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Nutrients, Volume 2, Issue 10 (October 2010), Pages 1044-1085

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Calcium: A Nutrient Deserving a Special Issue
Nutrients 2010, 2(10), 1044-1047; doi:10.3390/nu2101044
Received: 14 September 2010 / Accepted: 22 September 2010 / Published: 5 October 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (51 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Interest in calcium has continued since the 1980s when its role in promoting bone growth and retention was established in clinical trials of children and postmenopausal women. The human nutrition functions now attributed to calcium have expanded beyond bone health to include [...] Read more.
Interest in calcium has continued since the 1980s when its role in promoting bone growth and retention was established in clinical trials of children and postmenopausal women. The human nutrition functions now attributed to calcium have expanded beyond bone health to include other conditions such as body weight maintenance. While most efforts have been focused on the findings that dietary intakes are low, there are emerging data on safety concerns of excess amounts. This Special Issue on calcium nutrition, spanning the lifecycle from critically ill neonates through to older adults, has been written by some of the leading researchers in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)
Open AccessEditorial Osteoporosis Prevention—A Worthy and Achievable Strategy
Nutrients 2010, 2(10), 1073-1074; doi:10.3390/nu2101073
Received: 22 September 2010 / Accepted: 14 October 2010 / Published: 20 October 2010
PDF Full-text (21 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This special issue of Nutrients records seven of the presentations made to the very successful meeting titled “Osteoporosis Prevention: A Workshop on Calcium, Vitamin D and other Nutritional Aspects” held in Adelaide, Australia on 5 and 6 March 2010 [1-7]. Seventy six [...] Read more.
This special issue of Nutrients records seven of the presentations made to the very successful meeting titled “Osteoporosis Prevention: A Workshop on Calcium, Vitamin D and other Nutritional Aspects” held in Adelaide, Australia on 5 and 6 March 2010 [1-7]. Seventy six delegates attended from across Australia and New Zealand to review the current evidence that dietary calcium intake, vitamin D status, other nutrients and exercise play a significant role in bone mineral homeostasis and act to prevent the development of osteoporosis. The Workshop promoted the concept that osteoporosis is a predictable and preventable disease and that significant benefit would be achieved to reduce the incidence of osteoporosis and the risk of fractures from nutrition and life style activities. Such an achievement will not only save considerable pain, suffering and morbidity but will also have a major financial benefit for the healthcare system for which the cost of treatment for osteoporotic fractures already amounts to billions of dollars. [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle Flavan-3-ol Compounds from Wine Wastes with in Vitro and in Vivo Antioxidant Activity
Nutrients 2010, 2(10), 1048-1059; doi:10.3390/nu2101048
Received: 8 September 2010 / Revised: 28 September 2010 / Accepted: 30 September 2010 / Published: 11 October 2010
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (344 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It has been suggested that the dietary intake of antioxidant supplements could be a useful strategy to reduce the incidence of diseases associated with oxidative stress. The aim of present work is to study the possibility to obtain compounds with antioxidant activity [...] Read more.
It has been suggested that the dietary intake of antioxidant supplements could be a useful strategy to reduce the incidence of diseases associated with oxidative stress. The aim of present work is to study the possibility to obtain compounds with antioxidant activity from wine wastes using water as solvent. Results have shown that it is possible to obtain flavan-3-ol compounds from wine wastes both from V. vinifera (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) and V. labrusca (cv. Bordo and Isabella) species. The main phenolic compounds found in the extracts were catechin and epicatechin, followed by procyanidin B3, procyanidin B1, procyanidin B2, gallic acid, epigallocatechin, and procyanidin B4. All flavan-3-ol extracts showed significant in vitro and in vivo activities. It was found that the extracts were able to prevent lipid and protein oxidative damage in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus tissues of rats. Although further studies are necessary, these flavan-3-ol extracts show potential to be used to reduce the incidence of degenerative diseases associated with oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenolics)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of the Glycemic Index of Carbohydrates on Acne vulgaris
Nutrients 2010, 2(10), 1060-1072; doi:10.3390/nu2101060
Received: 3 September 2010 / Revised: 12 October 2010 / Accepted: 15 October 2010 / Published: 18 October 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (130 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Acne vulgaris may be improved by dietary factors that increase insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that a low-glycemic index diet would improve facial acne severity and insulin sensitivity. Fifty-eight adolescent males (mean age ± standard deviation 16.5 ± 1.0 y and body mass [...] Read more.
Acne vulgaris may be improved by dietary factors that increase insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that a low-glycemic index diet would improve facial acne severity and insulin sensitivity. Fifty-eight adolescent males (mean age ± standard deviation 16.5 ± 1.0 y and body mass index 23.1 ± 3.5 kg/m2) were alternately allocated to high or low glycemic index diets. Severity of inflammatory lesions on the face, insulin sensitivity (homeostasis modeling assessment of insulin resistance), androgens and insulin-like growth factor-1 and its binding proteins were assessed at baseline and at eight weeks, a period corresponding to the school term. Forty-three subjects (n = 23 low glycemic index and n = 20 high glycemic index) completed the study. Diets differed significantly in glycemic index (mean ± standard error of the mean, low glycemic index 51 ± 1 vs. high glycemic index 61 ± 2, p = 0.0002), but not in macronutrient distribution or fiber content. Facial acne improved on both diets (low glycemic index −26 ± 6%, p = 0.0004 and high glycemic index −16 ± 7%, p = 0.01), but differences between diets did not reach significance. Change in insulin sensitivity was not different between diets (low glycemic index 0.2 ± 0.1 and high glycemic index 0.1 ± 0.1, p = 0.60) and did not correlate with change in acne severity (Pearson correlation r = −0.196, p = 0.244). Longer time frames, greater reductions in glycemic load or/and weight loss may be necessary to detect improvements in acne among adolescent boys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrates)
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Open AccessArticle Trends in Body Fat, Body Mass Index and Physical Fitness Among Male and Female College Students
Nutrients 2010, 2(10), 1075-1085; doi:10.3390/nu2101075
Received: 10 September 2010 / Revised: 14 October 2010 / Accepted: 22 October 2010 / Published: 25 October 2010
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (130 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There have been many publications in recent years reporting on the quantity of physical activity among college students using indirect indicators such as steps walked per day or time spent on physical activities. The purpose of this study was to describe the trends of physical fitness related to BMI and body fat among university students between 1996 and 2008. The results showed a significant decline in the average fitness levels measured as an estimation of VO2max for male and female students (p < 0.001 for both sexes). The linear trend for BMI by years was not significant for both sexes (p for males = 0.772, p for females = 0.253). On average, in the last 13 years, % body fat was increasing 0.513%/year for males and 0.654%/year for females. There is a significant indirect correlation between the student’s VO2max levels and % body fat, r = −0.489; p < 0.001 for males; and r = −0.416, p < 0.001 for females. Approximately 23.9% of the variance in the VO2max levels in males and 17.3% in females can be explained by the variance in % body fat. The results support recent findings that physical fitness among college students is declining and body fatness is increasing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity, Nutrition and Dietetics)
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