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Nutrients, Volume 2, Issue 11 (November 2010), Pages 1086-1187

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Monitoring the Affordability of Healthy Eating: A Case Study of 10 Years of the Illawarra Healthy Food Basket
Nutrients 2010, 2(11), 1132-1140; doi:10.3390/nu2111132
Received: 9 October 2010 / Revised: 10 November 2010 / Accepted: 18 November 2010 / Published: 19 November 2010
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (212 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Healthy food baskets have been used around the world for a variety of purposes, including: examining the difference in cost between healthy and unhealthy food; mapping the availability of healthy foods in different locations; calculating the minimum cost of an adequate diet [...] Read more.
Healthy food baskets have been used around the world for a variety of purposes, including: examining the difference in cost between healthy and unhealthy food; mapping the availability of healthy foods in different locations; calculating the minimum cost of an adequate diet for social policy planning; developing educational material on low cost eating and examining trends on food costs over time. In Australia, the Illawarra Healthy Food Basket was developed in 2000 to monitor trends in the affordability of healthy food compared to average weekly wages and social welfare benefits for the unemployed. It consists of 57 items selected to meet the nutritional requirements of a reference family of five. Bi-annual costing from 2000–2009 has shown that the basket costs have increased by 38.4% in the 10-year period, but that affordability has remained relatively constant at around 30% of average household incomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Epidemiology)
Open AccessArticle The Serum Metabolite Response to Diet Intervention with Probiotic Acidified Milk in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Is Indistinguishable from that of Non-Probiotic Acidified Milk by 1H NMR-Based Metabonomic Analysis
Nutrients 2010, 2(11), 1141-1155; doi:10.3390/nu2111141
Received: 11 October 2010 / Revised: 11 November 2010 / Accepted: 19 November 2010 / Published: 23 November 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (602 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The effects of a probiotic acidified milk product on the blood serum metabolite profile of patients suffering from Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) compared to a non-probiotic acidified milk product was investigated using 1H NMR metabonomics. For eight weeks, IBS patients consumed 0.4 [...] Read more.
The effects of a probiotic acidified milk product on the blood serum metabolite profile of patients suffering from Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) compared to a non-probiotic acidified milk product was investigated using 1H NMR metabonomics. For eight weeks, IBS patients consumed 0.4 L per day of a probiotic fermented milk product or non-probiotic acidified milk. Both diets resulted in elevated levels of blood serum l-lactate and 3-hydroxybutyrate. Our results showed identical effects of acidified milk consumption independent of probiotic addition. A similar result was previously obtained in a questionnaire-based evaluation of symptom relief. A specific probiotic effect is thus absent both in the patient subjective symptom evaluations and at the blood serum metabolite level. However, there was no correspondence between symptom relief and metabolite response on the patient level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Nutrients)

Review

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Open AccessReview Bone Health Nutrition Issues in Aging
Nutrients 2010, 2(11), 1086-1105; doi:10.3390/nu2111086
Received: 19 September 2010 / Revised: 29 October 2010 / Accepted: 2 November 2010 / Published: 8 November 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (178 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bone health is an important issue in aging. Calcium and vitamin D currently have the most focus in published research on nutrition and bone health in aging, although evidence from published research is not conclusive. A systematic review was conducted to determine [...] Read more.
Bone health is an important issue in aging. Calcium and vitamin D currently have the most focus in published research on nutrition and bone health in aging, although evidence from published research is not conclusive. A systematic review was conducted to determine the impact of dietary and supplemental interventions focused on calcium and vitamin D over the past 10 years. Using key words to search, and search limits (aging population, English), 62 papers were found related to diet, nutrition, and bone; and 157 were found related to calcium and bone. Our review found a positive effect on bone health for supplements; food-based interventions; and educational strategies. Although there may be a publishing bias related to non-significant findings not being published, our results suggest the effectiveness of food based and educational interventions with less economic impact to the individual, as well as less risk of physiological side effects occurring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Aging)
Open AccessReview Polyphenols and Human Health: Prevention of Disease and Mechanisms of Action
Nutrients 2010, 2(11), 1106-1131; doi:10.3390/nu2111106
Received: 25 September 2010 / Revised: 25 October 2010 / Accepted: 1 November 2010 / Published: 8 November 2010
Cited by 125 | PDF Full-text (353 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyphenols are found ubiquitously in plants and their regular consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of a number of chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and neurodegenerative disorders. Rather than exerting direct antioxidant effects, the mechanisms by which polyphenols [...] Read more.
Polyphenols are found ubiquitously in plants and their regular consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of a number of chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and neurodegenerative disorders. Rather than exerting direct antioxidant effects, the mechanisms by which polyphenols express these beneficial properties appear to involve their interaction with cellular signaling pathways and related machinery that mediate cell function under both normal and pathological conditions. We illustrate that their interactions with two such pathways, the MAP kinase (ERK, JNK, p38) and PI3 kinase/Akt signaling cascades, allow them to impact upon normal and abnormal cell function, thus influencing the cellular processes involved in the initiation and progression of cancer, CVD and neurodegeneration. For example, their ability to activate ERK in neurons leads to a promotion of neuronal survival and cognitive enhancements, both of which influence the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, whilst ERK activation by polyphenols in vascular endothelial cells influences nitric oxide production, blood pressure and ultimately CVD risk. The main focus of this review is to provide an overview of the role that polyphenols play in the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration. We present epidemiological data, human intervention study findings, as well as animal and in vitro studies in support of these actions and in each case we consider how their actions at the cellular level may underpin their physiological effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants)
Open AccessReview Early Exposure to Soy Isoflavones and Effects on Reproductive Health: A Review of Human and Animal Studies
Nutrients 2010, 2(11), 1156-1187; doi:10.3390/nu2111156
Received: 19 October 2010 / Revised: 11 November 2010 / Accepted: 19 November 2010 / Published: 23 November 2010
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (363 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soy isoflavones are phytoestrogens with potential hormonal activity due to their similar chemical structure to 17-β-estradiol. The increasing availability of soy isoflavones throughout the food supply and through use of supplements has prompted extensive research on biological benefits to humans in chronic [...] Read more.
Soy isoflavones are phytoestrogens with potential hormonal activity due to their similar chemical structure to 17-β-estradiol. The increasing availability of soy isoflavones throughout the food supply and through use of supplements has prompted extensive research on biological benefits to humans in chronic disease prevention and health maintenance. While much of this research has focused on adult populations, infants fed soy protein based infant formulas are exposed to substantial levels of soy isoflavones, even when compared to adult populations that consume a higher quantity of soy-based foods. Infant exposure, through soy formula, primarily occurs from birth to one year of life, a stage of development that is particularly sensitive to dietary and environmental compounds. This has led investigators to study the potential hormonal effects of soy isoflavones on later reproductive health outcomes. Such studies have included minimal human data with the large majority of studies using animal models. This review discusses key aspects of the current human and animal studies and identifies critical areas to be investigated as there is no clear consensus in this research field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isoflavones and Lignans)

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