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Materials, Volume 3, Issue 9 (September 2010), Pages 4510-4694

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle C60 Intercalated Graphite as Nanolubricants
Materials 2010, 3(9), 4510-4517; doi:10.3390/ma3094510
Received: 29 June 2010 / Revised: 6 August 2010 / Accepted: 24 August 2010 / Published: 27 August 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (510 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We synthesized the novel nanocomposite consisting of alternately stacked single graphene sheets and a C60 monolayer by using the graphite intercalation technique in which alkylamine molecules help intercalate large C60 molecules into the graphite. It is found that the intercalated [...] Read more.
We synthesized the novel nanocomposite consisting of alternately stacked single graphene sheets and a C60 monolayer by using the graphite intercalation technique in which alkylamine molecules help intercalate large C60 molecules into the graphite. It is found that the intercalated C60 molecules can rotate in between single graphene sheets by using 13C NMR measurements. The grease with the nanocomposite materials provides a much better lubricating performance than that with other additives that have been well-known up to now. This result exhibits that a C60 monolayer intercalated between graphenes plays an important role in lubricating behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lubricants)
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Open AccessArticle Growth and Structure of ZnO Nanorods on a Sub-Micrometer Glass Pipette and Their Application as Intracellular Potentiometric Selective Ion Sensors
Materials 2010, 3(9), 4657-4667; doi:10.3390/ma3094657
Received: 20 July 2010 / Revised: 2 September 2010 / Accepted: 7 September 2010 / Published: 9 September 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (481 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the growth and structure of ZnO nanorods on a sub-micrometer glass pipette and their application as an intracellular selective ion sensor. Highly oriented, vertical and aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on the tip of a borosilicate glass capillary (0.7 [...] Read more.
This paper presents the growth and structure of ZnO nanorods on a sub-micrometer glass pipette and their application as an intracellular selective ion sensor. Highly oriented, vertical and aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on the tip of a borosilicate glass capillary (0.7 µm in diameter) by the low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG) technique. The relatively large surface-to-volume ratio of ZnO nanorods makes them attractive for electrochemical sensing. Transmission electron microscopy studies show that ZnO nanorods are single crystals and grow along the crystal’s c-axis. The ZnO nanorods were functionalized with a polymeric membrane for selective intracellular measurements of Na+. The membrane-coated ZnO nanorods exhibited a Na+-dependent electrochemical potential difference versus an Ag/AgCl reference micro-electrode within a wide concentration range from 0.5 mM to 100 mM. The fabrication of functionalized ZnO nanorods paves the way to sense a wide range of biochemical species at the intracellular level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-devices and Materials)
Open AccessArticle Frictional Behavior of Individual Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Assessed By Lateral Force Microscopy
Materials 2010, 3(9), 4668-4680; doi:10.3390/ma3094668
Received: 26 July 2010 / Accepted: 8 September 2010 / Published: 14 September 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (481 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the advancement of the field of biotribology, considerable interest has arisen in the study of cell and tissue frictional properties. From the perspective of medical device development, the frictional properties between a rigid surface and underlying cells and tissues are of [...] Read more.
With the advancement of the field of biotribology, considerable interest has arisen in the study of cell and tissue frictional properties. From the perspective of medical device development, the frictional properties between a rigid surface and underlying cells and tissues are of a particular clinical interest. As with many bearing surfaces, it is likely that contact asperities exist at the size scale of single cells and below. Thus, a technique to measure cellular frictional properties directly would be beneficial from both a clinical and a basic science perspective. In the current study, an atomic force microscope (AFM) with a 5 µm diameter borosilicate spherical probe simulating endovascular metallic stent asperities was used to characterize the surface frictional properties of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in contact with a metallic endovascular stent. Various treatments were used to alter cell structure, in order to better understand the cellular components and mechanisms responsible for governing frictional properties. The frictional coefficient of the probe on VSMCs was found to be approximately 0.06. This frictional coefficient was significantly affected by cellular crosslinking and cytoskeletal depolymerization agents. These results demonstrate that AFM-based lateral force microscopy is a valuable technique to assess the friction properties of individual single cells on the micro-scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SPM in Materials Science)
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Open AccessArticle Detection of the Presence of Gold Nanoparticles in Organs by Transmission Electron Microscopy
Materials 2010, 3(9), 4681-4694; doi:10.3390/ma3094681
Received: 8 July 2010 / Revised: 17 August 2010 / Accepted: 14 September 2010 / Published: 27 September 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2088 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gold nanoparticles of 10 nm and 250 nm were intravenously injected in rats. At 24 h after administration, tissues were collected and prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the liver and spleen of animals treated with 10 nm gold nanoparticles, groups [...] Read more.
Gold nanoparticles of 10 nm and 250 nm were intravenously injected in rats. At 24 h after administration, tissues were collected and prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the liver and spleen of animals treated with 10 nm gold nanoparticles, groups of nanoparticles were observed that could be positively identified by Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis to contain gold, while nanoparticles could not be detected in the heart, kidney and brain. The 10 nm gold nanoparticles were present in the phagocytic cells of the reticulo-endothelial system (RES). The 250 nm gold nanoparticles could not be detected in any of the organs investigated. Considering the number of 250 nm gold nanoparticles administered, calculations showed that it would indeed be almost impossible to detect the 250 nm gold nanoparticles in TEM preparations in view of the very low number of particles that would be theoretically present in one TEM tissue section. This shows that relatively high numbers of nanoparticles need to be administered to enable the detection of nanoparticles in organs by TEM. In a number of samples, several globular structures of approximately the expected size were found in liver cells and the endothelium of blood vessels in the brain. However, elemental analysis with EDX detection showed that these structures did not contain gold. Our studies thus indicate that the in vivo identification of nanoparticles cannot only depend on the detection of nanosized structures in cells. An additional identification of the composing elements of the nanomaterial is necessary for a positive identification of the nanomaterial. Full article

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Surface Nano-Structuring by Adsorption and Chemical Reactions
Materials 2010, 3(9), 4518-4549; doi:10.3390/ma3094518
Received: 12 July 2010 / Revised: 6 August 2010 / Accepted: 12 August 2010 / Published: 27 August 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3725 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nano-structuring of the surface caused by adsorption of molecules or atoms and by the reaction of surface atoms with adsorbed species are reviewed from a chemistry viewpoint. Self-assembly of adsorbed species is markedly influenced by weak mutual interactions and the local strain [...] Read more.
Nano-structuring of the surface caused by adsorption of molecules or atoms and by the reaction of surface atoms with adsorbed species are reviewed from a chemistry viewpoint. Self-assembly of adsorbed species is markedly influenced by weak mutual interactions and the local strain of the surface induced by the adsorption. Nano-structuring taking place on the surface is well explained by the notion of a quasi-molecule provided by the reaction of surface atoms with adsorbed species. Self-assembly of quasi-molecules by weak internal bonding provides quasi-compounds on a specific surface. Various nano-structuring phenomena are discussed: (i) self-assembly of adsorbed molecules and atoms; (ii) self-assembly of quasi-compounds; (iii) formation of nano-composite surfaces; (iv) controlled growth of nano-materials on composite surfaces. Nano-structuring processes are not always controlled by energetic feasibility, that is, the formation of nano-composite surface and the growth of nano-particles on surfaces are often controlled by the kinetics. The idea of the “kinetic controlled molding” might be valuable to design nano-materials on surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SPM in Materials Science)
Open AccessReview The Electronic Structure and Secondary Pyroelectric Properties of Lithium Tetraborate
Materials 2010, 3(9), 4550-4579; doi:10.3390/ma3094550
Received: 26 July 2010 / Accepted: 19 August 2010 / Published: 1 September 2010
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (1540 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We review the pyroelectric properties and electronic structure of Li2B4O7(110) and Li2B4O7(100) surfaces. There is evidence for a pyroelectric current along the [110] direction of stoichiometric Li2B4 [...] Read more.
We review the pyroelectric properties and electronic structure of Li2B4O7(110) and Li2B4O7(100) surfaces. There is evidence for a pyroelectric current along the [110] direction of stoichiometric Li2B4O7 so that the pyroelectric coefficient is nonzero but roughly 103 smaller than along the [001] direction of spontaneous polarization. Abrupt decreases in the pyroelectric coefficient along the [110] direction can be correlated with anomalies in the elastic stiffness  contributing to the concept that the pyroelectric coefficient is not simply a vector but has qualities of a tensor, as expected. The time dependent surface photovoltaic charging suggests that surface charging is dependent on crystal orientation and doping, as well as temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ferroelectric & Piezoelectric Materials)
Open AccessReview The Utility of Nanocomposites in Fire Retardancy
Materials 2010, 3(9), 4580-4606; doi:10.3390/ma3094580
Received: 21 June 2010 / Revised: 27 July 2010 / Accepted: 31 August 2010 / Published: 3 September 2010
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (832 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanocomposites have been shown to significantly reduce the peak heat release rate, as measured by cone calorimetry, for many polymers but they typically have no effect on the oxygen index or the UL-94 classification. In this review, we will cover what is [...] Read more.
Nanocomposites have been shown to significantly reduce the peak heat release rate, as measured by cone calorimetry, for many polymers but they typically have no effect on the oxygen index or the UL-94 classification. In this review, we will cover what is known about the processes by which nanocomposite formation may bring this about. Montmorillonite will be the focus in this paper but attention will also be devoted to other materials, including carbon nanotubes and layered double hydroxides. A second section will be devoted to combinations of nanocomposite formation with conventional (and unconventional) fire retardants. The paper will conclude with a section attempting to forecast the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flame Retardants)
Open AccessReview Creating Surface Properties Using a Palette of Hydrophobins
Materials 2010, 3(9), 4607-4625; doi:10.3390/ma3094607
Received: 9 August 2010 / Revised: 20 August 2010 / Accepted: 3 September 2010 / Published: 6 September 2010
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (912 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Small secreted proteins called hydrophobins play diverse roles in the life cycle of filamentous fungi. For example, the hydrophobin SC3 of Schizophyllum commune is involved in aerial hyphae formation, cell-wall assembly and attachment to hydrophobic surfaces. Hydrophobins are capable of self-assembly at [...] Read more.
Small secreted proteins called hydrophobins play diverse roles in the life cycle of filamentous fungi. For example, the hydrophobin SC3 of Schizophyllum commune is involved in aerial hyphae formation, cell-wall assembly and attachment to hydrophobic surfaces. Hydrophobins are capable of self-assembly at a hydrophilic-hydrophobic interface, resulting in the formation of an amphipathic film. This amphipathic film can make hydrophobic surfaces of a liquid or a solid material wettable, while a hydrophilic surface can be turned into a hydrophobic one. These properties, among others, make hydrophobins of interest for medical and technical applications. For instance, hydrophobins can be used to purify proteins from complex mixtures; to reduce the friction of materials; to increase the biocompatibility of medical implants; to increase the solubility of water insoluble drugs; and to immobilize enzymes, for example, biosensor surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Surface Coatings)
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Open AccessReview Copper Nanoparticles for Printed Electronics: Routes Towards Achieving Oxidation Stability
Materials 2010, 3(9), 4626-4638; doi:10.3390/ma3094626
Received: 22 July 2010 / Revised: 18 August 2010 / Accepted: 1 September 2010 / Published: 8 September 2010
Cited by 106 | PDF Full-text (528 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the past few years, the synthesis of Cu nanoparticles has attracted much attention because of its huge potential for replacing expensive nano silver inks utilized in conductive printing. A major problem in utilizing these copper nanoparticles is their inherent tendency to [...] Read more.
In the past few years, the synthesis of Cu nanoparticles has attracted much attention because of its huge potential for replacing expensive nano silver inks utilized in conductive printing. A major problem in utilizing these copper nanoparticles is their inherent tendency to oxidize in ambient conditions. Recently, there have been several reports presenting various approaches which demonstrate that copper nanoparticles can resist oxidation under ambient conditions, if they are coated by a proper protective layer. This layer may consist of an organic polymer, alkene chains, amorphous carbon or graphenes, or inorganic materials such as silica, or an inert metal. Such coated copper nanoparticles enable achieving high conductivities by direct printing of conductive patterns. These approaches open new possibilities in printed electronics, for example by using copper based inkjet inks to form various devices such as solar cells, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags, and electroluminescence devices. This paper provides a review on the synthesis of copper nanoparticles, mainly by wet chemistry routes, and their utilization in printed electronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Nanoparticles)
Open AccessReview Fabrication of Al-Al3Ti/Ti3Al Functionally Graded Materials under a Centrifugal Force
Materials 2010, 3(9), 4639-4656; doi:10.3390/ma3094639
Received: 21 July 2010 / Revised: 31 August 2010 / Accepted: 6 September 2010 / Published: 8 September 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1012 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fabrication of Al-Al3Ti functionally graded materials (FGMs) under the centrifugal force has recently attracted some attention. The controlled compositional gradient of the fabricated FGMs, the low cost of the process, and the good mold filling, are the main advantages of [...] Read more.
Fabrication of Al-Al3Ti functionally graded materials (FGMs) under the centrifugal force has recently attracted some attention. The controlled compositional gradient of the fabricated FGMs, the low cost of the process, and the good mold filling, are the main advantages of the centrifugal method (CM). Using the conventional CM techniques such as the centrifugal solid-particle method and centrifugal in-situ method, FGMs rings with gradually distributed properties could be achieved. As a more practical choice, the centrifugal mixed-powder method (CMPM) was recently proposed to obtain FGMs containing nano-particles selectively dispersed in the outer surface of the fabricated parts. However, if a control of the particles morphology, compound formulas or sizes, is desired, another CM technique is favored. As a development of CMPM, our novel reaction centrifugal mixed-powder method (RCMPM) has been presented. Using RCMPM, Al‑Al3Ti/Ti3Al FGMs with good surface properties and temperature controlled compositional gradient could be achieved. In this short review, this novel method will be discussed in detail and the effect of RCMPM processing temperature on the reinforcement particles morphology, size and distribution through the fabricated samples, will be reviewed. Full article

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