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Sustainability, Volume 10, Issue 6 (June 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The Digital Curtain: A Subject of Sustainability Science—R.W. Scholz According to Bandura, “people [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle The Role of SMEs’ Green Business Models in the Transition to a Low-Carbon Economy: Differences in Their Design and Degree of Adoption Stemming from Business Size
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 2109; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062109 (registering DOI)
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 16 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to analyze how SMEs define the components of their business models (value proposition, creation and capture) from the point of view of decarbonization. We analyze SMEs as a group, and study whether their size affects this process
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The purpose of this paper is to analyze how SMEs define the components of their business models (value proposition, creation and capture) from the point of view of decarbonization. We analyze SMEs as a group, and study whether their size affects this process and, in both cases, we examine evolution over time. We use a database comprising 1161 observations of SMEs, 466 in 2014, and 695 in 2016. The results show that SMEs’ value propositions give an intermediate valuation to both legally required and voluntary reduction of environmental impact, irrespective of SME size and the year analyzed. Regarding value creation, SMEs adopt practically no environmental practices, and there are significant differences according to size, with more difficulties than advantages stemming from small size. The study also shows that such environmental practices are not effective in reducing carbon. This diagnosis indicates that SMEs need help from the administration if they are to play a key role in the process of transformation toward a low-carbon economy. Legislative actions involving harsher environmental protection measures might help shape value propositions that place greater importance on reducing environmental impact, whereas training actions on available environmental techniques, promotion of research on how to adapt such techniques to SMEs and the development of specific practices for SMEs might enhance environmental value creation and capture in their BMs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmentally Sustainable Competitive Strategies)
Open AccessArticle Sustainable Diffusion of Inter-Organizational Technology in Supply Chains: An Approach to Heterogeneous Levels of Risk Aversion
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 2108; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062108 (registering DOI)
Received: 13 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
This paper develops a model to analyze inter-organizational technology adoption in a supply chain. While the basic model is general, this study is motivated by several cases of inter-organizational technology adoption in supply chains. The proposed model in this study considers firms on
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This paper develops a model to analyze inter-organizational technology adoption in a supply chain. While the basic model is general, this study is motivated by several cases of inter-organizational technology adoption in supply chains. The proposed model in this study considers firms on both levels of the supply chain, namely, supplier firms and buyer firms. These individual firms’ thresholds for adoption should be considered by other firms’ decisions within a network, together with their own organizational attributes. The heterogeneity across the population should be allowed. That is, individual firms make a decision for adopting the technology at different times due to their different network sizes, prior beliefs, and amounts of information observed. The main finding is that this uncertainty decreases as other suppliers adopt the technology, and information about their experiences becomes available. In addition, at any given time, an estimate of the benefit to a supplier depends on the number of supplier firms and on the number of buyer firms that have already adopted the technology. Thus, we seek to capture this dependence and analyze its effect on the adoption of a new inter-organizational technology. The next step is to embed the firm-level adoption model into a population model. The model includes various types of heterogeneity in the population model to capture the factors affecting the speed of diffusion. This allows us to derive an adoption curve that is specified by the accumulated fraction of firms that have adopted the technology in or before any given period. The population model allows us to consider the effect of several strategies observed in practice and numerical experiments yielding many managerial implications in this area. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Role of the UK Green Deal in Shaping Pro-Environmental Behaviours: Insights from Two Case Studies
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 2107; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062107 (registering DOI)
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Domestic energy use accounts for more than a quarter of total energy use in the United Kingdom (UK), with space and water heating accounting for almost 80% of this consumption. Energy efficiency is often the simplest and most cost-effective way of reducing energy
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Domestic energy use accounts for more than a quarter of total energy use in the United Kingdom (UK), with space and water heating accounting for almost 80% of this consumption. Energy efficiency is often the simplest and most cost-effective way of reducing energy use, and improving domestic energy efficiency can contribute significantly to reducing the UK’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A significant proportion of the UK’s energy stock remains inefficient, and over 80% of current housing stock will still be standing in 2050. Therefore, retrofitting existing buildings is fundamental to achieving energy efficiency improvements in the domestic sector. In order to reduce carbon emissions and improve domestic energy efficiency, the UK government launched the Green Deal in 2013 to improve the energy efficiency in buildings in the UK, reduce emissions from homes by 29%, and help meet carbon reduction targets. It aimed to overcome existing perceived barriers to the adoption of energy efficiency measures in the home and enable households and businesses to make energy-saving improvements to their properties, delivering a range of important benefits to the owner/occupier as a result. This paper critically assesses the impact of the Green Deal in shaping pro-environmental behaviours by drawing on two case studies. Lessons learnt from the UK’s Green Deal energy policy are presented, and implications for the UK government’s role in shaping energy policy and pro-environmental behaviours are considered. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The motric, Educational, Recreational and Satisfaction Impact of Adventure Education Activities in the Urban Tourism Environment
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 2106; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062106 (registering DOI)
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
(1) Background: The study aims to highlight the impact of educational, recreational, motric and satisfaction of adventure education activities in the urban tourism environment; (2) Methods: The study included 48 students with specialization in physical education. The adventure education program included two specific
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(1) Background: The study aims to highlight the impact of educational, recreational, motric and satisfaction of adventure education activities in the urban tourism environment; (2) Methods: The study included 48 students with specialization in physical education. The adventure education program included two specific activities and the evaluation focused on: the students’ choice in choosing and crossing the routes from the Adventure Park in Brasov according to their difficulty; the distance covered within the Photo Trip Brasov Adventure. At the end of program a questionnaire contained 20 items divided into two parts of 10 items for each of the two activities: Adventure Park Brasov Challenge and Photo Trip Brasov Adventure, was used to assess the educational, recreational and satisfaction impact of the urban adventure tourism activities. The results were processed using SPPS 20; (3) Results: At the Adventure Park Brasov Challenge the girls have accumulated 118 points (29.7%), and the boys 280 points (70.3%). For Photo Trip Brasov Adventure, the average distance covered by the 12 teams was 5.516 ± 0.240. The results are statistically significant for p < 0.05. The Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient for the whole questionnaire was α = 0.933; for the Adventure Park Brasov Challenge was α = 0.811; for Photo Trip Brasov Adventure was α = 0.924, suggesting that the items had a very high internal consistency; (4) Conclusions: Participation in the Education program through adventure in urban tourism environment highlighted the expansion and improvement of the physical, technical, educational, recreational potential and participation of the students. The analysis of the results of the questionnaire revealed that the students mostly appreciate the satisfaction and recreational parameters and in the lower the educational and motoric parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity as a Means of Culture, Leisure and Free Time)
Open AccessArticle Sustainable Practices in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Ecuador
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 2105; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062105 (registering DOI)
Received: 5 June 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 16 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), as well as larger enterprises, generate economic, social, and environmental impacts on their environment. However, in the case of these types of enterprises, the accumulation of these impacts is very significant in the immediate surroundings where they offer
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Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), as well as larger enterprises, generate economic, social, and environmental impacts on their environment. However, in the case of these types of enterprises, the accumulation of these impacts is very significant in the immediate surroundings where they offer their products and services. This discussion is particularly relevant in Ecuador, where 99% of all enterprises are SMEs. The objective of this research is to find out if small and medium-sized enterprises in this country are involved in the adoption of sustainable practices as well as see if there are significant differences in adoption based on size, sector, and age. The methodology used is the performance of a descriptive analysis and regression of the data obtained through a structured questionnaire (indicators of the Ethos Institute of Brazil). Previously, the reliability of the questionnaire was validated through an exploratory factor analysis. The target population consists of 9843 enterprises, obtaining a sample size of 188 valid surveys, which implies a response rate of 2%, representing a sampling error of ±7.08%. The results obtained enabled us to perform a sustainability diagnosis of SMEs in Ecuador, identifying the strengths and weaknesses. The managers have a positive and favourable attitude towards sustainability. The practices considered show a medium-high implementation level of 79.71% in economic sustainability, 82.28% in social sustainability, and 78.14% in environmental sustainability in the enterprises considered in the sample. Although these percentages are significant, there is plenty of scope for improvement. Full article
Open AccessArticle Exploring the Decisive Risks of Green Development Projects by Adopting Social Network Analysis under Stakeholder Theory
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 2104; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062104 (registering DOI)
Received: 23 April 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 17 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
The Belt and Road initiatives related to green development projects are being increasingly considered globally. However, such projects face several risks resulting from stakeholder diversity. Although previous studies attempted to identify the risks caused by stakeholders, they found it difficult to provide a
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The Belt and Road initiatives related to green development projects are being increasingly considered globally. However, such projects face several risks resulting from stakeholder diversity. Although previous studies attempted to identify the risks caused by stakeholders, they found it difficult to provide a precise boundary to separate the risks attributable to a single stakeholder. This study adopts social network analysis to explore the decisive risks attributed to each stakeholder by considering a project’s stage. The results reveal that contractors take on the most risk and, thus, require real-time monitoring. Furthermore, all stakeholders need to collaborate with one another during the implementation stage of a project to mitigate the occurrence of risk. This study makes three contributions: it (1) provides a theoretical basis for enhancing the understanding of stakeholder theory; (2) offers specific guidelines for monitoring risks; and (3) enables stakeholders to understand their duties in controlling risks. Detailed discussions are provided in the remainder of the manuscript. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Competitive–Cooperative Strategy Based on Altruistic Behavior for Dual-Channel Supply Chains
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 2103; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062103 (registering DOI)
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
As market competition becomes increasingly fierce, it becomes more and more important for members of the supply chain to maximize market sales and improve the economic benefits of all parties through altruistic cooperation. Considering the complex relationship between online and offline retail channels,
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As market competition becomes increasingly fierce, it becomes more and more important for members of the supply chain to maximize market sales and improve the economic benefits of all parties through altruistic cooperation. Considering the complex relationship between online and offline retail channels, this paper proposes a competitive–cooperative strategy based on altruistic behavior for the dual-channel supply chain, by applying the theory of the co-competition game. First, we introduce the problem with respect to the relationship between online and offline retail channels, and establish the competitive–cooperative strategy model based on altruistic behavior. Then, we prove the equilibrium strategy for existence and stability of the proposed model through mathematical deduction. Next, a multi-object optimal model is excluded by applying the Pareto principle, and the NSGA-II-based algorithm is obtained to acquire the Nash equilibrium point. Finally, we present the case testing results, which indicate that the proposed model is robust and can improve the channel efficiency of the supply chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Supply Chain System Design and Optimization)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Patient Participation through Physician’s Resources on Experience and Wellbeing
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 2102; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062102 (registering DOI)
Received: 6 April 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 17 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Few studies have reported on how customer value is co-created in healthcare service delivery, and its effect on patients’ perceptions of wellbeing. It is important to examine physician-patient interaction in the context of a healthcare sector characterized by complex, specialized services and to
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Few studies have reported on how customer value is co-created in healthcare service delivery, and its effect on patients’ perceptions of wellbeing. It is important to examine physician-patient interaction in the context of a healthcare sector characterized by complex, specialized services and to determine how value is thereby co-created. This study’s purpose is to investigate the potential impact of patient participation through physicians’ resource offering on patient experiential value and wellbeing. Data was collected through a questionnaire survey of actual patients in South Korea, whose responses were analyzed via structural equation using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.0. IBM Corp.: Armonk, NY, USA. The results indicate that physicians provide significant affective and cognitive resources to patients; in turn, patients are actively involved in the medical encounter process. These co-creation activities lead to increases in patients’ experiential value and perceived wellbeing. Patients’ play a major role in problem-solving, and service providers contribute resources such as professional expertise and affective care. Healthcare service providers can refer to the service process model proposed herein and aim to maximize patients’ roles and use of their resources for patients’ wellbeing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) Practices on Cotton Production and Livelihood of Farmers in Punjab, Pakistan
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 2101; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062101 (registering DOI)
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 25 May 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Cotton is the second largest crop of Pakistan in terms of area after wheat and is being suffered by multiple shocks over the time due to conventional agricultural management practices, climate change, and market failures. Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) was introduced by the
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Cotton is the second largest crop of Pakistan in terms of area after wheat and is being suffered by multiple shocks over the time due to conventional agricultural management practices, climate change, and market failures. Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) was introduced by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) in 2010, as an innovative cleaner production alternative to conventional farming that aimed at increasing the efficiency of natural resources, resilience, and productivity of agricultural production system, while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The adverse effects of climate change on cotton production at the farm and regional level can be minimized by using CSA practices and technologies. The present study investigated the financial performance and explored the impact of CSA through sustainable water use management on cotton production in Lower Bari Doab Canal (LBDC) irrigation system of Punjab, Pakistan by using Cobb-Douglas production function. The adopters of CSA in cotton cultivation were identified by conducting six focus group discussions. Data were collected through well-structured questionnaire from 133 adopters of CSA and 65 conventional cotton growers for the cropping season 2016–2017. It was found that water-smart (raising crops on bed, laser land levelling, conjunctive use of water and drainage management), energy-smart (minimum tillage), carbon-smart (less use of chemicals) and knowledge-smart (crop rotation and improved varieties i.e., tolerant to drought, flood and heat/cold stresses) practices and technologies of CSA were adopted by the cotton farmers in the study area. Most of the farmers were of the view that they are adopting CSA practices and technologies due to the limited supply of canal water, climate change, drought-prone, massive groundwater extraction, rapidly declining groundwater table and increasing soil salinity over the time. Results revealed that uniform germination, higher yield and financial returns, the concentration of inputs and increase in resource use efficiency are the main advantages of CSA. The econometric analysis showed that implementation of CSA practices and technologies as judicious use of water and fertilizer, groundwater quality, access to extension services, and appropriate method and time of picking have a significant impact on the gross value of cotton product (GVP). The findings of the study would be helpful for policy makers to formulate policies that can minimize farmer’s financial burden to adopt CSA technologies and implement for scaling out in Punjab and beyond. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Governance for Climate Smart Agriculture)
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Open AccessArticle Drought Assessment with the Community Land Model for 1951–2010 in East Asia
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 2100; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062100 (registering DOI)
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Severe droughts have occurred in East Asia; however, observational hydroclimate data that covers the entire region is lacking. The objective of this study is to investigate drought assessment in East Asia. This study estimated three drought indices by generating hydroclimate variables using the
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Severe droughts have occurred in East Asia; however, observational hydroclimate data that covers the entire region is lacking. The objective of this study is to investigate drought assessment in East Asia. This study estimated three drought indices by generating hydroclimate variables using the Community Land Model (CLM). The results of the CLM were verified by comparison with Climatic Research Unit (CRU) data for precipitation and air temperature and the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC) data for runoff. Spatial and temporal variations in three drought severity indices, including the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI), the standardized runoff index (SRI), and the Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSMI), in East Asia were estimated using the CLM output and compared with the SPEI in the CRU. This study classified drought frequency into four classes depending on the drought severity with 5-deg gapped longitude and latitude for 1951–2010 in East Asia and found that moderately dry (D2) and severely dry (D3) drought frequency classes matched well between the CLM and CRU data. The SPEI in the CLM and CRU data showed very similar frequency magnitudes and an increasing temporal trend. The SRI and SSMI frequencies for CLM also showed an increasing temporal trend compared to the SPEI frequency trend. The results of this study show that CLM outputs are reliable for drought analysis in East Asia. Furthermore, this study suggests the possibility of CLM application to other regions to generate hydroclimate data that is otherwise insufficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Impact Events and Climate Change)
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Open AccessArticle Green Infrastructure through Citizen Stormwater Management: Policy Instruments, Participation and Engagement
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 2099; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062099 (registering DOI)
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
As in other industrialized countries, many urban water social-ecological systems in the United States are characterized by frequent discharges of contaminated runoff, catastrophic flooding, and near-complete severance of the hydrologic cycle. Recent advancements in stormwater best management practices aim to push urban water
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As in other industrialized countries, many urban water social-ecological systems in the United States are characterized by frequent discharges of contaminated runoff, catastrophic flooding, and near-complete severance of the hydrologic cycle. Recent advancements in stormwater best management practices aim to push urban water social-ecological systems into a more sustainable regime that reconnects the hydrologic cycle and utilizes ecosystem services, such as infiltration and evapotranspiration, to improve the quality of urban and suburban water bodies. Collectively, these approaches are termed green infrastructure. As a decentralized approach, green infrastructure requires implementation on, as well as access to, property throughout a watershed, which poses particular governance challenges for watersheds where most land is held privately. We argue that green infrastructure on private property has a strong potential for creating a more sustainable regime through Citizen Stormwater Management, a participatory form of governance with strong citizen influence and engagement. We develop a classification scheme to assess policy instruments’ degree of government intervention, citizen participation, and engagement. The paper explores how various policy instruments encourage Citizen Stormwater Management across the United States on both public and private property. We then conduct a textual analysis of ten years of publicly available data from Onondaga County, New York (USA) to assess the implementation of applicable policy instruments. Findings indicate that incentive-based (carrots) along with outreach (sermon) policies can play an important role when regulatory instruments (sticks) are lacking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Management)
Open AccessArticle Addressing Organisational Pressures as Drivers towards Sustainability in Manufacturing Projects and Project Management Methodologies
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 2098; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062098 (registering DOI)
Received: 9 April 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
The concept of sustainability continues to rapidly grow in interest from disparate academic and industrial fields. This research aims to elucidate further the implications of the sustainability drivers upon project management methodological approaches specifically in the manufacturing industry. This paper studies the three
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The concept of sustainability continues to rapidly grow in interest from disparate academic and industrial fields. This research aims to elucidate further the implications of the sustainability drivers upon project management methodological approaches specifically in the manufacturing industry. This paper studies the three prevalent dialogues in the field of sustainability, relevant to the environmental and social aspects of the Triple Bottom Line, and utilises Institutional Theory to propose organisational pressures as affecting sustainability efforts in industrial manufacturing project management. Furthermore, the literature bodies of Lean and Life Cycle Analysis in manufacturing project management guided our reflection that the various drivers of sustainability put forward that do not consider the distinctive organisational pressures fail to address institutional and systemic project management issues holistically. The authors further conduct and draw on a systematic literature review on the constructs of sustainability in the manufacturing industry and their adopted methodologies, evaluating academic articles published from the year 2001 to 2017. The findings indicate that normative pressures prevail over coercive and mimetic pressures and are seen as the main drivers of sustainability in the manufacturing industry. In an incremental reductionist approach, project management knowledge areas are analysed, and the study posits that Stakeholder and Communications Management are two of the knowledge areas that need to integrate the above pressures to achieve cohesive sustainable industrial results. The principle contribution is to offer a new conceptual perspective on integrating project management knowledge areas with Institutional Theory pressures for more sustainable project management methodologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Project Management and Sustainable Development)
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Open AccessArticle Performance Evaluation on Intellectual Property Rights Policy System of the Renewable Energy in China
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 2097; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062097 (registering DOI)
Received: 3 June 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 18 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
With the intensive consumption and price rising of traditional fossil fuels, the development and utilization of renewable energy has attracted worldwide attention. Meanwhile, due to enhanced energy constraints and increasingly grim greenhouse gases, many countries all over the world have been developing renewable
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With the intensive consumption and price rising of traditional fossil fuels, the development and utilization of renewable energy has attracted worldwide attention. Meanwhile, due to enhanced energy constraints and increasingly grim greenhouse gases, many countries all over the world have been developing renewable energy technologies to promote sustainable growth economically. Intellectual property rights (IPR) policy linked to renewable energy provides institutional guarantee for the development of renewable energy industry and technology. This study works to test the performance of IPR policies of renewable energy industry in China. We employed Cobb-Douglas production function and built on a quantitative policy indicator measurement system over the period from 2004 to 2013 to evaluate the impact of IPR policy of renewable energy industry on innovation and market development in China, which provides an all-round study on the IPR system by clearing up all IPR policy system that is related to the renewable energy industry. The results of Multiple Regression Models indicated that the current IPR policy of renewable energy industry are disconnected from China’s reality because the innovation ability of the renewable energy industry has not been improved rapidly and that both the market transformation ability and market prospect of new energy technology patents are weak. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Land Eco-Security Assessment Based on the Multi-Dimensional Connection Cloud Model
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 2096; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062096 (registering DOI)
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 17 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
The evaluation of land eco-security is challenging because it is involved with various uncertainty factors. Although the normal cloud model provides an idea for dealing with the randomness and fuzziness of indicators for the evaluation of land eco-security, it cannot simulate the distribution
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The evaluation of land eco-security is challenging because it is involved with various uncertainty factors. Although the normal cloud model provides an idea for dealing with the randomness and fuzziness of indicators for the evaluation of land eco-security, it cannot simulate the distribution state of the evaluation indicators in a finite interval and their calculation process is complicated for multi-factor problems. Herein, a novel multi-dimensional connection cloud model is discussed to remedy these defects. In this model, combined with the range of evaluation factors in each grade, the identity-discrepancy-contrary principle of set pair theory is adopted to determine the digital characteristics of the multi-dimensional cloud model, which can uniformly describe the certainty and uncertainty relationships between the measured indices and the evaluation criteria and also improve the fuzzy-randomness of evaluation indicators closer to the actual distribution characteristics. The case study and the comparison of the proposed model with the normal cloud model and the matter element model were performed to confirm the validity and reliability of the proposed model. Results show that this model can overcome the subjectivity in determining the digital characteristics of the normal cloud model, providing a novel method for the comprehensive evaluation of land eco-security. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Transformations and the Level of Tourist Function Development in Polish Voivodeship Capital Cities
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 2095; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062095 (registering DOI)
Received: 19 April 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
The article discusses transformations of the tourist function in Polish voivodeship capital cities in the period between 2005–2015. The first research stage was carried out through the background of the theory of city economic base using two indicators: index of surplus workers (ISW)
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The article discusses transformations of the tourist function in Polish voivodeship capital cities in the period between 2005–2015. The first research stage was carried out through the background of the theory of city economic base using two indicators: index of surplus workers (ISW) and Florence specialisation coefficient (FSC). The conducted research covered employment size, structure, and changes, with a particular emphasis on employment in tourism. In the second stage of the study, based on a group of diagnostic characteristics describing the tourist functions performed by cities, taxonomic measures were constructed to determine the level of these functions’ development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urban Tourism)
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