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Cells, Volume 7, Issue 5 (May 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Autophagy is a selective physiological process through which organisms eliminate toxic [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Direct Detection of T- and B-Memory Lymphocytes by ImmunoSpot® Assays Reveals HCMV Exposure that Serum Antibodies Fail to Identify
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 13 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
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Abstract
It is essential to identify donors who have not been infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in order to avoid transmission of HCMV to recipients of blood transfusions or organ transplants. In the present study, we tested the reliability of seronegativity as an indicator
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It is essential to identify donors who have not been infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in order to avoid transmission of HCMV to recipients of blood transfusions or organ transplants. In the present study, we tested the reliability of seronegativity as an indicator for the lack of HCMV exposure in healthy human blood donors. Eighty-two HCMV seronegative individuals were identified, and their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were tested in ImmunoSpot® assays for the presence of HCMV-specific T- and B-memory lymphocytes. Eighty-two percent (67 of 82) of these HCMV seronegative individuals featured at least one memory cell that was lineage specific for HCMV, with the majority of these subjects possessing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, as well as B cells, providing three independent lines of evidence for having developed immunity to HCMV. Only 15 of these 82 donors (18%) showed neither T- nor B-cell memory to HCMV, consistent with immunological naïveté to the virus. The data suggest that measurements of serum antibodies frequently fail to reveal HCMV exposure in humans, which may be better identified by direct detection of HCMV-specific memory lymphocytes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle OGT (O-GlcNAc Transferase) Selectively Modifies Multiple Residues Unique to Lamin A
Received: 16 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
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Abstract
The LMNA gene encodes lamins A and C with key roles in nuclear structure, signaling, gene regulation, and genome integrity. Mutations in LMNA cause over 12 diseases (‘laminopathies’). Lamins A and C are identical for their first 566 residues. However, they form separate
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The LMNA gene encodes lamins A and C with key roles in nuclear structure, signaling, gene regulation, and genome integrity. Mutations in LMNA cause over 12 diseases (‘laminopathies’). Lamins A and C are identical for their first 566 residues. However, they form separate filaments in vivo, with apparently distinct roles. We report that lamin A is β-O-linked N-acetylglucosamine-(O-GlcNAc)-modified in human hepatoma (Huh7) cells and in mouse liver. In vitro assays with purified O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) enzyme showed robust O-GlcNAcylation of recombinant mature lamin A tails (residues 385–646), with no detectable modification of lamin B1, lamin C, or ‘progerin’ (Δ50) tails. Using mass spectrometry, we identified 11 O-GlcNAc sites in a ‘sweet spot’ unique to lamin A, with up to seven sugars per peptide. Most sites were unpredicted by current algorithms. Double-mutant (S612A/T643A) lamin A tails were still robustly O-GlcNAc-modified at seven sites. By contrast, O-GlcNAcylation was undetectable on tails bearing deletion Δ50, which causes Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome, and greatly reduced by deletion Δ35. We conclude that residues deleted in progeria are required for substrate recognition and/or modification by OGT in vitro. Interestingly, deletion Δ35, which does not remove the majority of identified O-GlcNAc sites, does remove potential OGT-association motifs (lamin A residues 622–625 and 639–645) homologous to that in mouse Tet1. These biochemical results are significant because they identify a novel molecular pathway that may profoundly influence lamin A function. The hypothesis that lamin A is selectively regulated by OGT warrants future testing in vivo, along with two predictions: genetic variants may contribute to disease by perturbing OGT-dependent regulation, and nutrient or other stresses might cause OGT to misregulate wildtype lamin A. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Lamins and Laminopathies)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Adhesion in Physiological, Benign and Malignant Proliferative States of the Endometrium: Microenvironment and the Clinical Big Picture
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
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Abstract
Although the developments in cellular and molecular biology over the last few decades have significantly advanced our understanding of the processes and players that regulate invasive disease, many areas of uncertainty remain. This review will discuss the contribution of dysregulated cell–cell and cell–matrix
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Although the developments in cellular and molecular biology over the last few decades have significantly advanced our understanding of the processes and players that regulate invasive disease, many areas of uncertainty remain. This review will discuss the contribution of dysregulated cell–cell and cell–matrix adhesion to the invasion in both benign and malignant contexts. Using the endometrium as an illustrative tissue that undergoes clinically significant invasion in both contexts, the adhesion considerations in the cells (“seed”) and their microenvironment (“soil”) will be discussed. We hope to orientate this discussion towards translational relevance for the diagnosis and treatment of endometrial conditions, which are currently associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Adhesion Molecules)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Duplication and Nuclear Envelope Insertion of the Yeast Microtubule Organizing Centre, the Spindle Pole Body
Received: 19 April 2018 / Revised: 4 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 10 May 2018
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Abstract
The main microtubule organizing centre in the unicellular model organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pompe is the spindle pole body (SPB). The SPB is a multilayer structure, which duplicates exactly once per cell cycle. Unlike higher eukaryotic cells, both yeast model organisms undergo
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The main microtubule organizing centre in the unicellular model organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pompe is the spindle pole body (SPB). The SPB is a multilayer structure, which duplicates exactly once per cell cycle. Unlike higher eukaryotic cells, both yeast model organisms undergo mitosis without breakdown of the nuclear envelope (NE), a so-called closed mitosis. Therefore, in order to simultaneously nucleate nuclear and cytoplasmic MTs, it is vital to embed the SPB into the NE at least during mitosis, similarly to the nuclear pore complex (NPC). This review aims to embrace the current knowledge of the SPB duplication cycle with special emphasis on the critical step of the insertion of the new SPB into the NE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comparative Biology of Centrosomal Structures in Eukaryotes)
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Open AccessArticle MDM2 Overexpression Modulates the Angiogenesis-Related Gene Expression Profile of Prostate Cancer Cells
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 5 May 2018 / Published: 10 May 2018
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Abstract
The Murine Double Minute 2 (MDM2) amplification or overexpression has been found in many tumors with high metastatic and angiogenic ability. Our experiments were designed to explore the impact of MDM2 overexpression, specifically on the levels of angiogenesis-related genes, which can also play
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The Murine Double Minute 2 (MDM2) amplification or overexpression has been found in many tumors with high metastatic and angiogenic ability. Our experiments were designed to explore the impact of MDM2 overexpression, specifically on the levels of angiogenesis-related genes, which can also play a major role in tumor propagation and increase its metastatic potential. In the present study, we have used the human angiogenesis RT2 profiler PCR array to compare the gene expression profile between LNCaP and LNCaP-MST (MDM2 transfected) prostate cancer cells, along with LNCaP-MST cells treated with Nutlin-3, an MDM2 specific inhibitor. As a result of the overexpression of MDM2 gene in LNCaP-MST (10.3-fold), Thrombospondin 1 (THBS1), Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and Matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) were also found to be significantly up-regulated while genes such as Epiregulin (EREG), Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP1) were down-regulated. Also, we determined the total MMP activity and MMP9 expression in LNCaP, LNCaP-MST and SJSA-1 cells. Our results indicated that MDM2 level is positively correlated with MMP activity and MMP9 secretion. Our findings offer strong supporting evidence that MDM2 can impact growth and metastatic potential of cancer cells through tilting the balance towards pro-angiogenic mechanisms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Alterations of Oxidative Phosphorylation Complexes in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
Received: 9 April 2018 / Revised: 3 May 2018 / Accepted: 7 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
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Abstract
The papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common malignant tumor of the thyroid gland, with disruptive mutations in mitochondrial complex I subunits reported at very low frequency. Furthermore, metabolic diversity of PTC has been postulated owing to variable messenger RNA (mRNA) expression
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The papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common malignant tumor of the thyroid gland, with disruptive mutations in mitochondrial complex I subunits reported at very low frequency. Furthermore, metabolic diversity of PTC has been postulated owing to variable messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of genes encoding subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXHPOS) complexes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the metabolic diversity of the OXPHOS system at the protein level by using immunohistochemical staining. Analysis of 18 human PTCs revealed elevated mitochondrial biogenesis but significantly lower levels of OXPHOS complex I in the tumor tissue (p < 0.0001) compared to the adjacent normal tissue. In contrast, OXPHOS complexes II–V were increased in the majority of PTCs. In three PTCs, we found pathologic mutations within mitochondrially encoded complex I subunits. Our data indicate that PTCs are characterized by an oncocytic metabolic signature that is in low complex I is combined with elevated mitochondrial mass and high complex II–V levels, which might be an important factor for tumor formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Cancer Cell Biology)
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Open AccessEditorial Atlas of Immune Cell Populations of the Inflamed Mammalian CNS
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 3 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
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Abstract
Two processes are known to take place during neuroinflammation: (i) resident immune cells are activated and (ii) inflammatory leukocytes in the periphery begin to infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS).[…] Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperPerspective Patient-Derived iPSCs and iNs—Shedding New Light on the Cellular Etiology of Neurodegenerative Diseases
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 7 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
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Abstract
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and induced neuronal (iN) cells are very much touted in terms of their potential promises in therapeutics. However, from a more fundamental perspective, iPSCs and iNs are invaluable tools for the postnatal generation of specific diseased cell types
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Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and induced neuronal (iN) cells are very much touted in terms of their potential promises in therapeutics. However, from a more fundamental perspective, iPSCs and iNs are invaluable tools for the postnatal generation of specific diseased cell types from patients, which may offer insights into disease etiology that are otherwise unobtainable with available animal or human proxies. There are two good recent examples of such important insights with diseased neurons derived via either the iPSC or iN approaches. In one, induced motor neurons (iMNs) derived from iPSCs of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Frontotemporal dementia (ALS/FTD) patients with a C9orf72 repeat expansion revealed a haploinsufficiency of protein function resulting from the intronic expansion and deficiencies in motor neuron vesicular trafficking and lysosomal biogenesis that were not previously obvious in knockout mouse models. In another, striatal medium spinal neurons (MSNs) derived directly from fibroblasts of Huntington’s disease (HD) patients recapitulated age-associated disease signatures of mutant Huntingtin (mHTT) aggregation and neurodegeneration that were not prominent in neurons differentiated indirectly via iPSCs from HD patients. These results attest to the tremendous potential for pathologically accurate and mechanistically revealing disease modelling with advances in the derivation of iPSCs and iNs. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Autophagy in Age-Associated Neurodegeneration
Received: 2 April 2018 / Revised: 23 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 5 May 2018
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Abstract
The elimination of abnormal and dysfunctional cellular constituents is an essential prerequisite for nerve cells to maintain their homeostasis and proper function. This is mainly achieved through autophagy, a process that eliminates abnormal and dysfunctional cellular components, including misfolded proteins and damaged organelles.
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The elimination of abnormal and dysfunctional cellular constituents is an essential prerequisite for nerve cells to maintain their homeostasis and proper function. This is mainly achieved through autophagy, a process that eliminates abnormal and dysfunctional cellular components, including misfolded proteins and damaged organelles. Several studies suggest that age-related decline of autophagy impedes neuronal homeostasis and, subsequently, leads to the progression of neurodegenerative disorders due to the accumulation of toxic protein aggregates in neurons. Here, we discuss the involvement of autophagy perturbation in neurodegeneration and present evidence indicating that upregulation of autophagy holds potential for the development of therapeutic interventions towards confronting neurodegenerative diseases in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autophagy in Age-Related Human Diseases)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Reactive Oxygen Species, Superoxide Dimutases, and PTEN-p53-AKT-MDM2 Signaling Loop Network in Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells Regulation
Received: 9 March 2018 / Revised: 22 April 2018 / Accepted: 28 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
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Abstract
Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can differentiate to various specialized cells, which have the potential capacity to differentiate properly and accelerate recovery in damaged sites of the body. This stem cell technology has become the fundamental element in regenerative medicine.
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Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can differentiate to various specialized cells, which have the potential capacity to differentiate properly and accelerate recovery in damaged sites of the body. This stem cell technology has become the fundamental element in regenerative medicine. As reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been reported to adversely influence stem cell properties, it is imperative to attenuate the extent of ROS to the promising protective approach with MSCs’ regenerative therapy. Oxidative stress also affects the culture expansion and longevity of MSCs. Therefore, there is great need to identify a method to prevent oxidative stress and replicative senescence in MSCs. Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10/Protein kinase B, PKB (PTEN/AKT) and the tumor suppressor p53 pathway have been proven to play a pivotal role in regulating cell apoptosis by regulating the oxidative stress and/or ROS quenching. In this review, we summarize the current research and our view of how PTEN/AKT and p53 with their partners transduce signals downstream, and what the implications are for MSCs’ biology. Full article
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Open AccessArticle High-Throughput GLP-Capable Target Cell Visualization Assay for Measuring Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 21 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
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Abstract
One of the primary effector functions of immune cells is the killing of virus-infected or malignant cells in the body. Natural killer (NK) and CD8 effector T cells are specialized for this function. The gold standard for measuring such cell-mediated cytolysis has been
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One of the primary effector functions of immune cells is the killing of virus-infected or malignant cells in the body. Natural killer (NK) and CD8 effector T cells are specialized for this function. The gold standard for measuring such cell-mediated cytolysis has been the chromium release assay, in which the leakage of the radioactive isotope from damaged target cells is being detected. Flow cytometry-based single cell analysis of target cells has recently been established as a non-radioactive alternative. Here we introduce a target cell visualization assay (TVA) that applies similar target cell staining approaches as used in flow cytometry but based on single cell computer image analysis. Two versions of TVA are described here. In one, the decrease in numbers of calcein-stained, i.e., viable, target cells is assessed. In the other, the CFSE/PI TVA, the increase in numbers of dead target cells is established in addition. TVA assays are shown to operate with the same sensitivity as standard chromium release assays, and, leaving data audit trails in form of scanned (raw), analyzed, and quality-controlled images, thus meeting requirements for measuring cell-mediated cytolysis in a regulated environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Action of the Metalloproteinases in Gonadal Remodeling during Sex Reversal in the Sequential Hermaphroditism of the Teleostei Fish Synbranchus marmoratus (Synbranchiformes: Synbranchidae)
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 14 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
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Abstract
Teleostei present great plasticity regarding sex change. During sex reversal, the whole gonad including the germinal epithelium undergoes significant changes, remodeling, and neoformation. However, there is no information on the changes that occur within the interstitial compartment. Considering the lack of information, especially
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Teleostei present great plasticity regarding sex change. During sex reversal, the whole gonad including the germinal epithelium undergoes significant changes, remodeling, and neoformation. However, there is no information on the changes that occur within the interstitial compartment. Considering the lack of information, especially on the role played by metalloproteinases (MMPs) in fish gonadal remodeling, the aim of this study was to evaluate the action of MMPs on gonads of sex reversed females of Synbranchus marmoratus, a fresh water protogynic diandric fish. Gonads were processed for light microscopy and blood samples were used for the determination of plasma sex steroid levels. During sex reversal, degeneration of the ovaries occurred and were gradually replaced by the germinal tissue of the male. The action of the MMPs induces significant changes in the interstitial compartment, allowing the reorganization of germinal epithelium. Leydig cells also showed an important role in female to male reversion. The gonadal transition coincides with changes in circulating sex steroid levels throughout sex reversion. The action of the MMPs, in the gonadal remodeling, especially on the basement membrane, is essential for the establishment of a new functional germinal epithelium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Matrix Remodeling)
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