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Nutrients, Volume 2, Issue 4 (April 2010), Pages 408-481

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Capturing the Data: Nutrition Risk Screening of Adults in Hospital
Nutrients 2010, 2(4), 438-448; doi:10.3390/nu2040438
Received: 20 February 2010 / Revised: 25 March 2010 / Accepted: 30 March 2010 / Published: 1 April 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (208 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aims to explore limitations with the Malnutrition Screening Tool in identifying malnutrition risk, in a cohort of 3,033 adult Australian medical and surgical hospital inpatients. Seventy-two percent of patients were screened; illness and medical care limited access to others. Malnutrition [...] Read more.
This study aims to explore limitations with the Malnutrition Screening Tool in identifying malnutrition risk, in a cohort of 3,033 adult Australian medical and surgical hospital inpatients. Seventy-two percent of patients were screened; illness and medical care limited access to others. Malnutrition risk (16.5%; n = 501) was found in all age groups with a trend to higher risk in medical wards; 10% (n = 300) of patients with communication barriers were excluded. Systematic screening increased dietitians’ referrals by 39%. Further research is required to enable screening of all patients, including those with communication issues with an easy to use valid tool. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Nonclassical Vitamin D Actions
Nutrients 2010, 2(4), 408-425; doi:10.3390/nu2040408
Received: 23 February 2010 / Revised: 17 March 2010 / Accepted: 22 March 2010 / Published: 25 March 2010
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is becoming increasingly clear that vitamin D has a broad range of actions in the human body. Besides its well-known effects on calcium/phosphate homeostasis, vitamin D influences muscle function, cardiovascular homeostasis, nervous function, and the immune response. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency has [...] Read more.
It is becoming increasingly clear that vitamin D has a broad range of actions in the human body. Besides its well-known effects on calcium/phosphate homeostasis, vitamin D influences muscle function, cardiovascular homeostasis, nervous function, and the immune response. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency has been associated with muscle weakness and a high incidence of various chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 and 2 diabetes. Most importantly, low vitamin D status has been found to be an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. Several recent randomized controlled trials support the assumption that vitamin D can improve muscle strength, glucose homeostasis, and cardiovascular risk markers. In addition, vitamin D may reduce cancer incidence and elevated blood pressure. Since the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is high throughout the world, there is a need to improve vitamin D status in the general adult population. However, the currently recommended daily vitamin D intake of 5–15 µg is too low to achieve an adequate vitamin D status in individuals with only modest skin synthesis. Thus, there is a need to recommend a vitamin D intake that is effective for achieving adequate circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (>75 nmol/L). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Vitamins)
Open AccessReview Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease
Nutrients 2010, 2(4), 426-437; doi:10.3390/nu2040426
Received: 26 January 2010 / Revised: 15 March 2010 / Accepted: 19 March 2010 / Published: 31 March 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (234 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency has been observed worldwide at all stages of life. It has been characterized as a public health problem, since low concentrations of this vitamin have been linked to the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases. Several studies have suggested that [...] Read more.
Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency has been observed worldwide at all stages of life. It has been characterized as a public health problem, since low concentrations of this vitamin have been linked to the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases. Several studies have suggested that vitamin D is involved in cardiovascular diseases and have provided evidence that it has a role in reducing cardiovascular disease risk. It may be involved in regulation of gene expression through the presence of vitamin D receptors in various cells, regulation of blood pressure (through renin-angiotensin system), and modulation of cell growth and proliferation including vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. Identifying correct mechanisms and relationships between vitamin D and such diseases could be important in relation to patient care and healthcare policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Vitamins)
Open AccessReview Beneficial Effects of Probiotic and Food Borne Yeasts on Human Health
Nutrients 2010, 2(4), 449-473; doi:10.3390/nu2040449
Received: 28 January 2010 / Revised: 1 March 2010 / Accepted: 24 March 2010 / Published: 1 April 2010
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (267 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Besides being important in the fermentation of foods and beverages, yeasts have shown numerous beneficial effects on human health. Among these, probiotic effects are the most well known health effects including prevention and treatment of intestinal diseases and immunomodulatory effects. Other beneficial [...] Read more.
Besides being important in the fermentation of foods and beverages, yeasts have shown numerous beneficial effects on human health. Among these, probiotic effects are the most well known health effects including prevention and treatment of intestinal diseases and immunomodulatory effects. Other beneficial functions of yeasts are improvement of bioavailability of minerals through the hydrolysis of phytate, folate biofortification and detoxification of mycotoxins due to surface binding to the yeast cell wall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Function 2009)
Open AccessReview Calcium Absorption in Infants and Small Children: Methods of Determination and Recent Findings
Nutrients 2010, 2(4), 474-480; doi:10.3390/nu2040474
Received: 4 February 2010 / Revised: 22 March 2010 / Accepted: 2 April 2010 / Published: 6 April 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (359 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Determining calcium bioavailability is important in establishing dietary calcium requirements. In infants and small children, previously conducted mass balance studies have largely been replaced by stable isotope-based studies. The ability to assess calcium absorption using a relatively short 24-hour urine collection without [...] Read more.
Determining calcium bioavailability is important in establishing dietary calcium requirements. In infants and small children, previously conducted mass balance studies have largely been replaced by stable isotope-based studies. The ability to assess calcium absorption using a relatively short 24-hour urine collection without the need for multiple blood samples or fecal collections is a major advantage to this technique. The results of these studies have demonstrated relatively small differences in calcium absorption efficiency between human milk and currently available cow milk-based infant formulas. In older children with a calcium intake typical of Western diets, calcium absorption is adequate to meet bone mineral accretion requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)

Other

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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Mach, J., et al. The Effect of Antioxidant Supplementation on Fatigue during Exercise: Potential Role for NAD+(H). Nutrients 2010, 2, 319-329
Nutrients 2010, 2(4), 481; doi:10.3390/nu2040481
Received: 13 April 2010 / Published: 13 April 2010
PDF Full-text (169 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract We have found an error in our manuscript published in Nutrients [...] Full article

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