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Forests, Volume 8, Issue 7 (July 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) In this study, seed production of female Ailanthus trees was investigated to determine (1) [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Spatiotemporal Distribution and Driving Factors of Forest Biomass Carbon Storage in China: 1977–2013
Forests 2017, 8(7), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/f8070263
Received: 4 June 2017 / Revised: 19 July 2017 / Accepted: 21 July 2017 / Published: 23 July 2017
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Abstract
Increasing forest vegetation is important for carbon dynamics and to maintain the ecological and environmental balance in China. However, there is little understanding of how socioeconomic factors affect forest biomass carbon storage (FBCS). Here, we used continuous functions for biomass expansion factors and
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Increasing forest vegetation is important for carbon dynamics and to maintain the ecological and environmental balance in China. However, there is little understanding of how socioeconomic factors affect forest biomass carbon storage (FBCS). Here, we used continuous functions for biomass expansion factors and China’s seven completed forest inventories to estimate the changes in FBCS for 31 provinces in mainland China between 1977 and 2013. We developed a model that decomposes the contribution of the different socioeconomic factors driving FBCS. We found China’s FBCS increased from 4972 TgC (1 Tg = 1012g) in 1977–1981 to 7435 TgC in 2009–2013, with a mean growth of 77 TgC/a, and the average forest carbon density increased from 36.0 to 38.9Mg/ha (1 Mg = 106g), mainly due to the arbor forest contribution. Among the seven regions in China, the southwestern region currently accounts for the highest proportion (37.3%) of national FBCS, followed by northeastern (19.7%), northern (12.5%) and eastern region (10.8%). The main socio-economic factors affecting FBCS were forest land dependence, industrial structure and economic development level. Optimizing forest type and age structure, improving forest productivity, and strengthening forest management are feasible options to further increase China’s FBCS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Short-Term Effects of Reduced-Impact Logging on Copaifera spp. (Fabaceae) Regeneration in Eastern Amazon
Forests 2017, 8(7), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/f8070257
Received: 21 June 2017 / Revised: 14 July 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 23 July 2017
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Abstract
Timber management directly influences the population dynamics of tree species, like Copaifera spp. (copaíba), which provide oil-resin with ecological and economic importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the structure and population dynamics of Copaifera in unmanaged and managed stands by
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Timber management directly influences the population dynamics of tree species, like Copaifera spp. (copaíba), which provide oil-resin with ecological and economic importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the structure and population dynamics of Copaifera in unmanaged and managed stands by reduced-impact logging (RIL) in eastern Amazon in Pará state, Brazil. Based on a stem map of the study area, 40 Copaifera trees were randomly selected, where an equal number of trees were selected in managed and unmanaged stands. A transect of 10 × 100 m was centered at each tree (50 m each side) to assess Copaifera regeneration. Transects were subdivided into ten plots, of which six were systematically chosen to assess the height, diameter and number of Copaifera seedlings and saplings. The field assessment occurred in 2011 and 2013. To estimate the amount of sunlight transmitted to the forest floor, we computed canopy cover from airborne LiDAR data. According to the results, the abundance of Copaifera seedlings/saplings was higher in managed than unmanaged stands. About 5% of Copaifera regeneration was found between 45–50 m from the Copaifera tree while ~73% of regeneration was concentrated within a 10 m radius of the Copaifera tree. We verified that the diameter distribution of Copaifera regeneration was not a negative exponential distribution, as is typical of most tree species in natural forest. Rather, the Copaifera regeneration had a spatially aggregated distribution. In this short-term analysis, the impact of timber management is not negatively affecting the population structure or dynamics of Copaifera regeneration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Vietnamese Legal and Policy Framework for Co-Management in Special-Use Forests
Forests 2017, 8(7), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/f8070262
Received: 27 April 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 22 July 2017
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Abstract
Co-management has been introduced into Special Use Forests (SUFs) of Vietnam for more than 10 years. However, the extent to which Vietnamese laws and policies support co-management remains unclear. This paper reviews existing policies and laws from the national to commune levels and
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Co-management has been introduced into Special Use Forests (SUFs) of Vietnam for more than 10 years. However, the extent to which Vietnamese laws and policies support co-management remains unclear. This paper reviews existing policies and laws from the national to commune levels and assesses their facilitation of co-management in SUFs. The review demonstrates there is support for co-management, albeit scattered and uncoordinated across a range of policies and laws. Modifications to policy on ownership and use rights would support the development of SUF co-management. Additionally, clearer legislative underpinning for benefit sharing in SUFs could better incentivize the participation of local people and private sector actors to engage in more effective co-management arrangements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Barriers to the Adoption of Alley Cropping as a Climate-Smart Agriculture Practice: Lessons from Maize Cultivation among the Maya in Southern Belize
Forests 2017, 8(7), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/f8070260
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 14 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
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Abstract
Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is proposed as a necessity, as the agricultural sector will need to adapt to resist future climatic change, to which high emissions from the sector contribute significantly. This study, which is an exploratory case study based on qualitative interviews and
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Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is proposed as a necessity, as the agricultural sector will need to adapt to resist future climatic change, to which high emissions from the sector contribute significantly. This study, which is an exploratory case study based on qualitative interviews and field observations, investigates the barriers to making a CSA-adjustment in maize production among Maya communities in southern Belize. The adjustment is alley cropping, which is a low-input adjustment that has the potential to result in both adaptation and mitigation benefits, and furthermore, to enhance food security. The findings show that a CSA-adjustment in small-scale maize production in Maya villages in southern Belize is possible in principle, though several barriers can make the overall climate-smart objective difficult to implement in practice. The barriers are of a proximate and indirect nature, exist at different spatial scales, and involve various levels of governance. The barriers are shown to be land tenure, market access, and changes in the traditional culture, however, these barriers are not homogenous across the villages in the region. To break down the barriers an overall district-level strategy is possible, but the toolbox should contain a wide variety of approaches. These could happen, for instance, through alterations to land tenure and the land taxation system nationally, enhancement of the agricultural extension system to ease access to knowledge and input at the district level, and support to a less complex governance structure at the village level. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Adapting Tropical Forest Policy and Practice in the Context of the Anthropocene: Opportunities and Challenges for the El Yunque National Forest in Puerto Rico
Forests 2017, 8(7), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/f8070259
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 15 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
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Abstract
Tropical forest management increasingly is challenged by multiple, complex, intersecting, and in many cases unprecedented changes in the environment that are triggered by human activity. Many of these changes are associated with the Anthropocene—a new geologic epoch in which humans have become a
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Tropical forest management increasingly is challenged by multiple, complex, intersecting, and in many cases unprecedented changes in the environment that are triggered by human activity. Many of these changes are associated with the Anthropocene—a new geologic epoch in which humans have become a dominating factor in shaping the biosphere. Ultimately, as human activity increasingly influences systems and processes at multiple scales, we are likely to see more extraordinary and surprising events, making it difficult to predict the future with the level of precision and accuracy needed for broad-scale management prescriptions. In this context of increasing surprise and uncertainty, learning, flexibility, and adaptiveness are essential to securing ecosystem resilience and sustainability, particularly in complex systems such as tropical forests. This article examines the experience to date with and potential for collaborative, adaptive land and resource management in the El Yunque National Forest (EYNF)—the only tropical forest in the U.S. National Forest System. The trajectory of EYNF policy and practice over time and its capacity for learning, flexibility, and adaptiveness to change and surprise are analyzed through an historical institutionalism approach. EYNF policies and practices have shifted from an early custodial approach that focused mostly on protection and prevention to a top-down, technical approach that eventually gave way to an ecosystem approach that has slowly incorporated more flexible, adaptive, and active learning elements. These shifts in EYNF management mostly have been reactive and incremental, with some rarer, rapid changes primarily in response to significant changes in national-level policies, but also to local level conditions and changes in them. Looking to the future, it seems the EYNF may be better positioned than ever before to address increasing uncertainty and surprise at multiple scales. However, it must be able to count on the resources necessary for implementing adaptive, collaborative forest management in a tropical setting and on the institutional and organizational space and flexibility to make swift adjustments or course corrections in response to system changes and surprises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tropical Forest Ecology and Management for the Anthropocene)
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Open AccessArticle Soil Erosion and Forests Biomass as Energy Resource in the Basin of the Oka River in Biscay, Northern Spain
Forests 2017, 8(7), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/f8070258
Received: 10 April 2017 / Revised: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this work has been the development of a methodology for the evaluation of residual forest biomass in Biscay, a province in northern Spain. The study area is located in the Oka river basin, an area of great ecological value qualified
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The aim of this work has been the development of a methodology for the evaluation of residual forest biomass in Biscay, a province in northern Spain. The study area is located in the Oka river basin, an area of great ecological value qualified by UNESCO (United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization) in 1984 as a Biosphere Reserve. The project tries to determine the potential, available and usable as energy resource, residual forests biomass, after the treatments of forest species in the area. Soil erosion was modeled using the USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) and MUSLE (Modified USLE) methods by estimating rainfall erosivity factor (R), the soil erodibility factor (K), the topographic factors (L and S), cropping factor (C), and the conservation practice factor (P). By means of these models, it will be possible to determine the current soil erosion rate and its potential evolution due to different forest treatments. Soil erodibility, slope of the terrain and the loss of SOC (Soil Organic Carbon) were the restrictive indicators for the bioenergy use of forest biomass, taking into account principles of sustainability. The amount of residual forestry biomass useable for energy purposes has been estimated at 4858.23 Mg year−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Operations, Engineering and Management)
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Open AccessArticle Predicting Stem Total and Assortment Volumes in an Industrial Pinus taeda L. Forest Plantation Using Airborne Laser Scanning Data and Random Forest
Forests 2017, 8(7), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/f8070254
Received: 27 April 2017 / Revised: 22 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 17 July 2017
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Abstract
Improvements in the management of pine plantations result in multiple industrial and environmental benefits. Remote sensing techniques can dramatically increase the efficiency of plantation management by reducing or replacing time-consuming field sampling. We tested the utility and accuracy of combining field and airborne
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Improvements in the management of pine plantations result in multiple industrial and environmental benefits. Remote sensing techniques can dramatically increase the efficiency of plantation management by reducing or replacing time-consuming field sampling. We tested the utility and accuracy of combining field and airborne lidar data with Random Forest, a supervised machine learning algorithm, to estimate stem total and assortment (commercial and pulpwood) volumes in an industrial Pinus taeda L. forest plantation in southern Brazil. Random Forest was populated using field and lidar-derived forest metrics from 50 sample plots with trees ranging from three to nine years old. We found that a model defined as a function of only two metrics (height of the top of the canopy and the skewness of the vertical distribution of lidar points) has a very strong and unbiased predictive power. We found that predictions of total, commercial, and pulp volume, respectively, showed an adjusted R2 equal to 0.98, 0.98 and 0.96, with unbiased predictions of −0.17%, −0.12% and −0.23%, and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) values of 7.83%, 7.71% and 8.63%. Our methodology makes use of commercially available airborne lidar and widely used mathematical tools to provide solutions for increasing the industry efficiency in monitoring and managing wood volume. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Lidar and Multispectral Imagery Classifications of Balsam Fir Tree Status for Accurate Predictions of Merchantable Volume
Forests 2017, 8(7), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/f8070253
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 9 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 15 July 2017
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Abstract
Recent increases in forest diseases have produced significant mortality in boreal forests. These disturbances influence merchantable volume predictions as they affect the distribution of live and dead trees. In this study, we assessed the use of lidar, alone or combined with multispectral imagery,
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Recent increases in forest diseases have produced significant mortality in boreal forests. These disturbances influence merchantable volume predictions as they affect the distribution of live and dead trees. In this study, we assessed the use of lidar, alone or combined with multispectral imagery, to classify trees and predict the merchantable volumes of 61 balsam fir plots in a boreal forest in eastern Canada. We delineated single trees on a canopy height model. The number of detected trees represented 92% of field trees. Using lidar intensity and image pixel metrics, trees were classified as live or dead with an overall accuracy of 89% and a kappa coefficient of 0.78. Plots were classified according to their class of mortality (low/high) using a 10.5% threshold. Lidar returns associated with dead trees were clipped. Before clipping, the root mean square errors were of 22.7 m3 ha−1 in the low mortality plots and of 39 m3 ha−1 in the high mortality plots. After clipping, they decreased to 20.9 m3 ha−1 and 32.3 m3 ha−1 respectively. Our study suggests that lidar and multispectral imagery can be used to accurately filter dead balsam fir trees and decrease the merchantable volume prediction error by 17.2% in high mortality plots and by 7.9% in low mortality plots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Forest Disturbance)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Post-Fire Salvage Logging Imposes a New Disturbance that Retards Succession: The Case of Bryophyte Communities in a Macaronesian Laurel Forest
Forests 2017, 8(7), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/f8070252
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 15 July 2017
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Abstract
Post-fire salvage logging (SL) is a common management action that involves the harvesting of burnt trees. As a consequence, a large amount of biological legacies in the form of logs and other coarse woody debris are removed from the post-fire habitat, creating a
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Post-fire salvage logging (SL) is a common management action that involves the harvesting of burnt trees. As a consequence, a large amount of biological legacies in the form of logs and other coarse woody debris are removed from the post-fire habitat, creating a more simplified landscape. Therefore, SL could act as an additional disturbance over that produced by fire. In this study, we seek to determine the effect of SL on the regeneration of the bryophyte community of a laurel forest from the Canary Islands (Spain). We hypothesized that SL will act as an additional disturbance and, consequently, salvaged areas will have a higher difference in community composition with respect to a reference ecosystem (RE). Mosses and liverworts were sampled 22 months after the salvage operations in salvaged plots, non-salvaged, and in an RE represented by areas of the original forest. Species richness did not differ between salvage and non-salvaged treatments. However, multivariate analysis and species-indicator analysis showed that non-salvaged plots had a composition closer to that of the RE, with a higher proportion of closed-canopy, perennial, and long-lived species, as well as some epiphytes. By contrast, salvaged plots were dominated by early-successional terrestrial species and species preferring open habitats. We conclude that post-fire SL represents an additional disturbance that further delays succession, a result that is consistent with previous studies using other taxonomic groups. SL should therefore be avoided or, if implemented, the possibility of leaving part of the post-fire biological legacies in situ should be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Post-Disturbance Forest Management and Regeneration Dynamics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Using Intra-Annual Landsat Time Series for Attributing Forest Disturbance Agents in Central Europe
Forests 2017, 8(7), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/f8070251
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
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Abstract
The attribution of forest disturbances to disturbance agents is a critical challenge for remote sensing-based forest monitoring, promising important insights into drivers and impacts of forest disturbances. Previous studies have used spectral-temporal metrics derived from annual Landsat time series to identify disturbance agents.
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The attribution of forest disturbances to disturbance agents is a critical challenge for remote sensing-based forest monitoring, promising important insights into drivers and impacts of forest disturbances. Previous studies have used spectral-temporal metrics derived from annual Landsat time series to identify disturbance agents. Here, we extend this approach to new predictors derived from intra-annual time series and test it at three sites in Central Europe, including managed and protected forests. The two newly tested predictors are: (1) intra-annual timing of disturbance events and (2) temporal proximity to windstorms based on prior knowledge. We estimated the intra-annual timing of disturbances using a breakpoint detection algorithm and all available Landsat observations between 1984 and 2016. Using spectral, temporal, and topography-related metrics, we then mapped four disturbance classes: windthrow, cleared windthrow, bark beetles, and other harvest. Disturbance agents were identified with overall accuracies of 76–86%. Temporal proximity to storm events was among the most important predictors, while intra-annual timing itself was less important. Moreover, elevation information was very effective for discriminating disturbance agents. Our results demonstrate the potential of incorporating dense, intra-annual Landsat time series information and prior knowledge of disturbance events for monitoring forest ecosystem change at the disturbance agent level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Forest Disturbance)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Soil Water and Nitrogen on the Stand Volume of Four Hybrid Populus tomentosa Clones
Forests 2017, 8(7), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/f8070250
Received: 6 May 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
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Abstract
With the aim of improving poplar timber production, a successive 8-year irrigation and fertilization factorial experiment with three blocks was designed to measure the response of Populus tomentosa stands to water and nitrogen in Huabei Plain, China. Specifically, we examined the responses of
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With the aim of improving poplar timber production, a successive 8-year irrigation and fertilization factorial experiment with three blocks was designed to measure the response of Populus tomentosa stands to water and nitrogen in Huabei Plain, China. Specifically, we examined the responses of four P. tomentosa clones (P. tomentosa BT17, S86, B331, and 1316) to three irrigation levels (45%, 60%, and 75% above field capacity), as irrigation thresholds, and four N levels (0, 80, 160, and 240 g per plant). The results showed that both irrigation and nitrogen had significant effects in terms of improving clone stand volume. Further, we demonstrated positive interactions between irrigation and nitrogen. The stand volume increment of the four hybrid clones varied from 104.53 ± 19.84 to 191.35 ± 30.56 m3/ha in the descending order S86 > B331 > BT17 > 1316. With increasing irrigation level, the average stand volume of the four clones increased significantly from 120.46 ± 5.23 to 158.53 ± 21.72 m3/ha. When nitrogen level was increased from 0 to 240 g/plant, the average stand volume increment of the four clones increased from 126.04 ± 8.75 to 156.16 ± 26.01 m3/ha, respectively. Our results suggest that a comprehensive and specific management program is needed to improve poplar timber production. Full article
Open AccessArticle Fine Root Dynamics in Afromontane Forest and Adjacent Land Uses in the Northwest Ethiopian Highlands
Forests 2017, 8(7), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/f8070249
Received: 2 June 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
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Abstract
Fine roots are a major pathway of C input into soils. The aim of this study was to quantify fine root stocks, production and turnover in natural forest and land use systems converted from forests in Ethiopia. The study was conducted in a
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Fine roots are a major pathway of C input into soils. The aim of this study was to quantify fine root stocks, production and turnover in natural forest and land use systems converted from forests in Ethiopia. The study was conducted in a remnant Afromontane forest, eucalyptus plantation and grass and cropland in NW Ethiopia. Fine root dynamics were investigated using three different methods: sequential coring, in-growth cores and in-growth nets. Soil cores for sequential analyses were taken in quarterly intervals, while in-growth cores and nets were harvested corresponding to 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 8- and 12-month interval. Fine root stocks averaged 564, 425, 56 and 46 g·m−2 in the forest, eucalyptus, grazing land and cropland ecosystems, respectively. The values decreased exponentially with increasing soil depth. In forest and eucalyptus, fine root biomass and necromass were highest in the dry season. Estimates of fine root production differed according to the method used. Fine root production based on in-growth coring averaged 468, 293, 70 and 52 g m−2·year−1. In general, land use conversion from forest to open lands reduced fine root production by 85–91%. The turnover rate of fine roots was 1.5 for forest and 2.1 for eucalyptus plantation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Fine Roots in Changing Climate)
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Open AccessArticle Soil Respiration Changes after Prescribed Fires in Spanish Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii) Monospecific and Mixed Forest Stands
Forests 2017, 8(7), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/f8070248
Received: 25 April 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 6 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1176 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Soil respiration is a major carbon pathway sensitive to environmental changes. Using prescribed burnings to reduce fuel accumulation and lower risks of large-scale wildfires has recently become more important. Prescribed burning can significantly alter the soil environment, but its effect in practice on
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Soil respiration is a major carbon pathway sensitive to environmental changes. Using prescribed burnings to reduce fuel accumulation and lower risks of large-scale wildfires has recently become more important. Prescribed burning can significantly alter the soil environment, but its effect in practice on soil respiration is not sufficiently understood. We evaluated the effects of prescribed burning on soil respiration before and after burning (May–July 2016). Prescribed burning was conducted in two natural pine areas by comparing a mixed stand of Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii with Pinus pinaster Ait. to a pure stand of Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii in the central Iberian Peninsula. Soil respiration was measured by an EGM-4 (Environmental Gas Monitor) infrared gas analyser in both burned and unburned (control) plots. Burnings were low-intensity, and slightly more energetic in the pure stand given its larger litter volume. Post-burning soil respiration followed a similar evolution to that in the control plots, but was greater in the pure stand burned zone and slightly lower in the burned plots in the mixed stand. No significant differences were found in any stand. Soil respiration significantly changed in temporal evolution due to increasing temperatures when summer began. We conclude that prescribed fire induces no changes in SR immediately after fire. This study helps understand how prescribed burnings can affect soil respiration in pure and mixed Spanish black pine forest stands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Post-Fire Management Activities on Forests)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Effectiveness of Polyacrylamide, Wood Shred Mulch, and Pine Needle Mulch as Post-Fire Hillslope Stabilization Treatments in Two Contrasting Volcanic Soils
Forests 2017, 8(7), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/f8070247
Received: 5 May 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 12 July 2017
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Abstract
Post-fire hillslope stabilization treatments aim to reduce runoff-erosion risks following forest fires by counteracting the impact of fire on key soil and hillslope properties. Here we evaluate the effectiveness of wood shred mulch, long-leaved pine needle mulch, and polyacrylamide (PAM) in reducing post-fire
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Post-fire hillslope stabilization treatments aim to reduce runoff-erosion risks following forest fires by counteracting the impact of fire on key soil and hillslope properties. Here we evaluate the effectiveness of wood shred mulch, long-leaved pine needle mulch, and polyacrylamide (PAM) in reducing post-fire runoff and erosion in two volcanic soil types of contrasting wettability using rainfall simulations (55 mm h−1 for 30 min) at the microplot (0.25 m2) scale. The cover provided by the wood shreds and pine needles led to a reduction of runoff and erosion in both the wettable—(62% and 92%, respectively, for wood shreds, and 55% and 87%, respectively, for needle mulch) and the extremely water-repellent soils (44% and 61%, respectively, for wood shreds). In contrast to what might be expected, PAM did not reduce runoff or erosion when applied to the extremely water-repellent soils, suggesting that PAM should not be applied in this terrain type. Although more research is needed to determine whether the high effectiveness of pine needle mulch and wood shred mulch fully translates to coarser scales, the results are encouraging in terms of these materials’ ability to provide effective and relatively economic mitigation treatments for fire-induced runoff-erosion risks in volcanic soils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Post-Fire Management Activities on Forests)
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication Teams at Their Core: Implementing an “All LANDS Approach to Conservation” Requires Focusing on Relationships, Teamwork Process, and Communications
Forests 2017, 8(7), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/f8070246
Received: 1 April 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
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Abstract
The U.S. Forest Service has found itself in an era of intense human activity, a changing climate; development and loss of open space; resource consumption; and problematic introduced species; and diversity in core beliefs and values. These challenges test our task-relevant maturity and
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The U.S. Forest Service has found itself in an era of intense human activity, a changing climate; development and loss of open space; resource consumption; and problematic introduced species; and diversity in core beliefs and values. These challenges test our task-relevant maturity and the ability and willingness to meet the growing demands for services. The Forest Service is now on a transformative campaign to improve abilities and meet these challenges. The “All-Lands Approach to Conservation” brings agencies, organizations, landowners and stakeholders together across boundaries to decide on common goals for the landscapes they share. This approach is part of a larger transformation occurring in the American Conservation Movement where large-scale conservation partnerships possibly define the fourth or contemporary era. The intent of this communication is to present one perspective of what large-scale conservation partnerships should include, namely an emphasis on rethinking what leadership looks like in a collaborative context, relational governance, cooperative teamwork procedures, and communications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tropical Forest Ecology and Management for the Anthropocene)
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