pole arc coefficient on the electromagnetic performance of the stator modular RDT motor is significant. To obtain the optimal design with a maximum average electromagnetic torque and minimum torque fluctuation ratio, a multi-objective optimization design method combining the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II), Kriging method and FEM is presented in this paper. A set of Pareto optimal solutions is obtained, and the optimal design point is selected from the Pareto fronts. Compared with the initial design, the average electromagnetic torque of the optimized model is improved by 16.591% and the fluctuation ratio is reduced to 3.18%. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Influence of Operating Parameters on Adsorption/Desorption Characteristics and Performance of the Fluidised Desiccant Cooler
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1597; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061597 (registering DOI)
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
This paper concerns the issue of the proper selection of the operating parameters of the fluidised desiccant cooler. Despite the fact that fluidised desiccant cooling technology is being reported in the literature as an efficient way to provide cooling for the purposes of
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This paper concerns the issue of the proper selection of the operating parameters of the fluidised desiccant cooler. Despite the fact that fluidised desiccant cooling technology is being reported in the literature as an efficient way to provide cooling for the purposes of air-conditioning, the improper control of its operation can lead to a significantly worse performance than expected. The objective of the presented theoretical study is to provide guidelines on the proper selection of such operating parameters of a fluidized desiccant cooler, such as superficial air velocity, desiccant particle diameter, bed switching time, and desiccant filling height. The influence of the chosen operating parameters on the performance of fluidised desiccant cooling technology is investigated based on their impact on electric and thermal coefficients of performance (COP) and specific cooling power (SCP). Moreover, the influence of the outlet air temperature, humidity, and desiccant water uptake on the adsorption/desorption characteristics was investigated, contributing to better understanding of sorption processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Systems Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Carbon Storage and Its Contributing Factors—A Case Study in the Loess Plateau (China)
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1596; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061596 (registering DOI)
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
The Chinese Loess Plateau is an ecologically fragile and sensitive area. The carbon storage dynamics in this region and the contributions from land use/land cover change (LUCC) and carbon density from 2000 to 2010 were analyzed in this paper. Normalized difference vegetation index
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The Chinese Loess Plateau is an ecologically fragile and sensitive area. The carbon storage dynamics in this region and the contributions from land use/land cover change (LUCC) and carbon density from 2000 to 2010 were analyzed in this paper. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), biomass and soil carbon data in 2000 were used for regression analysis of biomass and soil carbon, and an inversion analysis was used to estimate biomass and soil carbon in 2005 and 2010. Quadrat data, including aboveground biomass and soil organic carbon, were used to calibrate the model output. Carbon storage and sequestration were calculated by the InVEST toolset with four carbon pools, including aboveground biomass, belowground biomass, dead wood and soil carbon. The results showed that carbon storage increased steadily from 2000 to 2010, increasing by 0.260 billion tons, and that woodland area increased and arable land decreased; the overall trend in land cover improved, but the improvement was not pronounced. Carbon storage in the Loess Plateau was correlated with geographical factors. We found that when assuming a constant carbon density, carbon storage decreased, accounting for −1% of the carbon storage dynamics. When assuming no land conversion, carbon storage increased, accounting for 101% of the carbon storage dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage)
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Open AccessArticle Volatility Spillovers between Energy and Agricultural Markets: A Critical Appraisal of Theory and Practice
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1595; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061595 (registering DOI)
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Energy and agricultural commodities and markets have been examined extensively, albeit separately, for a number of years. In the energy literature, the returns, volatility and volatility spillovers (namely, the delayed effect of a returns shock in one asset on the subsequent volatility or
[...] Read more.
Energy and agricultural commodities and markets have been examined extensively, albeit separately, for a number of years. In the energy literature, the returns, volatility and volatility spillovers (namely, the delayed effect of a returns shock in one asset on the subsequent volatility or covolatility in another asset), among alternative energy commodities, such as oil, gasoline and ethanol across different markets, have been analysed using a variety of univariate and multivariate models, estimation techniques, data sets, and time frequencies. A similar comment applies to the separate theoretical and empirical analysis of a wide range of agricultural commodities and markets. Given the recent interest and emphasis in bio-fuels and green energy, especially bio-ethanol, which is derived from a range of agricultural products, it is not surprising that there is a topical and developing literature on the spillovers between energy and agricultural markets. Modelling and testing spillovers between the energy and agricultural markets has typically been based on estimating multivariate conditional volatility models, specifically the Baba, Engle, Kraft, and Kroner (BEKK) and dynamic conditional correlation (DCC) models. A serious technical deficiency is that the Quasi-Maximum Likelihood Estimates (QMLE) of a Full BEKK matrix, which is typically estimated in examining volatility spillover effects, has no asymptotic properties, except by assumption, so that no valid statistical test of volatility spillovers is possible. Some papers in the literature have used the DCC model to test for volatility spillovers. However, it is well known in the financial econometrics literature that the DCC model has no regularity conditions, and that the QMLE of the parameters of DCC has no asymptotic properties, so that there is no valid statistical testing of volatility spillovers. The purpose of the paper is to evaluate the theory and practice in testing for volatility spillovers between energy and agricultural markets using the multivariate Full BEKK and DCC models, and to make recommendations as to how such spillovers might be tested using valid statistical techniques. Three new definitions of volatility and covolatility spillovers are given, and the different models used in empirical applications are evaluated in terms of the new definitions and statistical criteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multivariate Modelling of Fossil Fuel and Carbon Emission Prices)
Open AccessArticle Low-Frequency Oscillation Suppression of the Vehicle–Grid System in High-Speed Railways Based on H∞ Control
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1594; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061594
Received: 29 April 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
Recently, a traction blockade in the depots of numerous electric multiple units (EMUs) of high-speed railways has occured and resulted in some accidents in train operation. The traction blockade is caused by the low-frequency oscillation (LFO) of the vehicle–grid (EMUs–traction network) system. To
[...] Read more.
Recently, a traction blockade in the depots of numerous electric multiple units (EMUs) of high-speed railways has occured and resulted in some accidents in train operation. The traction blockade is caused by the low-frequency oscillation (LFO) of the vehicle–grid (EMUs–traction network) system. To suppress the LFO, a scheme of EMUs line-side converter based on the H∞ control is proposed in this paper. First, the mathematical model of the four-quadrant converter in EMUs is presented. Second, the state variables are determined and the weighting functions are selected. Then, an H∞ controller based on the dq coordinate is designed. Moreover, compared with the simulation results of traditional proportional integral (PI) control, auto-disturbance rejection control (ADRC) and multivariable control (MC) based on Matlab/Simulink and the RT-LAB platform, the simulation results of the proposed H∞ control confirm that the H∞ controller applied in EMUs of China Railway High-Speed 3 has better dynamic and static performances. Finally, a whole cascade system model of EMUs and a traction network is built, in which a reduced-order model of a traction network is adopted. The experimental results of multi-EMUs accessed in the traction network indicate that the H∞ controller has good suppression performance for the LFO of the vehicle–grid system. In addition, through the analysis of sensitivity of the H∞ controller and the traditional PI controller, it is indicated that the H∞ controller has better robustness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control Techniques for Power Converters)
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Open AccessArticle A Class of Control Strategies for Energy Internet Considering System Robustness and Operation Cost Optimization
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1593; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061593
Received: 28 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
Aiming at restructuring the conventional energy delivery infrastructure, the concept of energy Internet (EI) has become popular in recent years. Outstanding benefits from an EI include openness, robustness and reliability. Most of the existing literatures focus on the conceptual design of EI and
[...] Read more.
Aiming at restructuring the conventional energy delivery infrastructure, the concept of energy Internet (EI) has become popular in recent years. Outstanding benefits from an EI include openness, robustness and reliability. Most of the existing literatures focus on the conceptual design of EI and are lack of theoretical investigation on developing specific control strategies for the operation of EI. In this paper, a class of control strategies for EI considering system robustness and operation cost optimization is investigated. Focusing on the EI system robustness issue, system parameter uncertainty, external disturbance and tracking error are taken into consideration, and we formulate such robust control issue as a structure specified mixed H2/H control problem. When formulating the operation cost optimization problem, three aspects are considered: realizing the bottom-up energy management principle, reducing the cost involved by power delivery from power grid (PG) to microgrid (MG), and avoiding the situation of over-control. We highlight that this is the very first time that the above targets are considered simultaneously in the field of EI. The integrated control issue is considered in frequency domain and is solved by a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. Simulation results show that our proposed method achieves the targets. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Dual-Function Instantaneous Power Theory for Operation of Three-Level Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverter-Based Shunt Active Power Filter
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1592; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061592
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 2 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
This paper proposes a simple yet effective reference current generation algorithm based on instantaneous power pq theory to enhance mitigation performance of a three-phase three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter-based shunt active power filter (SAPF). The proposed algorithm is developed for dual functionality: generate
[...] Read more.
This paper proposes a simple yet effective reference current generation algorithm based on instantaneous power pq theory to enhance mitigation performance of a three-phase three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter-based shunt active power filter (SAPF). The proposed algorithm is developed for dual functionality: generate reference current and synchronization phase to effectively govern operation of SAPF in mitigating harmonic current and compensating reactive power. Three key modifications are implemented: (1) replacement of numerical low-pass filter (LPF) with an average power detector to improve mitigation performance; (2) removal of needless reactive element to reduce algorithm complexity; and (3) integration of phase tracking feature to eliminate the needs of phase-locked loop (PLL). Simulation work of SAPF with the proposed algorithm was conducted and assessed in MATLAB–Simulink. In addition, to verify feasibility of the proposed algorithm, a laboratory prototype as constructed with TMS320F28335 digital signal processor (DSP) programmed as the controller. Performance of SAPF achieved by utilizing the proposed algorithm was thoroughly investigated and benchmarked with that demonstrated using the existing pq theory algorithm to evaluate the inherent advantages. Simulation and experimental results are obtained for different nonlinear loads and test conditions. Responses demonstrated by SAPF in both simulation and experimental works reveal superiority of the proposed algorithm over the existing algorithm. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Integration of 3D Modeling and Simulation to Determine the Energy Potential of Low-Temperature Geothermal Systems in the Pisa (Italy) Sedimentary Plain
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1591; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061591
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
Shallow, low-temperature geothermal resources can significantly reduce the environmental impact of heating and cooling. Based on a replicable standard workflow for three-dimensional (3D) geothermal modeling, an approach to the assessment of geothermal energy potential is proposed and applied to the young sedimentary basin
[...] Read more.
Shallow, low-temperature geothermal resources can significantly reduce the environmental impact of heating and cooling. Based on a replicable standard workflow for three-dimensional (3D) geothermal modeling, an approach to the assessment of geothermal energy potential is proposed and applied to the young sedimentary basin of Pisa (north Tuscany, Italy), starting from the development of a geothermal geodatabase, with collated geological, stratigraphic, hydrogeological, geophysical and thermal data. The contents of the spatial database are integrated and processed using software for geological and geothermal modeling. The models are calibrated using borehole data. Model outputs are visualized as three-dimensional reconstructions of the subsoil units, their volumes and depths, the hydrogeological framework, and the distribution of subsoil temperatures and geothermal properties. The resulting deep knowledge of subsoil geology would facilitate the deployment of geothermal heat pump technology, site selection for well doublets (for open-loop systems), or vertical heat exchangers (for closed-loop systems). The reconstructed geological–hydrogeological models and the geothermal numerical simulations performed help to define the limits of sustainable utilization of an area’s geothermal potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geothermal Energy: Utilization and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle One-Pot Hydrothermal Synthesis of Novel Cu-MnS with PVP Cabbage-Like Nanostructures for High-Performance Supercapacitors
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1590; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061590
Received: 28 April 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract
This paper reports the facile synthesis of a novel architecture of Cu-MnS with PVP, where the high theoretical capacitance of MnS, low-cost, and high electrical conductivity of Cu, as well as appreciable surface area with high thermal and mechanical conductivity of PVP, as
[...] Read more.
This paper reports the facile synthesis of a novel architecture of Cu-MnS with PVP, where the high theoretical capacitance of MnS, low-cost, and high electrical conductivity of Cu, as well as appreciable surface area with high thermal and mechanical conductivity of PVP, as a single entity to fabricate a high-performance electrode for supercapacitor. Benefiting from their unique structures, the Cu-MnS with 2PVP electrode materials show a high specific capacitance of 833.58 F g−1 at 1 A g−1, reversibility for the charge/discharge process, which are much higher than that of the MnS-7 h, Cu-MnS, and Cu-MnS with 1 and 3PVP. The presence of an appropriate amount of PVP in Cu-MnS is favorable for improving the electrochemical performance of the electrode and the existence of Cu was inclined to enhance the electrical conductivity. The Cu-MnS with 2PVP electrode is a good reference for researchers to design and fabricate new electrode materials with enhanced capacitive performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Harvesting, Storage and Utilization)
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Open AccessArticle Approaches for Safety Analysis of Gas-Pipeline Functionality in Terms of Failure Occurrence: A Case Study
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1589; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061589
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract
The development of appropriate assessment methods of gas-pipeline functionality contributes to the reduction of failure consequences and helps engineers to make the right decisions as to the optimal solution choice for technical facilities, as well as provides procedures to protect their users and
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The development of appropriate assessment methods of gas-pipeline functionality contributes to the reduction of failure consequences and helps engineers to make the right decisions as to the optimal solution choice for technical facilities, as well as provides procedures to protect their users and the surrounding environment. This paper presents methods for the assessment of gas network operation. Pipe failure data were collected from a gas distribution network. A statistical analysis of the failure of gas networks was made. An attempt was made to isolate seasonal and accidental fluctuations in the tested failure stream. The Poisson distribution was proposed as a model of failure distribution of gas networks. The conducted analysis allowed us to propose the forecasting method of acceptable failure consequences using the homogeneous Markov chain. The obtained results are valuable for supporting the management of urban gas networks, mainly in terms of the strategic modernization plans and the rehabilitation techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Storage and Application)
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Open AccessArticle Electricity Price Forecasting with Dynamic Trees: A Benchmark Against the Random Forest Approach
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1588; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061588
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract
Dynamic Trees are a tree-based machine learning technique specially designed for online environments where data are to be analyzed sequentially as they arrive. Our purpose is to test this methodology for the very first time for Electricity Price Forecasting (EPF) by using data
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Dynamic Trees are a tree-based machine learning technique specially designed for online environments where data are to be analyzed sequentially as they arrive. Our purpose is to test this methodology for the very first time for Electricity Price Forecasting (EPF) by using data from the Iberian market. For benchmarking the results, we will compare them against another tree-based technique, Random Forest, a widely used method that has proven its good results in many fields. The benchmark includes several versions of the Dynamic Trees approach for a very short term EPF (one-hour ahead) and also a short term (one-day ahead) approach but only with the best versions. The numerical results show that Dynamic Trees are an adequate method, both for very short and short term EPF—even improving upon the performance of the Random Forest method. The comparison with other studies for the Iberian market suggests that Dynamic Trees is a proper and promising method for EPF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forecasting Models of Electricity Prices 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Life Cycle Analysis of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Generation in the Context of Southeast Asia
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1587; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061587
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract
Coal remains a major source of electricity production even under the current state of developments in climate policies due to national energy priorities. Coal remains the most attractive option, especially to the developing economies in Southeast Asia, due to its abundance and affordability
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Coal remains a major source of electricity production even under the current state of developments in climate policies due to national energy priorities. Coal remains the most attractive option, especially to the developing economies in Southeast Asia, due to its abundance and affordability in the region, despite the heavily polluting nature of this energy source. Gasification of coal running on an integration gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation with carbon capture and storage (CCS) represents an option to reduce the environmental impacts of power generation from coal, but the decarbonization potential and suitability of IGCC in the context of Southeast Asia remain unclear. Using Singapore as an example, this paper presents a study on the life cycle analysis (LCA) of IGCC power generation with and without CCS based on a generic process-driven analysis method. We further evaluate the suitability of IGCC with and without CCS as an option to address the energy and climate objectives for the developing economies in Southeast Asia. Findings suggest that the current IGCC technology is a much less attractive option in the context of Southeast Asia when compared to other available power generation technologies, such as solar photovoltaic systems, coal with CCS, and potentially nuclear power technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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