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Toxins, Volume 10, Issue 2 (February 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Lake Tegel in Berlin has switched from bloom-ridden to strikingly clear, due to massive reduction [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Algal Blooms and Cyanotoxins in Jordan Lake, North Carolina
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 17 February 2018 / Accepted: 19 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
The eutrophication of waterways has led to a rise in cyanobacterial, harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) worldwide. The deterioration of water quality due to excess algal biomass in lakes has been well documented (e.g., water clarity, hypoxic conditions), but health risks associated with cyanotoxins
[...] Read more.
The eutrophication of waterways has led to a rise in cyanobacterial, harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) worldwide. The deterioration of water quality due to excess algal biomass in lakes has been well documented (e.g., water clarity, hypoxic conditions), but health risks associated with cyanotoxins remain largely unexplored in the absence of toxin information. This study is the first to document the presence of dissolved microcystin, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, and β-N-methylamino-l-alanine in Jordan Lake, a major drinking water reservoir in North Carolina. Saxitoxin presence was not confirmed. Multiple toxins were detected at 86% of the tested sites and during 44% of the sampling events between 2014 and 2016. Although concentrations were low, continued exposure of organisms to multiple toxins raises some concerns. A combination of discrete sampling and in-situ tracking (Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking [SPATT]) revealed that microcystin and anatoxin were the most pervasive year-round. Between 2011 and 2016, summer and fall blooms were dominated by the same cyanobacterial genera, all of which are suggested producers of single or multiple cyanotoxins. The study’s findings provide further evidence of the ubiquitous nature of cyanotoxins, and the challenges involved in linking CyanoHAB dynamics to specific environmental forcing factors are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Harmful Algal Bloom Dynamics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Tolerance and Excretion of the Mycotoxins Aflatoxin B1, Zearalenone, Deoxynivalenol, and Ochratoxin A by Alphitobius diaperinus and Hermetia illucens from Contaminated Substrates
Received: 10 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 20 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the potential accumulation of mycotoxins in the lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus, LMW) and black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, BSF) larvae. Feed was spiked with aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol (DON), ochratoxin A or zearalenone, and as
[...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the potential accumulation of mycotoxins in the lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus, LMW) and black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, BSF) larvae. Feed was spiked with aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol (DON), ochratoxin A or zearalenone, and as a mixture of mycotoxins, to concentrations of 1, 10, and 25 times the maximum limits set by the European Commission for complete feed. This maximum limit is 0.02 mg/kg for aflatoxin B1, 5 mg/kg for DON, 0.5 mg/kg for zearalenone and 0.1 mg/kg for ochratoxin A. The mycotoxins and some of their metabolites were analysed in the larvae and residual material using a validated and accredited LC-MS/MS-based method. Metabolites considered were aflatoxicol, aflatoxin P1, aflatoxin Q1, and aflatoxin M1, 3-acetyl-DON, 15-acetyl-DON and DON-3-glycoside, and α- and β-zearalenol. No differences were observed between larvae reared on mycotoxins individually or as a mixture with regards to both larvae development and mycotoxin accumulation/excretion. None of the mycotoxins accumulated in the larvae and were only detected in BSF larvae several orders of magnitude lower than the concentration in feed. Mass balance calculations showed that BSF and LMW larvae metabolized the four mycotoxins to different extents. Metabolites accounted for minimal amounts of the mass balance, except for zearalenone metabolites in the BSF treatments, which accounted for an average maximum of 86% of the overall mass balance. Both insect species showed to excrete or metabolize the four mycotoxins present in their feed. Hence, safe limits for these mycotoxins in substrates to be used for these two insect species possibly could be higher than for production animals. However, additional analytical and toxicological research to fully understand the safe limits of mycotoxins in insect feed, and thus the safety of the insects, is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Understanding Mycotoxin Occurrence in Food and Feed Chains)
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Open AccessArticle The Major Fusarium Species Causing Maize Ear and Kernel Rot and Their Toxigenicity in Chongqing, China
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 10 February 2018 / Accepted: 16 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
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Abstract
Fusarium verticillioides, F. proliferatum, and F. meridionale were identified as the predominant fungi among 116 Fusarium isolates causing maize ear and kernel rot, a destructive disease in Chongqing areas, China. The toxigenic capability and genotype were determined by molecular amplification and
[...] Read more.
Fusarium verticillioides, F. proliferatum, and F. meridionale were identified as the predominant fungi among 116 Fusarium isolates causing maize ear and kernel rot, a destructive disease in Chongqing areas, China. The toxigenic capability and genotype were determined by molecular amplification and toxin assay. The results showed that the key toxigenic gene FUM1 was detected in 47 F. verticillioides and 19 F. proliferatum isolates. Among these, F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum isolates mainly produced fumonisin B1, ranging from 3.17 to 1566.44, and 97.74 to 11,100.99 µg/g for each gram of dry hyphal weight, with the averages of 263.94 and 3632.88 µg/g, respectively, indicating the F. proliferatum isolates on average produced about an order of magnitude more fumonisins than F. verticillioides did in these areas, in vitro. Only NIV genotype was detected among 16 F. meridionale and three F. asiaticum isolates. Among these, 11 F. meridionale isolates produced NIV, varying from 17.40 to 2597.34 µg/g. ZEA and DON toxins were detected in 11 and 4 F. meridionale isolates, with the toxin production range of 8.35–78.57 and 3.38–33.41 µg/g, respectively. Three F. asiaticum isolates produced almost no mycotoxins, except that one isolate produced a small amount of DON. The findings provide us with insight into the risk of the main pathogenic Fusarium species and a guide for resistance breeding in these areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
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Open AccessArticle Biocontrol of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto, Reduction of Deoxynivalenol Accumulation and Phytohormone Induction by Two Selected Antagonists
Received: 10 January 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 20 February 2018
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Abstract
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease that causes extensive yield and quality losses to wheat and other small cereal grains worldwide. Species within the Fusarium graminearum complex are the main pathogens associated with the disease, F. graminearum sensu stricto being the
[...] Read more.
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease that causes extensive yield and quality losses to wheat and other small cereal grains worldwide. Species within the Fusarium graminearum complex are the main pathogens associated with the disease, F. graminearum sensu stricto being the main pathogen in Argentina. Biocontrol can be used as part of an integrated pest management strategy. Phytohormones play a key role in the plant defense system and their production can be induced by antagonistic microorganisms. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of the inoculation of Bacillus velezensis RC 218, F. graminearum and their co-inoculation on the production of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) in wheat spikes at different periods of time under greenhouse conditions, and to evaluate the effect of B. velezensis RC 218 and Streptomyces albidoflavus RC 87B on FHB disease incidence, severity and deoxynivalenol accumulation on Triticum turgidum L. var. durum under field conditions. Under greenhouse conditions the production of JA was induced after F. graminearum inoculation at 48 and 72 h, but JA levels were reduced in the co-inoculated treatments. No differences in JA or SA levels were observed between the B. velezensis treatment and the water control. In the spikes inoculated with F. graminearum, SA production was induced early (12 h), as it was shown for initial FHB basal resistance, while JA was induced at a later stage (48 h), revealing different defense strategies at different stages of infection by the hemibiotrophic pathogen F. graminearum. Both B. velezensis RC 218 and S. albidoflavus RC 87B effectively reduced FHB incidence (up to 30%), severity (up to 25%) and deoxynivalenol accumulation (up to 51%) on durum wheat under field conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An On-Site Simultaneous Semi-Quantification of Aflatoxin B1, Zearalenone, and T-2 Toxin in Maize- and Cereal-Based Feed via Multicolor Immunochromatographic Assay
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 15 February 2018 / Published: 17 February 2018
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Abstract
Multiple-mycotoxin contamination has been frequently found in the agro-food monitoring due to the coexistence of fungi. However, many determination methods focused on a single mycotoxin, highlighting the demand for on-site determination of multiple mycotoxins in a single run. We develop a multicolor-based immunochromatographic
[...] Read more.
Multiple-mycotoxin contamination has been frequently found in the agro-food monitoring due to the coexistence of fungi. However, many determination methods focused on a single mycotoxin, highlighting the demand for on-site determination of multiple mycotoxins in a single run. We develop a multicolor-based immunochromatographic strip (ICS) for simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and T-2 toxin in maize- and cereal-based animal feeds. The nanoparticles with different colors are conjugated with three monoclonal antibodies, which serve as the immunoassay probes. The decrease in color intensity is observed by the naked eyes, providing simultaneous quantification of three mycotoxins. The visible limits of detection for AFB1, ZEN and T-2 are estimated to be 0.5, 2, and 30 ng/mL, respectively. The cut-off values are 1, 10, and 50 ng/mL, respectively. Considerable specificity and stability are found using real samples. The results are in excellent agreement with those from high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The multi-color ICS boasts sensitive and rapid visual differentiation and simultaneous semi-quantification of aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and T-2 toxin in maize- and cereal-based feed samples within 20 min. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensors for Toxins)
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Open AccessArticle Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO2 Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions
Received: 12 January 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 17 February 2018
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Abstract
Zearalenone (ZEN) contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the
[...] Read more.
Zearalenone (ZEN) contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (aw; 0.95–0.90) and temperature (10–25 °C) in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a) respiration rate; (b) dry matter losses (DML); (c) ZEN production and (d) relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits. Gas Chromatography was used to measure the temporal respiration rates and the total accumulated CO2 production. There was an increase in temporal CO2 production rates in wetter and warmer conditions in all treatments, with the highest respiration in the 25 °C × 0.95 aw treatments + F. graminearum inoculation. This was reflected in the total accumulated CO2 in the treatments. The maximum DMLs were in the 0.95 aw/20–25 °C treatments and at 10 °C/0.95 aw. The DMLs were modelled to produce contour maps of the environmental conditions resulting in maximum/minimum losses. Contamination with ZEN/ZEN-related compounds were quantified. Maximum production was at 25 °C/0.95–0.93 aw and 20 °C/0.95 aw. ZEN contamination levels plotted against DMLs for all the treatments showed that at ca. <1.0% DML, there was a low risk of ZEN contamination exceeding EU legislative limits, while at >1.0% DML, the risk was high. This type of data is important in building a database for the development of a post-harvest decision support system for relative risks of different mycotoxins. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of the Venom of C. d. cumanesis of Colombia: Proteomic Analysis and Antivenomic Study
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 17 February 2018
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Abstract
The Colombian rattlesnake Crotalus durissus cumanensis is distributed in three geographic zones of the country: the Atlantic Coast, the upper valley of the Magdalena River, and the eastern plains of the Colombian Orinoquía. Its venom induces neurological symptoms, such as eyelid ptosis, myasthenic
[...] Read more.
The Colombian rattlesnake Crotalus durissus cumanensis is distributed in three geographic zones of the country: the Atlantic Coast, the upper valley of the Magdalena River, and the eastern plains of the Colombian Orinoquía. Its venom induces neurological symptoms, such as eyelid ptosis, myasthenic facies, and paralysis of the respiratory muscles, which can lead to death. Identification and analysis of C. d. cumanensis showed nine groups of proteins responsible for the neurotoxic effect, of which the crotoxin complex was the most abundant (64.71%). Immunorecognition tests of C. d. cumanensis showed that the use of a commercial antivenom manufactured in Mexico resulted in immunoreactivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
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Open AccessArticle A Single Tri-Epitopic Antibody Virtually Recapitulates the Potency of a Combination of Three Monoclonal Antibodies in Neutralization of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A
Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 15 February 2018
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Abstract
The standard of treatment for botulism, equine antitoxin, is a foreign protein with associated safety issues and a short serum half-life which excludes its use as a prophylactic antitoxin and makes it a less-than-optimal therapeutic. Due to these limitations, a recombinant monoclonal antibody
[...] Read more.
The standard of treatment for botulism, equine antitoxin, is a foreign protein with associated safety issues and a short serum half-life which excludes its use as a prophylactic antitoxin and makes it a less-than-optimal therapeutic. Due to these limitations, a recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) product is preferable. It has been shown that combining three mAbs that bind non-overlapping epitopes leads to highly potent botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) neutralization. Recently, a triple human antibody combination for BoNT/A has demonstrated potent toxin neutralization in mouse models with no serious adverse events when tested in a Phase I clinical trial. However, a triple antibody therapeutic poses unique development and manufacturing challenges. Thus, potentially to streamline development of BoNT antitoxins, we sought to achieve the potency of multiple mAb combinations in a single IgG-based molecule that has a long serum half-life. The design, production, and testing of a single tri-epitopic IgG1-based mAb (TeAb) containing the binding sites of each of the three parental BoNT/A mAbs yielded an antibody of nearly equal potency to the combination. The approach taken here could be applied to the design and creation of other multivalent antibodies that could be used for a variety of applications, including toxin elimination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Botulinum Neurotoxins Antibody and Vaccine)
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Open AccessReview Occurrence of β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) and Isomers in Aquatic Environments and Aquatic Food Sources for Humans
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 8 February 2018 / Published: 14 February 2018
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Abstract
The neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), a non-protein amino acid produced by terrestrial and aquatic cyanobacteria and by micro-algae, has been suggested to play a role as an environmental factor in the neurodegenerative disease Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-Parkinsonism-Dementia complex (ALS-PDC). The ubiquitous
[...] Read more.
The neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), a non-protein amino acid produced by terrestrial and aquatic cyanobacteria and by micro-algae, has been suggested to play a role as an environmental factor in the neurodegenerative disease Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-Parkinsonism-Dementia complex (ALS-PDC). The ubiquitous presence of BMAA in aquatic environments and organisms along the food chain potentially makes it public health concerns. However, the BMAA-associated human health risk remains difficult to rigorously assess due to analytical challenges associated with the detection and quantification of BMAA and its natural isomers, 2,4-diamino butyric acid (DAB), β-amino-N-methyl-alanine (BAMA) and N-(2-aminoethyl) glycine (AEG). This systematic review, reporting the current knowledge on the presence of BMAA and isomers in aquatic environments and human food sources, was based on a selection and a score numbering of the scientific literature according to various qualitative and quantitative criteria concerning the chemical analytical methods used. Results from the best-graded studies show that marine bivalves are to date the matrix containing the higher amount of BMAA, far more than most fish muscles, but with an exception for shark cartilage. This review discusses the available data in terms of their use for human health risk assessment and identifies knowledge gaps requiring further investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
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Open AccessReview Strategies to Improve the Clinical Utility of Saporin-Based Targeted Toxins
Received: 16 December 2017 / Revised: 29 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 February 2018 / Published: 13 February 2018
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Abstract
Plant Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) including the type I RIP Saporin have been used for the construction of Immunotoxins (ITxs) obtained via chemical conjugation of the toxic domain to whole antibodies or by generating genetic fusions to antibody fragments/targeting domains able to direct the
[...] Read more.
Plant Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) including the type I RIP Saporin have been used for the construction of Immunotoxins (ITxs) obtained via chemical conjugation of the toxic domain to whole antibodies or by generating genetic fusions to antibody fragments/targeting domains able to direct the chimeric toxin against a desired sub-population of cancer cells. The high enzymatic activity, stability and resistance to conjugation procedures and especially the possibility to express recombinant fusions in yeast, make Saporin a well-suited tool for anti-cancer therapy approaches. Previous clinical work on RIPs-based Immunotoxins (including Saporin) has shown that several critical issues must be taken into deeper consideration to fully exploit their therapeutic potential. This review focuses on possible combinatorial strategies (chemical and genetic) to augment Saporin-targeted toxin efficacy. Combinatorial approaches may facilitate RIP escape into the cytosolic compartment (where target ribosomes are), while genetic manipulations may minimize potential adverse effects such as vascular-leak syndrome or may identify T/B cell epitopes in order to decrease the immunogenicity following similar strategies as those used in the case of bacterial toxins such as Pseudomonas Exotoxin A or as for Type I RIP Bouganin. This review will further focus on strategies to improve recombinant production of Saporin-based chimeric toxins. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Natural Occurrence of Nivalenol, Deoxynivalenol, and Deoxynivalenol-3-Glucoside in Polish Winter Wheat
Received: 18 January 2018 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 10 February 2018 / Published: 13 February 2018
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Abstract
The presence of mycotoxins in cereal grain is a very important food safety factor. The occurrence of “masked” mycotoxins has been intensively investigated in recent years. In this study, the occurrence of nivalenol, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, and deoxynivalenol in 92 samples of winter wheat from
[...] Read more.
The presence of mycotoxins in cereal grain is a very important food safety factor. The occurrence of “masked” mycotoxins has been intensively investigated in recent years. In this study, the occurrence of nivalenol, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, and deoxynivalenol in 92 samples of winter wheat from Polish cultivars was determined. The frequency of the occurrence of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol in the samples was 83% and 70%, respectively. The average content of the analytes was: for deoxynivalenol 140.2 µg/kg (10.5–1265.4 µg/kg), for nivalenol 35.0 µg/kg (5.1–372.5 µg/kg). Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, the formation of which is connected with the biotransformation pathway in plants, was present in 27% of tested wheat samples; its average content was 41.9 µg/kg (15.8–137.5 µg/kg). The relative content of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3G) compared to deoxynivalenol (DON) in positive samples was 4–37%. Despite the high frequency of occurrence of these mycotoxins, the quality of wheat from the 2016 season was good. The maximum content of DON, as defined in EU regulations (1250 µg/kg), was exceeded in only one sample. Nevertheless, the presence of a glycosidic derivative of deoxynivalenol can increase the risk to food safety, as it can be hydrolyzed by intestinal microflora. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
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Open AccessArticle Novel Phage Display-Derived Anti-Abrin Antibodies Confer Post-Exposure Protection against Abrin Intoxication
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 8 February 2018 / Published: 13 February 2018
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Abstract
Abrin toxin is a type 2 ribosome inactivating glycoprotein isolated from the seeds of Abrus precatorius (jequirity pea). Owing to its high toxicity, relative ease of purification and accessibility, it is considered a biological threat agent. To date, there is no effective post-exposure
[...] Read more.
Abrin toxin is a type 2 ribosome inactivating glycoprotein isolated from the seeds of Abrus precatorius (jequirity pea). Owing to its high toxicity, relative ease of purification and accessibility, it is considered a biological threat agent. To date, there is no effective post-exposure treatment for abrin poisoning and passive immunization remains the most effective therapy. However, the effectiveness of anti-abrin monoclonal antibodies for post-exposure therapy following abrin intoxication has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to isolate high affinity anti-abrin antibodies that possess potent toxin-neutralization capabilities. An immune scFv phage-display library was constructed from an abrin-immunized rabbit and a panel of antibodies (six directed against the A subunit of abrin and four against the B subunit) was isolated and expressed as scFv-Fc antibodies. By pair-wise analysis, we found that these antibodies target five distinct epitopes on the surface of abrin and that antibodies against all these sites can bind the toxin simultaneously. Several of these antibodies (namely, RB9, RB10, RB28 and RB30) conferred high protection against pulmonary intoxication of mice, when administered six hours post exposure to a lethal dose of abrin. The data presented in this study demonstrate for the first time the efficacy of monoclonal antibodies in treatment of mice after pulmonary intoxication with abrin and promote the use of these antibodies, one or several, for post-exposure treatment of abrin intoxication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Toxins)
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Open AccessArticle Listeriolysin O Causes ENaC Dysfunction in Human Airway Epithelial Cells
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 1 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 February 2018 / Published: 11 February 2018
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Abstract
Pulmonary permeability edema is characterized by reduced alveolar Na+ uptake capacity and capillary barrier dysfunction and is a potentially lethal complication of listeriosis. Apical Na+ uptake is mainly mediated by the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and initiates alveolar liquid clearance. Here
[...] Read more.
Pulmonary permeability edema is characterized by reduced alveolar Na+ uptake capacity and capillary barrier dysfunction and is a potentially lethal complication of listeriosis. Apical Na+ uptake is mainly mediated by the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and initiates alveolar liquid clearance. Here we examine how listeriolysin O (LLO), the pore-forming toxin of Listeria monocytogenes, impairs the expression and activity of ENaC. To that purpose, we studied how sub-lytic concentrations of LLO affect negative and positive regulators of ENaC expression in the H441 airway epithelial cell line. LLO reduced expression of the crucial ENaC-α subunit in H441 cells within 2 h and this was preceded by activation of PKC-α, a negative regulator of the channel’s expression. At later time points, LLO caused a significant reduction in the phosphorylation of Sgk-1 at residue T256 and of Akt-1 at residue S473, both of which are required for full activation of ENaC. The TNF-derived TIP peptide prevented LLO-mediated PKC-α activation and restored phospho-Sgk-1-T256. The TIP peptide also counteracted the observed LLO-induced decrease in amiloride-sensitive Na+ current and ENaC-α expression in H441 cells. Intratracheally instilled LLO caused profound pulmonary edema formation in mice, an effect that was prevented by the TIP peptide; thus indicating the therapeutic potential of the peptide for the treatment of pore-forming toxin-associated permeability edema. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Toxins)
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Open AccessArticle Natural Contamination with Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium poae in Malting Barley in Argentina
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 11 February 2018
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Abstract
Two of the most common species of toxin-producing Fusarium contaminating small cereal grains are Fusarium graminearum and F. poae; with both elaborating diverse toxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV), respectively. The objective of our work during the 2012–2014 growing seasons was
[...] Read more.
Two of the most common species of toxin-producing Fusarium contaminating small cereal grains are Fusarium graminearum and F. poae; with both elaborating diverse toxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV), respectively. The objective of our work during the 2012–2014 growing seasons was to screen crops for the most commonly isolated Fusarium species and to quantify DON and NIV toxins in natural malting-barley samples from different producing areas of Argentina. We identified 1180 Fusarium isolates in the 119 samples analyzed, with 51.2% being F. graminearum, 26.2% F. poae and 22.6% other species. We found high concentrations of mycotoxins, at maximum values of 12 μg/g of DON and 7.71 μg/g of NIV. Of the samples, 23% exhibited DON at an average of 2.36 μg/g, with 44% exceeding the maximum limits (average of 5.24 μg/g); 29% contained NIV at an average of 2.36 μg/g; 7% contained both DON and NIV; and 55% were without DON or NIV. Finally, we report the mycotoxin contamination of the grain samples produced by F. graminearum and F. poae, those being the most frequent Fusarium species present. We identified the main Fusarium species affecting natural malting-barley grains in Argentina and documented the presence of many samples with elevated concentrations of DON and NIV. To our knowledge, the investigation reported here was the first to quantify the contamination by Fusarium and its toxins in natural samples of malting barley in Argentina. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Understanding Mycotoxin Occurrence in Food and Feed Chains)
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Open AccessArticle Multiple Mycotoxins in Rice: Occurrence and Health Risk Assessment in Children and Adults of Punjab, Pakistan
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 4 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 February 2018 / Published: 10 February 2018
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Abstract
Mycotoxin contamination in rice can create a health risk for the consumers. In this study, the measurement of 23 mycotoxins in rice samples (n = 180) was performed using a validated LC–MS/MS method. A food frequency questionnaire was used to get rice
[...] Read more.
Mycotoxin contamination in rice can create a health risk for the consumers. In this study, the measurement of 23 mycotoxins in rice samples (n = 180) was performed using a validated LC–MS/MS method. A food frequency questionnaire was used to get rice consumption data for the assessment of mycotoxin dietary exposure, before calculating the health risk in adults and children of north and south regions of the Pakistani Punjab province. The prevalence of aflatoxin B1 (56%), aflatoxin B2 (48%), nivalenol (28%), diacetoxyscirpenol (23%), fumonisin B1 (42%), zearalenone (15%), HT-2 toxin (10%), deoxynivalenol (8%), and ochratoxin A (6%) was estimated in samples with a mean concentration range between 0.61 and 22.98 µg/kg. Aflatoxin degradation by traditional Pakistani cooking recipes was evaluated and observed to be 41–63%. The dietary exposure to aflatoxins exceeded the tolerable daily intake at all levels, and ochratoxin A and zearalenone posed health risk at high contamination and high consumption levels. The margin of aflatoxin B1 exposure ranged between 10 and 69 in adults and 10 and 62 in children. The mean cancer risk by aflatoxin B1 exposure was 0.070 (adults) and 0.071 (children) cases/year/100,000 people in South Punjab population, and 0.122 (adults) and 0.127 (children) cases/year/100,000 people in North Punjab population. This study will provide new insights for the planning and management of mycotoxins in Pakistan. Full article
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