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Sustainability, Volume 9, Issue 10 (October 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Post-occupancy evaluation (POE) of buildings is becoming increasingly important for evaluation and [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle A Comparative Study of Green Purchase Intention between Korean and Chinese Consumers: The Moderating Role of Collectivism
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1930; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101930
Received: 1 October 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (447 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aims to examine the impacts of the new ecological paradigm, environmental collective efficacy, environmental knowledge, and collectivism on the green purchase intention of Korean and Chinese consumers. Although some studies have researched the relationship between cultural influences and green purchase behaviour,
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This study aims to examine the impacts of the new ecological paradigm, environmental collective efficacy, environmental knowledge, and collectivism on the green purchase intention of Korean and Chinese consumers. Although some studies have researched the relationship between cultural influences and green purchase behaviour, a study on the moderating effect of collectivism on the formation of green purchase intention is rarely found. Therefore, based on 357 consumers in Korea and 398 consumers in China, this study proposes a new model of green purchase intention and empirically tests a model using moderated regression analysis (MRA). The results show that the new ecological paradigm, environmental collective efficacy, environmental knowledge, and collectivism are direct antecedents of green purchase intention in China. In particular, collectivism positively moderates the relationship between environmental collective efficacy and green purchase intention in China. However, the results from Korean consumers show that collectivism has neither a direct impact nor moderating impact on green purchase intention. However, it was found that environmental collective efficacy and environmental knowledge have direct impacts on green purchase intention in Korea. Finally, this study discusses the theoretical and managerial implications of these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marketing and Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle A Co-Word Analysis of Organizational Constraints for Maintaining Sustainability
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1928; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101928
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 22 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1183 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A good understanding of organizational constraints is vital to facilitate organizational development as the sustainable development of organizations can be constrained by the organization itself. In this study, bibliometric methods were adopted to investigate the research status and trends of organizational constraints. The
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A good understanding of organizational constraints is vital to facilitate organizational development as the sustainable development of organizations can be constrained by the organization itself. In this study, bibliometric methods were adopted to investigate the research status and trends of organizational constraints. The findings showed that there were 1138 articles and reviews, and 52 high-frequency keywords related to organizational constraints during the period 1980–2016. The research cores were “constraints”, “learning”, “institution”, and “behavior” in the co-occurrence network, and “constraints” played the most significant role. The 52 high-frequency keywords were classified into six clusters: “change and decision-making”, “supply chain and sustainability”, “human system and performance”, “culture and relations”, “entrepreneur and resource”, and “learning and innovation”. Furthermore, the indicators of organizational development (e.g., innovation, supply chain, decision-making, performance, sustainability, and employee behavior) were found to be significantly related to the organizational constraints. Based on these findings, future trends were proposed to maintain the sustainability of organizations. This study investigated the state of the art in terms of organizational constraints and provided valuable references for maintaining the sustainable development of organizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Understanding Stakeholders’ Influence on Project Success with a New SNA Method: A Case Study of the Green Retrofit in China
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1927; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101927
Received: 6 August 2017 / Revised: 8 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2167 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stakeholders strongly influence project success, particularly for complex projects with heterogeneous stakeholders, and hence, understanding their influence is essential for project management and implementation. This paper proposes an original model based on social network analysis (SNA), which first introduces critical success factors (CSFs)
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Stakeholders strongly influence project success, particularly for complex projects with heterogeneous stakeholders, and hence, understanding their influence is essential for project management and implementation. This paper proposes an original model based on social network analysis (SNA), which first introduces critical success factors (CSFs) as intermediate variables between stakeholders and project success. The model can demonstrate the interrelation between stakeholders and CSFs, and the results can reveal how stakeholders influence project success. Green retrofit is a typical type of complex project. The stakeholder relationship in green retrofit projects is more complex than in new projects, since more stakeholders (e.g., tenants and facility managers) who have particular interrelations (e.g., lease contract and split incentives between owners and tenants) are involved. Therefore, a case study of green retrofit in China was conducted to illustrate how the proposed model works. The results indicated the priorities and similarities of stakeholders in green retrofit. Stakeholders are categorized into five clusters according to their relationship. Based on the results, the important role of stakeholders in green retrofit projects was discussed. The main contribution of this study is providing a novel method to reveal how stakeholders influence the success of complex projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Model to Assess the Quality of Magmatic Rocks for Reliable and Sustainable Constructions
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1925; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101925
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
Geomechanical assessment of rocks requires knowledge of phenomena that occur under the influence of internal and external factors at a macroscopic or microscopic scale, when rocks are submitted to different actions. To elucidate the quantitative and qualitative geomechanical behavior of rocks, knowing their
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Geomechanical assessment of rocks requires knowledge of phenomena that occur under the influence of internal and external factors at a macroscopic or microscopic scale, when rocks are submitted to different actions. To elucidate the quantitative and qualitative geomechanical behavior of rocks, knowing their geological and physical–mechanical characteristics becomes an imperative. Mineralogical, petrographical and chemical analyses provided an opportunity to identify 15 types of igneous rocks (gabbro, diabases, granites, diorites, rhyolites, andesites, and basalts), divided into plutonic and volcanic rocks. In turn, these have been grouped into acidic, neutral (intermediate) and basic magmatites. A new ranking method is proposed, based on considering the rock characteristics as indicators of quantitative assessment, and the grading system, by given points, allowing the rocks framing in admissibility classes. The paper is structured into two parts, experimental and interpretation of experimental data, showing the methodology to assess the quality of igneous rocks analyzed, and the results of theoretical and experimental research carried out on the analyzed rock types. The proposed method constitutes an appropriate instrument for assessment and verification of the requirements regarding the quality of rocks used for sustainable construction. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Risk Assessment and Management)
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Open AccessArticle Desired, Perceived, and Achieved Sustainability: Trade-Offs in Strategic and Operational Packaging Development
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1923; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101923
Received: 18 August 2017 / Revised: 5 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2621 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The alignment of the strategic and the operational level of packaging development in relation to the integration of sustainability is not addressed extensively in current research. This paper aims to address this, by focusing on the decision-making interrelations of key actors (marketing and
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The alignment of the strategic and the operational level of packaging development in relation to the integration of sustainability is not addressed extensively in current research. This paper aims to address this, by focusing on the decision-making interrelations of key actors (marketing and packaging development) within multidisciplinary product-packaging development teams. The research is conducted by means of a qualitative approach, consisting of semi-structured interviews with individual packaging development team members, complemented with a newly developed visualization tool. The research builds upon eight cases within brand owners, packaging material suppliers and packaging development consultants. The main findings of the study include the decision-making trade-offs between sustainability considerations and other project indicators, such as costs, time-to-market and technical challenges. These trade-offs are linked to the strategic and operational roles of key actors, and to internal and external factors influencing sustainable development processes. This research’s contribution is to address the alignment of the strategic and the operational levels of sustainable packaging development, in relation to (1) decision making and interrelations within multidisciplinary development teams; and (2) the relevance of development-influencing factors. This provides opportunities for further development of sustainable packaging models and tools, in order to align the strategic and operational level of development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessCommunication Carbohydrates Components of Some Italian Local Landraces: Garlic (Allium sativum L.)
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1922; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101922
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 22 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
Garlic is one of the most widespread and ancient medicinal plants. Its health benefits are due to its chemical components, and among these is carbohydrate, whose characteristics have been so far little investigated. The aim of this study is to typify the various
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Garlic is one of the most widespread and ancient medicinal plants. Its health benefits are due to its chemical components, and among these is carbohydrate, whose characteristics have been so far little investigated. The aim of this study is to typify the various components of carbohydrate (starch, individual sugars, fructans, and total dietary fibre) in four commonly consumed “Italian local landraces”: Bianco Piacentino, Rosso di Castelliri, Rosso di Sulmona, Rosso di Proceno, which are grown in two different geographical areas—Viterbo and Alvito—under the same agronomic conditions. This study will also evaluate how genotype and the cultivation area can affect the profile of the carbohydrate components of these landrace strains. Regarding unavailable carbohydrates, all of the varieties showed appreciable contents of fructans, the most representative component, which ranged from 45.8 to 54.4 g/100 g d.w. In contrast, total dietary fibre values varied from 9.1 to 13.1 g/100 g d.w. in Rosso di Castelliri and Bianco Piacentino, respectively, which are both grown in Viterbo. As for starch, only some traces were found, while the amount of total sugars ranged between 2.12 and 3.27 g/100 g d.w., with higher levels of sucrose. Our findings could provide important information that may be adopted to enhance and promote the quality of some local Italian garlic landraces through highlighting the influence that the cultivar and the environmental conditions can have on carbohydrates components. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Attitudes in Korea toward Introducing Smart Policing Technologies: Differences between the General Public and Police Officers
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1921; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101921
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 21 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1139 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study analyzes different attitudes toward introduction of smart policing technologies in cybercrime policing among the Korean public and police. Policing is essential for a sustainable community. Technological advances in policing have both positive and negative aspects, making it essential to investigate perceptions
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This study analyzes different attitudes toward introduction of smart policing technologies in cybercrime policing among the Korean public and police. Policing is essential for a sustainable community. Technological advances in policing have both positive and negative aspects, making it essential to investigate perceptions of both public and police when introducing smart policing technologies. A discrete choice experiment was undertaken to survey preferences of the public and police toward introduction of such technologies and conduct simulation analysis to compare changes in the acceptance of various scenarios. The study divides cybercrime policing into prevention and investigation. The sample included 500 members of the public and 161 police officers. The results show that the public thinks an increase in yearly taxes and invasion of privacy are the most important factors. Conversely, the police think factors enhancing the efficiency of policing are most important. Moreover, when smart policing technologies are introduced, the public and police perceive more utility in the prevention and investigation of cybercrime, respectively. Few studies in this field separate the prevention and investigation of crimes, or compare perceptions of the public and police toward the introduction of smart policing technologies. This study’s quantitative analysis provides insights lacking in previous literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Engineering and Science)
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Open AccessArticle Co-Evolution and Bio-Social Construction: The Kichwa Agroforestry Systems (Chakras) in the Ecuadorian Amazonia
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1920; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101920
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 15 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5318 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polycultured agrarian systems in Ecuadorian Amazonia (also called chakras or swollen gardens) are characterised by a market-oriented crop for the generation of monetary income, for example, cocoa, other agricultural products (e.g., banana and cassava), and livestock for family farm consumption. Moreover, a chakra
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Polycultured agrarian systems in Ecuadorian Amazonia (also called chakras or swollen gardens) are characterised by a market-oriented crop for the generation of monetary income, for example, cocoa, other agricultural products (e.g., banana and cassava), and livestock for family farm consumption. Moreover, a chakra is an outstanding example of agroforestry production, in which ecological, social and economic elements co-evolve from a set of close and strong connections. In this context, the conservation and transformation of their biological subsystems can be understood as the result of complex interactions between anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic factors. In turn, such interactions are essential to provide food and monetary income to the indigenous community. Relevant agency capabilities exist that could cause an agroforestry system to take a different path of co-evolution, that is, towards greater or lesser sustainability associated with different levels of complexity. In conclusion, chakras have key ecological features that can mitigate the impact of human population growth in Amazonia. Additionally, chakras have their own processes of social self-regulation which enhance the possibilities of adaptation of Kichwa communities to changing environmental conditions, being essential elements in local food sovereignty, equitable gender relations and the respect of ancestral wisdom. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
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Open AccessArticle Millennial Generation and Environmental Sustainability: The Role of Social Media in the Consumer Purchasing Behavior for Wine
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1911; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101911
Received: 20 September 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (391 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the coming years, social media technology will have a crucial role in environmental involvement and in encouraging sustainable behaviors in the wine industry. Sustainable development is becoming a crucial topic for many consumers. Also, in the wine industry much research has been
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In the coming years, social media technology will have a crucial role in environmental involvement and in encouraging sustainable behaviors in the wine industry. Sustainable development is becoming a crucial topic for many consumers. Also, in the wine industry much research has been carried out to decrease the environmental impact, with a particular focus on renewable energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, pesticides reduction, water and waste management, biodiversity, soil and landscape preservation. In recent years, social media technologies have gained increased attention for their potential to amplify environmental concerns and encourage sustainable behaviors among people. This study aims to study the role of social media in the consumer purchasing behavior for wine between the millennial and non-millennial generations. A total sample of 2597 Italian wine consumer responses were collected and a structured questionnaire was used to test our hypothesis. The main results show that the greater the import the consumer places on the product/process dimension of environmental sustainability, the higher the self-selection in market segments. This is true for both millennials and non-millennials. The results show the power of social media to increase sustainability awareness and consecutively influence the consumer’s buying behavior for wine (higher price segment). From a marketing perspective, companies should improve their capacity to share and communicate their environmental activities through social media. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Decentralization and Polycentricity: Spatial Changes of Employment in Beijing Metropolitan Area, China
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1880; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101880
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1354 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Decentralization and polycentric spatial structure strategies are important ways to alleviate urban disease in China. However, whether the urban spatial structure is meeting expectations is still unknown. Taking the Beijing Metropolitan Area as a case, the author adopted a non-parametric method to identify
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Decentralization and polycentric spatial structure strategies are important ways to alleviate urban disease in China. However, whether the urban spatial structure is meeting expectations is still unknown. Taking the Beijing Metropolitan Area as a case, the author adopted a non-parametric method to identify the subcenters, then an employment density model was used to analyze the spatial changes of employment and the employment centers’ impacts on the urban spatial structure. The results show that the Beijing Metropolitan Area was undergoing processes of employment decentralization, the monocentric structure was obvious throughout this time, but the polycentric model prevailed. The spatial structure of the Beijing Metropolitan Area was characterized as depicting “all centers aggregation” and the spatial structure of the central district of Beijing can be described as “subcenter agglomeration” between 2004 and 2013. The spatial structure became increasingly polycentric in the Beijing Metropolitan Area, but became more scattered in the central district. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Open AccessArticle Using DEMATEL and Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets to Identify Critical Factors Influencing the Recycling Rate of End-Of-Life Vehicles in China
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1873; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101873
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (803 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
At present, the recycling rate of End-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in China is far lower than the heavily motorized countries, resulting in severe environmental pollution, waste of resource and hidden traffic troubles, which has a negative impact on China’s economic and social sustainable development.
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At present, the recycling rate of End-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in China is far lower than the heavily motorized countries, resulting in severe environmental pollution, waste of resource and hidden traffic troubles, which has a negative impact on China’s economic and social sustainable development. With the arrival of the peak season of generating ELVs in China, it is urgent and important to improve the recycling rate of ELVs. The recycling rate of ELVs is influenced by multiple factors together. The existing research about the identification of influence factors of ELV recycling rate fewer considers the interaction effect among different factors. To fill the gap, firstly the influence factors are analyzed from standpoints of economy, policy, recycling network and others. Then a hybrid model based on DEMATEL (decision making trial and evaluation laboratory) and intuitionistic fuzzy sets is employed to examine the cause–effect relationships among factors. In the study, the vagueness of decision makers’ judgment and linguistic inaccuracy is dealt with effectively by intuitionistic fuzzy sets. The research results reveal “fiscal subsidy”, “government’s restrictive policies to reuse ELVs parts”, “coordination of the industry agencies”, “participation of automobile manufacturer” and “supervision of the government” are most significant criteria influencing the recycling rate of ELVs in China. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to verify the robustness of results. Lastly, according to the critical influencing factors identified, some pertinent suggestions to the government, ELV recycling enterprise, owner and vehicle manufacturer are put forward. In addition, the future research directions are proposed. Full article
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Open AccessReview A Synthesis of Studies on Land Use and Land Cover Dynamics during 1930–2015 in Bangladesh
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1866; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101866
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 14 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (5789 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Land use and land cover (LULC) is dynamic and changes in it have important environmental and socio-economic consequences. The pathways and pace of change vary with space and time and are related to the interaction between human activities and biophysical conditions in an
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Land use and land cover (LULC) is dynamic and changes in it have important environmental and socio-economic consequences. The pathways and pace of change vary with space and time and are related to the interaction between human activities and biophysical conditions in an area. This study provides a systematic review of the changing status, patterns, and compositions of LULC in Bangladesh on national, regional, and local scales over the past 85 years. The primary LULC classes in Bangladesh are agricultural land, urban and built-up area, forest and vegetation, water bodies, and wetlands. Most of the country is covered with agricultural land, followed by urban areas; the latter has been expanding rapidly in the area surrounding the capital city, Dhaka, especially the southern capital area. Forest cover is mostly concentrated in southeast Bangladesh, the Chittagong district, and the mangrove forests are predominantly located in the southwest, with the Gangetic delta. High population growth, rapid urbanization, and infrastructure development have been directly associated with changing patterns of land use across the country. In recent decades, urban areas and water bodies have been increasing, to the detriment of both forests and agricultural land. Most of the studies reviewed here describe a general trend involving agricultural and forested land being transformed into urban areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle R&D Project Selection Incorporating Customer-Perceived Value and Technology Potential: The Case of the Automobile Industry
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1918; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101918
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
PDF Full-text (1487 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As user-centric innovation has recently emerged as a successful way of developing new products, services, and concepts, it is worth considering the perspectives of potential technology users during R&D project selection processes. Nevertheless, little effort has been made to reflect customer-perceived value in
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As user-centric innovation has recently emerged as a successful way of developing new products, services, and concepts, it is worth considering the perspectives of potential technology users during R&D project selection processes. Nevertheless, little effort has been made to reflect customer-perceived value in establishing selection criteria, with the focus mainly on technological potential instead. Therefore, this study aims to develop an R&D project selection model incorporating not only technological potential but also customer-perceived value. For this purpose, a new R&D project evaluation model and process is proposed, and its feasibility is tested by potential users in a real scenario. The automobile industry is suitable for our evaluation model because it is a B2C and system-based industry where customer needs are critical to market success and a number of R&D projects are proposed every year. Finally, a supporting tool is developed to help interact with various evaluators and visualize the evaluation results, as customer involvement is recommended for accurate project evaluation from the perspective of technology users. This study is one of the earliest attempts to reflect customer-perceived value in R&D project selection, and practically, the research outputs are expected to be useful to automobile manufacturers in creating value from R&D projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Project Management and Sustainable Development)
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Open AccessArticle Land-Surface Characteristics and Climate in West Africa: Models’ Biases and Impacts of Historical Anthropogenically-Induced Deforestation
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1917; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101917
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (9860 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Land Use Land-Cover Change (LULCC), such as deforestation, affects the climate system and land-atmosphere interactions. Using simulations carried out within the LUCID (Land Use and Climate, IDentification of robust Impacts) project framework, we first quantify the role of historical land-cover change induced by
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Land Use Land-Cover Change (LULCC), such as deforestation, affects the climate system and land-atmosphere interactions. Using simulations carried out within the LUCID (Land Use and Climate, IDentification of robust Impacts) project framework, we first quantify the role of historical land-cover change induced by human activities on surface climate in West Africa. Focusing on two contrasted African regions, we find that climate responses of land-use changes are small but they are still statistically significant. In Western Sahel, a statistically significant near-surface atmospheric cooling and a decrease in water recycling are simulated in summer in response to LULCC. Over the Guinean zone, models simulate a significant decrease in precipitation and water recycling in autumn in response to LULCC. This signal is comparable in magnitude with the effect induced by the increase in greenhouse gases. Simulated climate changes due to historical LULCC could however be underestimated because: (i) the prescribed LULCC can be underestimated in those regions; (ii) the climate models underestimate the coupling strength between West African surface climate and leaf area index (LAI) and (iii) the lack of interactive LAI in some models. Finally, our study reveals indirect atmospheric processes triggered by LULCC. Over the Western Sahel, models reveal that a significant decrease in solar reflection tend to cool down the surface and thus counteract the atmospheric feedback. Conversely, over the Guinea zone, models reveal that the indirect atmospheric processes and turbulent heat fluxes dominate the climatic responses over the direct effects of LULCC. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Emissions of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Nitrous Oxide during Winter without Cultivation in Local Saline-Alkali Rice and Maize Fields in Northeast China
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1916; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101916
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
Agricultural ecosystems are important contributors to atmospheric greenhouse gasses (GHGs); however, in situ winter emission data in saline-alkali fields are scarce. Gas samples were collected during different periods, from three rice (R1–R3) and three maize (M1–M3) fields with different soil pH levels and
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Agricultural ecosystems are important contributors to atmospheric greenhouse gasses (GHGs); however, in situ winter emission data in saline-alkali fields are scarce. Gas samples were collected during different periods, from three rice (R1–R3) and three maize (M1–M3) fields with different soil pH levels and salinity conditions. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the rice and maize fields decreased with decreasing temperature during the freezing period and increased with the rising temperature during the thawing period, with the majority of winter CO2 emissions occurring during these two periods. Peaks in methane (CH4) emissions were observed during the freezing period in the rice fields and during the snow-melting period in the rice and maize fields. CH4 emissions in the rice fields and CH4 uptake rates in the maize fields were significantly (P < 0.05) related to surface soil temperature. Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions remained relatively low, except for during the peaks observed during the snow-melting period in both the rice and maize fields, leading to the high GHG contribution of the snow-melting period throughout the winter. Higher pH and salinity conditions consistently resulted in lower CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions, CH4 uptake, and lower global warming potential (GWP). These results can contribute to the assessment of the GWP during winter in saline-alkali regions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Demystifying the Barriers to Transport Infrastructure Project Development in Fast Developing Regions: The Case of China
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1915; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101915
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
Transport infrastructure (TI) has become one of the primary drivers for sustainable economic growth and social progress. However, a wider take-up is currently inhibited in fast developing regions (FDRs) by many barriers, which have not been explored explicitly in previous studies. In this
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Transport infrastructure (TI) has become one of the primary drivers for sustainable economic growth and social progress. However, a wider take-up is currently inhibited in fast developing regions (FDRs) by many barriers, which have not been explored explicitly in previous studies. In this study, a three-dimensional framework (i.e., macro environment, local environment, and the construction process) is proposed to structure the barriers in a reasonable way. Professionals’ opinions on the importance of the barriers are collected through questionnaire survey. The survey results were analyzed by the ranking analysis technique. It is found that the top five barriers are “difficulty in survey and design during the construction process”, “weak support from economy”, “insufficient funding”, “harsh regional climate”, and “cost overrun”. Further analysis, based on a factor analysis, indicates that these critical barriers could be grouped into three clusters: “administration on transport infrastructure”, “construction technology and cost management”, and “geographical and economic conditions”. The research findings demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed framework, and the implication is that a barriers-based checklist favors stakeholders to improve the efficiency and sustainability of TI development in FDRs. Although the study is situated in China, it sheds light on the subject in other developing countries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Directions for Social Enterprise from an Efficiency Perspective
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1914; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101914
Received: 22 September 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 21 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
Social enterprise is recognized as an alternative for sustainable development, as it balances social aspects with economic prosperity. Evaluating social enterprises is very important for both the enterprises themselves and the government, since grants from the government or institutions highly depend on their
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Social enterprise is recognized as an alternative for sustainable development, as it balances social aspects with economic prosperity. Evaluating social enterprises is very important for both the enterprises themselves and the government, since grants from the government or institutions highly depend on their performance. While relatively significant attention is paid to the social value that these enterprises create, there is a lack of interest in assessing the operational performance directly linked to the sustainable operation of social enterprises. Therefore, this research analyzes the performance of social enterprises from the efficiency perspective, incorporating both operational (economic) and social performance measures. To this end, we apply data envelopment analysis to assess the performance of social enterprises when considering the dual-role factor—the grants. To facilitate clarity for readers, a dataset of Korean social enterprises is used. Through this analysis, we show that the grants can be used for performance evaluation in different ways for each enterprise. Furthermore, an industry-specific analysis provides more realistic and feasible benchmarking information to which inefficient social enterprises should refer. We expect that these findings will complement existing methods of social enterprise evaluation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Revealing the Linkage Network Dynamic Structures of Chinese Maritime Ports through Automatic Information System Data
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1913; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101913
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
Marine economic cooperation has emerged as a major theme in this era of globalization; hence, maritime network connectivity and dynamics have attracted more and more attention. Port construction and maritime route improvements increase maritime trade and thus facilitate economic viability and resource sustainability.
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Marine economic cooperation has emerged as a major theme in this era of globalization; hence, maritime network connectivity and dynamics have attracted more and more attention. Port construction and maritime route improvements increase maritime trade and thus facilitate economic viability and resource sustainability. This paper reveals the regional dimension of inter-port linkage dynamic structure of Chinese maritime ports from a complex multilayer perspective that is meaningful for strategic forecasting and regional long-term economic development planning. In this research, Automatic Information System (AIS)-derived traffic flows were used to construct a maritime network and subnetworks based on the geographical locations of ports. The linkage intensity between subnetworks, the linkage tightness within subnetworks, the spatial isolation between high-intensity backbones and tight skeleton networks, and a linkage concentration index for each port were calculated. The ports, in turn, were analyzed based on these network attributes. This study analyzed the external competitiveness and internal cohesion of each subnetwork. The results revealed problems in port management and planning, such as unclear divisions in port operations. More critically, weak complementary relationships between the backbone and skeleton networks among the ports reduce connectivity and must be strengthened. This research contributes to the body of work supporting strategic decision-making for future development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mapping Fine Spatial Resolution Precipitation from TRMM Precipitation Datasets Using an Ensemble Learning Method and MODIS Optical Products in China
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1912; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101912
Received: 13 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
Precipitation data are important for the fields of hydrology and meteorology, and are fundamental for ecosystem monitoring and climate change research. Satellite-based precipitation products are already able to provide high temporal resolution precipitation information at a global level. However, the coarse spatial resolution
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Precipitation data are important for the fields of hydrology and meteorology, and are fundamental for ecosystem monitoring and climate change research. Satellite-based precipitation products are already able to provide high temporal resolution precipitation information at a global level. However, the coarse spatial resolution has restricted their use in regional level studies. In this study, monthly fine spatial resolution land precipitation data in China was obtained by downscaling the TRMM 3B43 V7 monthly precipitation products. The downscaling model was constructed based on the ensemble learning method called random forest (RF). In addition to the RF model, the classification and regression tree (CART) model was also used to downscale the precipitation data for the purpose of comparison. The results were validated with in situ measurements. Results showed that the RF model outperformed the CART model. The downscaled precipitation data were strongly correlated with the in situ measurements. The downscaling method was applied to mapping fine spatial resolution precipitation over all of China, and is valuable for developing high spatial resolution precipitation products for studies on hydrology, meteorology, and climate science. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methodological Advances in Research on Sustainable Ecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle NFC-Based Traceability in the Food Chain
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1910; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101910
Received: 13 September 2017 / Revised: 30 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
In recent years, many events related to food and public health, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, commonly known as mad cow disease), dioxin, bird flu and swine flu, brought the issue of food security to the center of international attention. Many countries
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In recent years, many events related to food and public health, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, commonly known as mad cow disease), dioxin, bird flu and swine flu, brought the issue of food security to the center of international attention. Many countries established strict rules to ensure the food traceability “from farm to fork” to meet the demand of consumer safety and to ensure public health. Consequently, the concepts of controlled supply chain, brand of quality and traceability of food products have had a strong evolution. Companies in the food production sector must evolve and change their organizational and management chain to satisfy increasingly stringent government rules and to respond to the requirements of the market. From this point of view, NFC (Near Field Communication) has all the requirements to become the main technology for traceability in the various food sectors. This paper proposes a solution to gather information throughout the entire food supply chain and bring it directly to the consumer. The architecture consists of a complex identification system based on NFC tags, which cumulates data during all phases of the production process. The aim of this work is to keep track of the information generated during food processing, not only for traceability purposes, but also for enhancing and optimizing production. The data generated by the traceability system are collected in a cloud database through apps on Android smartphones. The information is accessible by the consumers through a public Android application. The pork supply chain has been used as an application example of the proposed methodology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
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Open AccessArticle A Systemic Tool and Process for Sustainability Assessment
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1909; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101909
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
Sustainability assessment is a growing concern worldwide with United Nations’ Agenda 2030 being implemented. As sustainability refers to the consideration of environmental, social and economic issues in light of cultural, historic—retrospective and prospective—and institutional perspectives, appropriate tools are needed to ensure the complete
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Sustainability assessment is a growing concern worldwide with United Nations’ Agenda 2030 being implemented. As sustainability refers to the consideration of environmental, social and economic issues in light of cultural, historic—retrospective and prospective—and institutional perspectives, appropriate tools are needed to ensure the complete coverage of these aspects and allow the participation of multiple stakeholders. This article presents a scientifically robust and flexible tool, developed over the last 25 years and tested in different cultural and development contexts to build a framework for sustainability assessment of policies, strategies, programs and projects in light of Agenda 2030. A selected case study conducted on a major mining project in Québec (Canada) illustrates the Sustainable Development Analytical Grid performance for sustainability assessment. This tool and process is part of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals Acceleration Toolkit; it is one of the most adaptable, addresses all 17 SDGs and is fully accessible for free. Other advantages and limitations of the tool and process are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs))
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Open AccessArticle Gathered Village Location Optimization for Chinese Sustainable Urbanization Using an Integrated MODM Approach under Bi-Uncertain Environment
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1907; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101907
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
Urbanization has become a main challenge all over developing countries in the 21st Century. However, decision making should take into account the different national situations with their complex factors to achieve sustainable development. As standards of living have risen in urban areas, local/neighbor
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Urbanization has become a main challenge all over developing countries in the 21st Century. However, decision making should take into account the different national situations with their complex factors to achieve sustainable development. As standards of living have risen in urban areas, local/neighbor urbanization has become a coming trend in China. With this in mind, the paper focuses on the optimization of nearby gathered village locations in Population Migration (PM) with consideration of both qualitative and quantitative criteria. Therefore, an integrated multiple objective decision making approach (MODM) under a bi-uncertain environment is proposed to solve this problem, which is based on the comprehensive Economy-Society-Ecology-Resource-Religion (ESERR) urbanization concept. The first step is to establish a bi-uncertain multiple objective programming model orienting the problem. Secondly, the model process is composed of fuzzy random variable transformation and the expected value model based on a new fuzzy measure, which is given accordingly to obtain the equivalent model. Thirdly, in order to describe the model efficiently, the Multi-Objective Adaptive Global Local Neighbor Particle Swarm Optimization (MOAGLNPSO) with three-dimensional Pareto optimal judgment criteria is designed. Finally, a case study is tested to validate the effectiveness and to illustrate the advantages of the whole approach. This novel approach can help optimize sustainable urbanization strategies and ensure their realistic application. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Exploring the Trends in Nitrogen Input and Nitrogen Use Efficiency for Agricultural Sustainability
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1905; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101905
Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
Crop production is threatened by the increased nitrogen (N) input and declining N use efficiency (NUE). Information on total N input from planted seeds/tubers, atmospheric deposition, irrigation water, crop residues, animal manure, biological N fixation, and synthetic N fertilizer and NUE based on
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Crop production is threatened by the increased nitrogen (N) input and declining N use efficiency (NUE). Information on total N input from planted seeds/tubers, atmospheric deposition, irrigation water, crop residues, animal manure, biological N fixation, and synthetic N fertilizer and NUE based on these N inputs in China’s crop production is limited. We calculated the amount of various N inputs and NUE based on 117 primary crops from 1961 to 2012 in China. The total N input increased from 8.0 Mt in 1961 to 60.8 Mt in 2012. The substantial shift in the types of N input was observed from animal manure and biological N fixation toward synthetic N fertilizer. Animal manure plus biological N fixation and synthetic N fertilizer accounted for 70.9% and 6.8% of total N input in 1961, respectively, and these values were changed to 15.7% and 74.0% in 2012. Partial factor productivity of applied synthetic N and crop’s recovery efficiency of total N input declined substantially during the study period. These results suggest that it is essential to reduce synthetic N input and increase NUE with improved crop management practices and N-efficient crop varieties to achieve the sustainability of crop production in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
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Open AccessReview Unpacking the Pacific Urban Agenda: Resilience Challenges and Opportunities
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1878; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101878
Received: 6 September 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 14 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
Pacific Island Countries (PICs) are often cited as being the most vulnerable to the future impacts of a changing climate. Furthermore, being located in the ‘Pacific Rim of Fire’, PICs have long been exposed to the impacts of a range of natural and
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Pacific Island Countries (PICs) are often cited as being the most vulnerable to the future impacts of a changing climate. Furthermore, being located in the ‘Pacific Rim of Fire’, PICs have long been exposed to the impacts of a range of natural and climate-related extreme events—such as earthquakes and cyclones—and are considered to be amongst the most vulnerable countries to natural disasters. The physical vulnerability of Pacific towns and cities is further exaggerated by development deficits, geographical isolation, weak governance, and complex issues of land tenure. This paper, based on substantive project experience in the Pacific region by each of the authors, reviews the resilience challenges facing Melanesian cities in the context of rapid urbanization and global environmental change. It then sets this in the context of the global ‘New Urban Agenda’ which was launched at Habitat III in Quito at the end of 2016, setting out the critical implementation challenges and opportunities for enhancing urban resilience in the Pacific. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Resilient Urban Development)
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Open AccessArticle Using TRIZ to Improve the Procurement Process of Spare Parts in the Taiwan Navy
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1908; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101908
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 26 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 22 October 2017
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Abstract
Abstract: The Naval Maintenance and Repair Command Acquisition Management Unit (NMRC-AMU) of the Taiwan Navy suffered from poor stock control of spare parts and inadequate modification of requested items and manufacturer/part codes during recent years. Therefore, the purpose of this study is
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Abstract: The Naval Maintenance and Repair Command Acquisition Management Unit (NMRC-AMU) of the Taiwan Navy suffered from poor stock control of spare parts and inadequate modification of requested items and manufacturer/part codes during recent years. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate core categorization, coordination, and procurement (CCP) problems, to formulate feasible solutions and then to improve the CCP performances of spare parts in NMRC-AMU. The Teoriya Resheniya Izobreatatelskih Zadatch (TRIZ) method was applied to solve this issue. A problem hierarchy analysis (PHA) was first used to identify the core problems. Then, the 40 principles were used to determine the ideal improvement solution and formulate a solution strategy that simultaneously simplified CCP processed and enhanced the correctness of procurement tasks, thereby elevating CCP efficiency, supporting the Taiwan Navy repair missions, and satisfying fleet maintenance and servicing demands. The results indicated that total 6925 requests for coordination and procurement were submitted. Of these requests, 4366 requests had been completed (with total 102 cases), and the CCP efficiency is 63.0%. After improvement by this study, a total of 4529 items were submitted and 3592 executed items were completed (with a total of 172 cases), and the CCP efficiency is 79.3%. The improvement percentage of the CCP efficiency and completed cases are 30.6% and 68.6%, respectively. The performances are good and the TRIZ could be applied for other military forces. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Coordination of Cooperative Knowledge Creation for Agricultural Technology Diffusion in China’s “Company Plus Farmers” Organizations
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1906; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101906
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 21 October 2017 / Published: 22 October 2017
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Abstract
Cooperative knowledge creation is important for the promotion of agricultural technology diffusion in “company plus farmers” alliance organizations in China. A coordination mechanism is necessary to improve cooperative knowledge creation. A game model was developed to explain the mechanism. The model’s equilibrium was
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Cooperative knowledge creation is important for the promotion of agricultural technology diffusion in “company plus farmers” alliance organizations in China. A coordination mechanism is necessary to improve cooperative knowledge creation. A game model was developed to explain the mechanism. The model’s equilibrium was analyzed in noncoordination and coordination scenarios. Eight propositions and two corollaries were proposed and then verified by numeric analysis. We found that (1) the coordination of cooperative knowledge creation is valuable for increasing profit in agricultural technology diffusion; (2) companies and farmers are playing a game, and subsidy coefficients and degree of effort mainly influence their decisions; (3) key factors in the game are success probability and profit sharing proportion that influence the profits of a company and the farmers; (4) discount factors also influence profits, but do not influence the total profit in the coordination scenario; and (5) enhancing success probability, choosing a proper profit sharing proportion, and improving other parameters would be beneficial to the development of knowledge creation, as well as agricultural knowledge diffusion. This research provides a novel illustration of the coordination mechanism for cooperative knowledge creation for increasing the efficiency of agricultural technology diffusion in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
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Open AccessArticle Assessing the Rebound Hammer Test for Rammed Earth Material
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1904; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101904
Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
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Abstract
Rammed-earth (RE) is a construction material manufactured from the soil. The soil is compacted at its optimum water content, inside a formwork to build a monolithic wall. RE material is attracting renewed interest throughout the world thanks to its sustainable characteristics: low embodied
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Rammed-earth (RE) is a construction material manufactured from the soil. The soil is compacted at its optimum water content, inside a formwork to build a monolithic wall. RE material is attracting renewed interest throughout the world thanks to its sustainable characteristics: low embodied energy, substantial thermal inertia, and natural regulator of moisture; on the other hand, the existing historic RE buildings is still numerous. This is why several research studies have been carried out recently to study different aspects of this material. However, few investigations have been carried out to explore the possibility of applying the nondestructive techniques on RE walls. This paper presents an assessment of the well-known rebound hammer test on RE walls. The calibration curves of the rebound hammer test have been established for conventional concrete where the rebound number is more than 20. For RE material with lower compressive strengths, a new calibration curve must be established. In the present study, two soils were used and different homogenized specimens with different dry densities were manufactured and tested, to plot a general calibration curve. Then, this calibration curve was applied to RE specimens; different results at different positions in an earthen layer were observed, due to the inhomogeneity of the material. The final results showed an acceptable accuracy of the calibration curve in the prediction of the compressive strength of RE material. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Game Theoretic Analysis of Pricing and Cooperative Advertising in a Reverse Supply Chain for Unwanted Medications in Households
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1902; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101902
Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 14 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
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Abstract
Improper disposal of household unwanted medications (UMs) is an emergency problem around the world that adversely affects the sustainability of the environment and human’s health. However, the current disposal practices, mainly based on advertising and collecting status, are unsatisfactory in most countries and
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Improper disposal of household unwanted medications (UMs) is an emergency problem around the world that adversely affects the sustainability of the environment and human’s health. However, the current disposal practices, mainly based on advertising and collecting status, are unsatisfactory in most countries and regions. Thus, some scholars proposed an alternative disposal practice that is to provide incentives to customers. This study aims to compare a Single Model (advertising only) with a Joint Model (advertising with take-back pricing) in a two-echelon reverse supply chain (RSC) that is composed of one disposer and one collector. In each model, four games (non-cooperative, collector as the Stackelberg leader, disposer as the Stackelberg leader, and cooperative) were established in order to identify the optimal pricing and advertising strategies for both members. The results of the study indicate that there is a Pareto dominant range for Joint Model compared to Single Model, whereas Single Model has no Pareto improvement in any games. Furthermore, in non-cooperative games of Joint Model, it is better to implement the leader-follower structure rather than simultaneous movement structure. Additionally, it is verified that the cooperative game is feasible, which leads to the cooperation between the disposer and the collector, and the extra profit from the cooperation can be shared based on the Nash bargaining game. However, in Single Model, it is better for the disposer to act as a channel leader and the collector figures the follower. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Comprehensive Evaluation of the Sustainable Development of Power Grid Enterprises Based on the Model of Fuzzy Group Ideal Point Method and Combination Weighting Method with Improved Group Order Relation Method and Entropy Weight Method
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1900; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101900
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 23 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
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Abstract
As an important implementing body of the national energy strategy, grid enterprises bear the important responsibility of optimizing the allocation of energy resources and serving the economic and social development, and their levels of sustainable development have a direct impact on the national
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As an important implementing body of the national energy strategy, grid enterprises bear the important responsibility of optimizing the allocation of energy resources and serving the economic and social development, and their levels of sustainable development have a direct impact on the national economy and social life. In this paper, the model of fuzzy group ideal point method and combination weighting method with improved group order relation method and entropy weight method is proposed to evaluate the sustainable development of power grid enterprises. Firstly, on the basis of consulting a large amount of literature, the important criteria of the comprehensive evaluation of the sustainable development of power grid enterprises are preliminarily selected. The opinions of the industry experts are consulted and fed back for many rounds through the Delphi method and the evaluation criteria system for sustainable development of power grid enterprises is determined, then doing the consistent and non dimensional processing of the evaluation criteria. After that, based on the basic order relation method, the weights of each expert judgment matrix are synthesized to construct the compound matter elements. By using matter element analysis, the subjective weights of the criteria are obtained. And entropy weight method is used to determine the objective weights of the preprocessed criteria. Then, combining the subjective and objective information with the combination weighting method based on the subjective and objective weighted attribute value consistency, a more comprehensive, reasonable and accurate combination weight is calculated. Finally, based on the traditional TOPSIS method, the triangular fuzzy numbers are introduced to better realize the scientific processing of the data information which is difficult to quantify, and the queuing indication value of each object and the ranking result are obtained. A numerical example is taken to prove that the model of fuzzy group ideal point method and combination weighting method with improved group order relation method and entropy weight method is feasible and effective for evaluating the sustainable development of power grid enterprises. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sustainability in SMEs: Top Management Teams Behavioral Integration as Source of Innovativeness
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1899; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101899
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
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Abstract
Top management teams’ (TMTs’) behavioral integration has received extensive attention from strategic management scholars in recent years. To learn more about the consequences of this phenomenon at the team level, we explore the relationship between TMTs’ behavioral integration with their innovativeness and sustainability
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Top management teams’ (TMTs’) behavioral integration has received extensive attention from strategic management scholars in recent years. To learn more about the consequences of this phenomenon at the team level, we explore the relationship between TMTs’ behavioral integration with their innovativeness and sustainability orientation. To accomplish this, we surveyed 40 TMTs in Iranian small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) at two points in time. We ran a hierarchical multiple regression in order to test the hypotheses of the study. Building a theoretical model based on the Upper-Echelons framework, we found that the extent to which a TMT is behaviorally integrated is positively and significantly related to TMT innovativeness. Furthermore, our result reveals that a highly behaviorally integrated TMT is more likely to engage in sustainability-oriented actions. Hence, behaviorally integrated TMTs offer its team members an increased chance of being innovative and generating new ideas as compared to less behaviorally integrated TMTs. Finally, our results indicate that the generation of novel ideas is higher in teams with younger members, and that highly educated TMTs generate more innovative ideas in the workplace. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in SMEs)
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