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Viruses, Volume 4, Issue 12 (December 2012), Pages 3270-3952

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Open AccessCorrection San Martín, C., Correction: Latest Insights on Adenovirus Structure and Assembly. Viruses 2012, 4, 847-877.
Viruses 2012, 4(12), 3952; https://doi.org/10.3390/v4123952
Received: 19 December 2012 / Accepted: 19 December 2012 / Published: 19 December 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (16 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It has come to my attention that my article "Latest Insights on Adenovirus Structure and Assembly" (Viruses 2012, 4, 847-877) [1] contains an inaccurate statement. On page 864, the caption for Figure 7 reads: "There are four potential cleavage sites in
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It has come to my attention that my article "Latest Insights on Adenovirus Structure and Assembly" (Viruses 2012, 4, 847-877) [1] contains an inaccurate statement. On page 864, the caption for Figure 7 reads: "There are four potential cleavage sites in pTP but they have not been experimentally verified". However, three of these sites have been experimentally confirmed in vitro using recombinant AVP and pTP, as described in Webster A, Leith I.R., Hay R.T.: Activation of adenovirus-coded protease and processing of preterminal protein. J. Virol. 1994, 68, 7292-7300 [2]. [...] Full article
Open AccessReview The Impact of Regulations, Safety Considerations and Physical Limitations on Research Progress at Maximum Biocontainment
Viruses 2012, 4(12), 3932-3951; https://doi.org/10.3390/v4123932
Received: 22 November 2012 / Revised: 14 December 2012 / Accepted: 14 December 2012 / Published: 19 December 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (466 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We describe herein, limitations on research at biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment laboratories, with regard to biosecurity regulations, safety considerations, research space limitations, and physical constraints in executing experimental procedures. These limitations can severely impact the number of collaborations and size of research
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We describe herein, limitations on research at biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment laboratories, with regard to biosecurity regulations, safety considerations, research space limitations, and physical constraints in executing experimental procedures. These limitations can severely impact the number of collaborations and size of research projects investigating microbial pathogens of biodefense concern. Acquisition, use, storage, and transfer of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT) are highly regulated due to their potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. All federal, state, city, and local regulations must be followed to obtain and maintain registration for the institution to conduct research involving BSAT. These include initial screening and continuous monitoring of personnel, controlled access to containment laboratories, accurate and current BSAT inventory records. Safety considerations are paramount in BSL-4 containment laboratories while considering the types of research tools, workflow and time required for conducting both in vivo and in vitro experiments in limited space. Required use of a positive-pressure encapsulating suit imposes tremendous physical limitations on the researcher. Successful mitigation of these constraints requires additional time, effort, good communication, and creative solutions. Test and evaluation of novel vaccines and therapeutics conducted under good laboratory practice (GLP) conditions for FDA approval are prioritized and frequently share the same physical space with important ongoing basic research studies. The possibilities and limitations of biomedical research involving microbial pathogens of biodefense concern in BSL-4 containment laboratories are explored in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Filovirus Research 2012) Printed Edition available
Open AccessReview Hepatitis C Virus in American Indian/Alaskan Native and Aboriginal Peoples of North America
Viruses 2012, 4(12), 3912-3931; https://doi.org/10.3390/v4123912
Received: 24 October 2012 / Revised: 3 December 2012 / Accepted: 5 December 2012 / Published: 19 December 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Liver diseases, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), are “broken spirit” diseases. The prevalence of HCV infection for American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) in the United States and Canadian Aboriginals varies; nonetheless, incidence rates of newly diagnosed HCV infection are typically higher relative to
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Liver diseases, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), are “broken spirit” diseases. The prevalence of HCV infection for American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) in the United States and Canadian Aboriginals varies; nonetheless, incidence rates of newly diagnosed HCV infection are typically higher relative to non-indigenous people. For AI/AN and Aboriginal peoples risk factors for the diagnosis of HCV can reflect that of the general population: predominately male, a history of injection drug use, in midlife years, with a connection with urban centers. However, the face of the indigenous HCV infected individual is becoming increasingly female and younger compared to non-indigenous counterparts. Epidemiology studies indicate that more effective clearance of acute HCV infection can occur for select Aboriginal populations, a phenomenon which may be linked to unique immune characteristics. For individuals progressing to chronic HCV infection treatment outcomes are comparable to other racial cohorts. Disease progression, however, is propelled by elevated rates of co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes and alcohol use, along with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection relative to non-indigenous patients. Historical and personal trauma has a major role in the participation of high risk behaviors and associated diseases. Although emerging treatments provide hope, combating HCV related morbidity and mortality will require interventions that address the etiology of broken spirit diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatitis C Pathology)
Open AccessReview Escape from Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Entry Inhibitors
Viruses 2012, 4(12), 3859-3911; https://doi.org/10.3390/v4123859
Received: 6 November 2012 / Revised: 8 December 2012 / Accepted: 12 December 2012 / Published: 19 December 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (806 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enters cells through a series of molecular interactions between the HIV envelope protein and cellular receptors, thus providing many opportunities to block infection. Entry inhibitors are currently being used in the clinic, and many more are under development.
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The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enters cells through a series of molecular interactions between the HIV envelope protein and cellular receptors, thus providing many opportunities to block infection. Entry inhibitors are currently being used in the clinic, and many more are under development. Unfortunately, as is the case for other classes of antiretroviral drugs that target later steps in the viral life cycle, HIV can become resistant to entry inhibitors. In contrast to inhibitors that block viral enzymes in intracellular compartments, entry inhibitors interfere with the function of the highly variable envelope glycoprotein as it continuously adapts to changing immune pressure and available target cells in the extracellular environment. Consequently, pathways and mechanisms of resistance for entry inhibitors are varied and often involve mutations across the envelope gene. This review provides a broad overview of entry inhibitor resistance mechanisms that inform our understanding of HIV entry and the design of new inhibitors and vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Entry Inhibitors)
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Open AccessReview The Role of Human Papillomavirus in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Acquisition in Men who Have Sex with Men: A Review of the Literature
Viruses 2012, 4(12), 3851-3858; https://doi.org/10.3390/v4123851
Received: 22 November 2012 / Revised: 14 December 2012 / Accepted: 17 December 2012 / Published: 18 December 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (204 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. Incidence rates of HPV infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are well documented and are several-fold higher than among HIV-uninfected individuals. Few studies have demonstrated an increased risk for
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Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. Incidence rates of HPV infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are well documented and are several-fold higher than among HIV-uninfected individuals. Few studies have demonstrated an increased risk for acquiring HIV infection in those with HPV infection, and this risk seems to be higher when HPV strains are of high-risk oncogenic potential. The estimated prevalence of high-risk oncogenic HPV infection is highest in men who have sex with men (MSM), a particularly vulnerable group with high prevalence rates of HIV infection and other STIs. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the available literature on the role of HPV infection in HIV acquisition. Our review includes data from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Full article
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Open AccessReview Modulation of Apoptotic Pathways by Human Papillomaviruses (HPV): Mechanisms and Implications for Therapy
Viruses 2012, 4(12), 3831-3850; https://doi.org/10.3390/v4123831
Received: 16 November 2012 / Revised: 12 December 2012 / Accepted: 14 December 2012 / Published: 18 December 2012
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (486 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ability of the host to trigger apoptosis in infected cells is perhaps the most powerful tool by which viruses can be cleared from the host organism. To avoid elimination by this mechanism, human papillomaviruses (HPV) have developed several mechanisms that enable the
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The ability of the host to trigger apoptosis in infected cells is perhaps the most powerful tool by which viruses can be cleared from the host organism. To avoid elimination by this mechanism, human papillomaviruses (HPV) have developed several mechanisms that enable the cells they infect to elude both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis. In this manuscript, we review the current literature regarding how HPV-infected cells avoid apoptosis and the molecular mechanisms involved in these events. In particular, we will discuss the modifications in intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways caused by proteins encoded by HPV early genes. Many of the current efforts regarding anti-cancer drug development are focused on directing tumor cells to undergo apoptosis. However, the ability of HPV-infected cells to resist apoptotic signals renders such therapies ineffective. Possible mechanisms for overcoming the resistance of HPV-infected tumor cells to anticancer drugs will be discussed. Full article
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Open AccessReview Immune Responses to West Nile Virus Infection in the Central Nervous System
Viruses 2012, 4(12), 3812-3830; https://doi.org/10.3390/v4123812
Received: 20 November 2012 / Revised: 7 December 2012 / Accepted: 10 December 2012 / Published: 17 December 2012
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (532 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
West Nile virus (WNV) continues to cause outbreaks of severe neuroinvasive disease in humans and other vertebrate animals in the United States, Europe, and other regions of the world. This review discusses our understanding of the interactions between virus and host that occur
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West Nile virus (WNV) continues to cause outbreaks of severe neuroinvasive disease in humans and other vertebrate animals in the United States, Europe, and other regions of the world. This review discusses our understanding of the interactions between virus and host that occur in the central nervous system (CNS), the outcome of which can be protection, viral pathogenesis, or immunopathogenesis. We will focus on defining the current state of knowledge of WNV entry, tropism, and host immune response in the CNS, all of which affect the balance between injury and successful clearance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Infections of the CNS)
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Open AccessArticle First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela
Viruses 2012, 4(12), 3804-3811; https://doi.org/10.3390/v4123804
Received: 4 November 2012 / Revised: 6 December 2012 / Accepted: 11 December 2012 / Published: 14 December 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (546 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive
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Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Viruses of Plants, Fungi and Protozoa)
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Open AccessArticle Diversity in Glycosaminoglycan Binding Amongst hMPV G Protein Lineages
Viruses 2012, 4(12), 3785-3803; https://doi.org/10.3390/v4123785
Received: 31 October 2012 / Revised: 10 December 2012 / Accepted: 10 December 2012 / Published: 14 December 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (466 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have previously shown that hMPV G protein (B2 lineage) interacts with cellular glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). In this study we examined subtypes A1, A2 and B1 for this interaction. GAG-dependent infectivity of available hMPV strains was demonstrated using GAG-deficient cells and heparin competition. We
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We have previously shown that hMPV G protein (B2 lineage) interacts with cellular glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). In this study we examined subtypes A1, A2 and B1 for this interaction. GAG-dependent infectivity of available hMPV strains was demonstrated using GAG-deficient cells and heparin competition. We expressed the G protein ectodomains from all strains and analysed these by heparin affinity chromatography. In contrast to the B2 lineage, neither the A2 or B1 G proteins bound to heparin. Sequence analysis of these strains indicated that although there was some homology with the B2 heparin-binding domains, there were less positively charged residues, providing a likely explanation for the lack of binding. Although sequence analysis did not demonstrate well defined positively charged domains in G protein of the A1 strain, this protein was able to bind heparin, albeit with a lower affinity than G protein of the B2 strain. These results indicate diversity in GAG interactions between G proteins of different lineages and suggest that the GAG-dependency of all strains may be mediated by interaction with an alternative surface protein, most probably the conserved fusion (F) protein. Analysis of both native and recombinant F protein confirmed that F protein binds heparin, supporting this conclusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pneumoviruses and Metapneumoviruses)
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Open AccessReview Use of the Syrian Hamster as a New Model of Ebola Virus Disease and Other Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
Viruses 2012, 4(12), 3754-3784; https://doi.org/10.3390/v4123754
Received: 14 November 2012 / Revised: 10 December 2012 / Accepted: 12 December 2012 / Published: 14 December 2012
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (1326 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Historically, mice and guinea pigs have been the rodent models of choice for therapeutic and prophylactic countermeasure testing against Ebola virus disease (EVD). Recently, hamsters have emerged as a novel animal model for the in vivo study of EVD. In this review, we
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Historically, mice and guinea pigs have been the rodent models of choice for therapeutic and prophylactic countermeasure testing against Ebola virus disease (EVD). Recently, hamsters have emerged as a novel animal model for the in vivo study of EVD. In this review, we discuss the history of the hamster as a research laboratory animal, as well as current benefits and challenges of this model. Availability of immunological reagents is addressed. Salient features of EVD in hamsters, including relevant pathology and coagulation parameters, are compared directly with the mouse, guinea pig and nonhuman primate models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Filovirus Research 2012) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview Neonatal Calf Infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Drawing Parallels to the Disease in Human Infants
Viruses 2012, 4(12), 3731-3753; https://doi.org/10.3390/v4123731
Received: 1 November 2012 / Revised: 29 November 2012 / Accepted: 7 December 2012 / Published: 13 December 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (399 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections. It is estimated that RSV infections result in more than 100,000 deaths annually worldwide. Bovine RSV is a cause of enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves
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Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections. It is estimated that RSV infections result in more than 100,000 deaths annually worldwide. Bovine RSV is a cause of enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bovine RSV plays a significant role in bovine respiratory disease complex, the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among feedlot cattle. Infection of calves with bovine RSV shares features in common with RSV infection in children, such as an age-dependent susceptibility. In addition, comparable microscopic lesions consisting of bronchiolar neutrophilic infiltrates, epithelial cell necrosis, and syncytial cell formation are observed. Further, our studies have shown an upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators in RSV-infected calves, including IL-12p40 and CXCL8 (IL-8). This finding is consistent with increased levels of IL-8 observed in children with RSV bronchiolitis. Since rodents lack IL-8, neonatal calves can be useful for studies of IL-8 regulation in response to RSV infection. We have recently found that vitamin D in milk replacer diets can be manipulated to produce calves differing in circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. The results to date indicate that although the vitamin D intracrine pathway is activated during RSV infection, pro-inflammatory mediators frequently inhibited by the vitamin D intacrine pathway in vitro are, in fact, upregulated or unaffected in lungs of infected calves. This review will summarize available data that provide parallels between bovine RSV infection in neonatal calves and human RSV in infants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pneumoviruses and Metapneumoviruses)
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Open AccessReview Epstein-Barr Virus in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Rheumatoid Arthritis and Multiple Sclerosis—Association and Causation
Viruses 2012, 4(12), 3701-3730; https://doi.org/10.3390/v4123701
Received: 31 October 2012 / Revised: 6 December 2012 / Accepted: 7 December 2012 / Published: 13 December 2012
Cited by 46 | PDF Full-text (489 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epidemiological data suggest that the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. However, it is not clear whether EBV plays a role in the pathogenesis of these diseases, and if so,
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Epidemiological data suggest that the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. However, it is not clear whether EBV plays a role in the pathogenesis of these diseases, and if so, by which mechanisms the virus may contribute. In this review, we discuss possible viral and immunological mechanisms that might explain associations between EBV and autoimmune diseases and whether these associations represent causes or effects of inflammation and autoimmunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in EBV Research)
Open AccessArticle Identification and Characterization of a Novel Alpaca Respiratory Coronavirus Most Closely Related to the Human Coronavirus 229E
Viruses 2012, 4(12), 3689-3700; https://doi.org/10.3390/v4123689
Received: 11 October 2012 / Revised: 13 November 2012 / Accepted: 23 November 2012 / Published: 12 December 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (611 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In 2007, a novel coronavirus associated with an acute respiratory disease in alpacas (Alpaca Coronavirus, ACoV) was isolated. Full-length genomic sequencing of the ACoV demonstrated the genome to be consistent with other Alphacoronaviruses. A putative additional open-reading frame was identified between the nucleocapsid
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In 2007, a novel coronavirus associated with an acute respiratory disease in alpacas (Alpaca Coronavirus, ACoV) was isolated. Full-length genomic sequencing of the ACoV demonstrated the genome to be consistent with other Alphacoronaviruses. A putative additional open-reading frame was identified between the nucleocapsid gene and 3'UTR. The ACoV was genetically most similar to the common human coronavirus (HCoV) 229E with 92.2% nucleotide identity over the entire genome. A comparison of spike gene sequences from ACoV and from HCoV-229E isolates recovered over a span of five decades showed the ACoV to be most similar to viruses isolated in the 1960’s to early 1980’s. The true origin of the ACoV is unknown, however a common ancestor between the ACoV and HCoV-229E appears to have existed prior to the 1960’s, suggesting virus transmission, either as a zoonosis or anthroponosis, has occurred between alpacas and humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspectives and Challenges in Coronavirus Research)
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Open AccessReview Biological Invasions of Geminiviruses: Case Study of TYLCV and Bemisia tabaci in Reunion Island
Viruses 2012, 4(12), 3665-3688; https://doi.org/10.3390/v4123665
Received: 5 November 2012 / Revised: 6 December 2012 / Accepted: 6 December 2012 / Published: 12 December 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (664 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the last 20 years, molecular ecology approaches have proven to be extremely useful to identify and assess factors associated with viral emerging diseases, particularly in economically and socially important tropical crops such as maize (maize streak disease) and cassava (cassava mosaic disease).
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In the last 20 years, molecular ecology approaches have proven to be extremely useful to identify and assess factors associated with viral emerging diseases, particularly in economically and socially important tropical crops such as maize (maize streak disease) and cassava (cassava mosaic disease). Molecular ecology approaches were applied in Reunion Island to analyze the epidemic of tomato yellow leaf curl disease, which has been affecting the island since the end of the 1990s. Before the invasive biotype B (currently known as Middle East-Asia Minor 1 cryptic species) of Bemisia tabaci spread across the world, Reunion Island (South West Indian Ocean) only hosted an indigenous biotype of B. tabaci, Ms (currently known as Indian Ocean cryptic species). Wild hybrids between invasive and indigenous species were subsequently characterized over multiple generations. Endosymbiont analysis of the hybrid population indicated that matings were non-random. Similarly, while no indigenous begomoviruses have ever been reported on Reunion Island, the two main strains of one of the most damaging and emerging plant viruses in the world, the Mild and Israel strains of the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-Mld and TYLCV-IL), were introduced in 1997 and 2004 respectively. While these introductions extensively modified the agricultural landscape of Reunion Island, they also provided an invaluable opportunity to study the ecological and genetic mechanisms involved in biological invasion and competition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
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Open AccessReview Endocytic Pathways Involved in Filovirus Entry: Advances, Implications and Future Directions
Viruses 2012, 4(12), 3647-3664; https://doi.org/10.3390/v4123647
Received: 7 November 2012 / Revised: 28 November 2012 / Accepted: 30 November 2012 / Published: 11 December 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (430 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Detailed knowledge of the host-virus interactions that accompany filovirus entry into cells is expected to identify determinants of viral virulence and host range, and to yield targets for the development of antiviral therapeutics. While it is generally agreed that filovirus entry into the
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Detailed knowledge of the host-virus interactions that accompany filovirus entry into cells is expected to identify determinants of viral virulence and host range, and to yield targets for the development of antiviral therapeutics. While it is generally agreed that filovirus entry into the host cytoplasm requires viral internalization into acidic endosomal compartments and proteolytic cleavage of the envelope glycoprotein by endo/lysosomal cysteine proteases, our understanding of the specific endocytic pathways co-opted by filoviruses remains limited. This review addresses the current knowledge on cellular endocytic pathways implicated in filovirus entry, highlights the consensus as well as controversies, and discusses important remaining questions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Filovirus Research 2012) Printed Edition available
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